L2 Writing systemS

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(Key: R = reading, W= writing , A = awareness; NL = non-linguistic activities.)

L1WS type

L2WS type

L1WS

L2 WS

Source

Morphemic

Alphabetic

Chinese

English

(R) Haynes & Carr (1990); (R) Leong & Hsia (1996); 
(R, A) Jackson et al.
(1994); (A) Wang & Geva (2003) ;
(O) Freeman (1980)

Japanese

English

(W) Okada (2002)

Syllabic

Alphabetic

Kannada

English

(A) Prakash et al. (1993)

Consonantal

Alphabetic

 

Arabic

English

(R) Green & Meara (1987); (R) Ryan & Meara (1991);
(R) Randall & Meara (1988); (W) Ibrahim (1978);
(W) Haggan (1991); (O) Morikawa and McBeath (1992)

Hebrew

English

(A) Ben-Dror et al. (1995) ; (O) Kugelmass & Lieblich (1979)

Farsi

English

(R) Nassaji & Geva (1999)

Morphemic vs. alphabetic

Alphabetic

Chinese,
Vietnamese

English

(A) Holm & Dodd (1996)

Japanese, Russian

English

(A) Wade-Woolley (1999)

Chinese,
Indonesian

English

(?) Muljani et al. (1998)

Morphemic vs. consonantal

Alphabetic

Japanese,Chinese,
Persian

English

Akamatsu (1999)

Japanese, Arabic

English

(R) Fender (2003)

Morphemic vs. consonantal
vs. alphabetic

Alphabetic

Japanese,Arabic,
Spanish

English

(R) Brown & Haynes (1985 ); (R) Koda (1988, 1995)

Japanese, Greek,
others

English

(W) Cook (1997)

Chinese, Arabic,
Spanish

English

(W) Oller & Ziahosseiny (1970)  

Alphabetic

Morphemic

English

Chinese

Hayes (1988) ; Jackson et al. (1994) ???;
Sun (1994) ?' (R,A) Bassetti (in progress) ??????

Consonantal

English

Hebrew

(A) Ben-Dror et al. (1995)

English, Russian

Hebrew

(A) Wade-Woolley & Geva (1998)

Alphabetic

Greek

English

(R) Chitiri & Willows (1997); (A) Loizou and Stuart (2003)

German

English

(W) Luelsdorff (1986)

Welsh

English

(W) James et al. (1993).

Spanish

English

(W) Bebout (1985); (W) Terrebone (1973);
Staczek & Aid (1981);

???

Dutch

(?) Verhoeven (1994) ???

Alphabetic vs. morphemic

Morphemic

English,
Chinese,
Korean

Japanese
kanji

(R) Mori (1998)

Alphabetic vs. syllabic

Syllabic

English,
Chinese

Japanese kana

(R) Chikamatsu (1996); (R) Tamaoka and Menzel (1994)

Summary of some L1 and L2 writing systems that have been studied (adapted from Cook & Bassetti, 2005)