The ‘Standard’ Two-Component ModelSpeech sounds
knowledge of knowledge of
L1 transfer across systems
—transfer from rules to instances system
—transfer from instances to rules system
L2 character L2 syllabic L2 alphabetic L1 character Chik H+C(Ch), L+H L1 syllabic K89(J), B+H(J) L1 alphabetic H Chik H+C, K89 L1 semitic K89, B+H
Sources (summaries of most)
HC Haynes, M. & Carr, T.H. (1990), ‘Writing system background and second language reading: a component skills analysis of English reading by native-speaking readers of Chinese’, in T.H. Carr & B.A. Levy (eds), Reading and its development: component skills approaches, San Diego, Academic Press, 375-421
Subjects: Chinese vs American readers of English (and comparison Spanish
meths: timed reading test
results: speed Americans 254 wpm, Taiwanese university freshmen 83 wpm, Taiwanese seniors 88 wpm Spanish 110 wpm
Chik Chikamatsu, N. (1996), ‘The effects of L1 orthography on L2 word recognition’, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 403-432
Subjects: English vs Chinese learners of Japanese kana
meths: testing RTs ‘do you recognise or not?’ to familiar words (yes), non-words (No) and visually unfamiliar words (Kanji written as kana)
results: Chinese rely more on visual info, English used phonological info more
K Koda, K. (1989), ‘Effects of L1 orthographic representation on L2 phonological coding strategies’, J. Psycholing. Res., 18, 201-222
Subjects: Arabic, English Chinese, Spanish users of English
meths: phonologically similar letters, unpronounceable letters, phonologically
dissimilar, graphically similar
results: dominance of phono, different strats for 3 gps; main difference Arabic
B+H Brown, T.L & Haynes, M. (1985), ‘Literacy Background and Reading Development in a Second Language’, in Thomas, H.C. (ed.). The Development of Reading Skills, Jossey-Bass Inc
Subjects: Japanese Arabic Spanish user of English
meths: mixed reading tasks
results: overall order Japanese fastest, Spanish, then Arabic
visual task on abstract figures: Japanese fastest, Arabic/Spanish equal
L+H Leong, C.K. & Hsia, S. (1996), ‘Cross-linguistics constraints on Chinese students learning English’, in Bond, M.H. (1996), The Handbook of Chinese Psychology, OUP Hong Kong, 63-78
Subjects: Chinese learners of English (+ or - Putonghua)
meths: word dictation
results; though level of reading was the same, Putonghua affected their English
H Hayes, E.B. (1988), ‘Encoding strategies used by native and non-native readers of Chinese Mandarin’ Modern Language Journal, 72, ii, 188-195
Subjects: English learners of Chinese
meths: characters plus phon, graphemic or semantic distractor, in sentences
results: phon strategies for natives, too much visual by non-natives!
Huang, H.S. & Hanley, J.R. (1994), ‘Phonological awareness and visual skills in learning to read Chinese and English’, Cognition, 54, 73-98
Koda, K. (1996), ‘L2 word recognition research: a critical review’, Modern Language Journal, 80, iv, 450-460
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P, & Haller, M (1993), ‘Models of reading aloud: dual route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches’, Psychological Review, 100, 4, 589-608
Katz, L. & Frost, R. (1992), ‘Reading in different orthographies: the orthographic depth hypothesis’, in Frost, R. & Katz, L.(eds), Orthography, Phonology, Morphology and Meaning, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 67-84
Olson, R.K., Kleigl, R., Davidson, B.J. & Foltz, G. (1985), ‘Individual and developmental differences in reading ability’, in Mackinnon, G.E. & Waller, T.G. (eds), Reading research: Advances in theory and practice Vol. 4, Academic Press, New York, 1-64
Paap, K.R., Noel, R.W. & Johansen, L.S. (1992), ‘Dual-route models of print to sound: red herrings and real horses’, in Frost, R. & Katz, L. (eds.), Orthography, Phonology, Morphology, and Meaning, Elsevier, 293-318
Orthographic Regularities Experiment 1
Vivian Cook text of paper
Aim:to demonstrate the existence of knowledge of orthographic regularities in L1 and L2 users of English, on a par with their knowledge of instances and of rules for sound/letter correspondences, and to see if their L1 efficiency is equivalent to their L1.
Overall research questions:
- do both L1 and L2 users of English show a knowledge of visual instances, letter-to-sound correspondences, and orthographic regularities?
- do L2 users score less than L1 users on all three tests?
Method: replication of Olson, Kleigl, Davidson and Foltz (1985)s’ tasks for ‘instances’ and ‘sounds’ with the addition of an equivalent task for orthographic regularities, using the ERTS package on a PC
test 1. ‘instances’. "Which word is spelled correctly?":answer/anser, room/rume, toard/toward
Participants:38 volunteer students and staff at the University of Essex, with 24 L2 users
N Instances test Sounds test Regularities test
Times Success Times Success Times Success
L1 users 14
800 39.7 1658 35.5 1504 35.4
L2 users 24 1043 38.9 2234 31.3 1827 33.3
Orthographic Regularities Experiment 2
Aim:to improve the materials marginally, to sharpen the level of English involved, above all to demonstrate differences between different L1 groups.
Overall research questions:
1) L2 users of English will score significantly
better than chance at tests of instances, sounds and orthographic
2) There will be systematic differences between groups of L2 users, based on their L1 orthographic systems, particularly between users of character scripts and alphabetic scripts, in terms of accuracy and speed of response.
Method: same as Experiment 1 with slightly changed materials
test 1. ‘instances’. Restriction to COBUILD frequency ***** plus ‘real’ mistakes benifit/benefit
Participants: 78 students at private language schools, Japanese (13), Romance (Portuguese 4, Spanish 5, Italian 4, French 2; totalling 15), Chinese (10), Korean (10), German (10), Arabic/ Hebrew (10), and Eastern Europeans (Slovenian/Czech/Croatian) (10).
|L1||N||Vocabulary test||Instances test||Sounds test||Regularities test|
|Times (mills)||Success (/32)||Times (mills)||Success (/32)||Times (mills)||Success (/32)|
Experiment 2 Results
the superior speed of the Chinese group over the Arabic/Hebrew group on all three tests and over the Easterners on the instances test.
the superior speed of the Japanese over the Arabic/Hebrew groups on all three tests, and over four other groups on the sounds test
differences appear marginal compared to all the similarities.
groups the regularities test comes between the instances
and sounds test in terms of response times and of correct responses