Core Issues: Nature of the L2 User

Opening questions

- are you a bilingual?
- what are the advantages of knowing  two languages?
- what are the disadvantages?

Differences of the L2 user from the monolingual native speaker

L2 users:

         think differently from monolinguals;

         use language in different ways;

         have an increased awareness of language itself;

         have slightly different knowledge of their first language;

         are more efficient communicators in their first language;

         look at written language differently.

So L2 users have a distinct range of language abilities and knowledge from monolingual native speakers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E-deletion test

Cross out the letter ‘e’s

Grace Paine lived in an isolated village for most of her life. In middle-age she came to New York, and was astonished at city life. Best of all she loved her cooker with its row of controls. One day she told me about her amazing cooker. She had left her whole evening meal in the oven; at five o'clock the electric clock would switch it on and by seven a three course meal would be ready to welcome her home. I almost envied her. But when we next met she related what had actually occurred: however automatic your cooker, you have still got to remember to turn it on.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Athanasopoulos, P., & Kasai, C. (2008). Language and thought in bilinguals: the case of grammatical number and nonverbal classification preferences. Applied Psycholinguistics, 29, 105-123.

Bassetti, B. (2007), ‘Bilingualism and thought: grammatical gender and concepts of objects in Italian-German bilingual children’, The International Journal of Bilingualism, 11, 3, 251– 273

Cook, V.J. (1992), 'Evidence for multi-competence', Language Learning, 42, 4, 557-591

Cook, V.J. (ed) (2003), Effects of the Second Language on the First, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters

Cook, V.J., Bassetti, B., Kasai, C., Sasaki, M. & Takahashi, J.A. (2006), 'Do bilinguals have different concepts? The case of shape and material in Japanese L2 users of English', International Journal of Bilingualism, 2, 137-152

Cook, V.J., Iarossi, E., Stellakis, N. & Tokumaru, Y. (2003), 'Effects of the second language on the syntactic processing of the first language' in V.J. Cook (ed.), 193-213

De Bot, K., Lowie, W. & Verspoor, M. (2005), second language acquisition: an Advanced Resource Book, Routledge

Mennen, I. (2004), ‘Bi-directional interference in the intonation of Dutch speakers of Greek’, Journal of Phonetics, 32, 543-563

Pavlenko, A. (2003), '"I feel clumsy speaking Russian": L2 influence on L1 in narrat-ives of Russian L2 users of English’. In V.J. Cook (ed), 32-61

Queen, R.M. (2001), ‘Bilingual intonation patterns: evidence of language change from Turkish-German bilingual children’, Language in Society, 30, 55-80

Spivey, M.J. & Marian, V. (1999), ‘Cross talk between native and second languages: partial activation of an irrelevant lexicon’, Psychological Science, 10, 181-84

Yelland, G.W., Pollard, J. & Mercuri, A. (1993), ‘The metalinguistic benefits of limited contact with a second language’, Applied Psycholinguistics, 14, 423-444

Answers to e-deletion test

Grace Paine lived in an isolated village for most of her life. In middle-age she came to New York, and was astonished at city life. Best of all she loved her cooker with its row of controls. One day she told me about her amazing cooker. She had left her whole evening meal in the oven; at five o'clock the electric clock would switch it on and by seven a three course meal would be ready to welcome her home. I almost envied her. But when we next met she related what had actually occurred: however automatic your cooker, you have still got to remember to turn it on.
Total = 67 ‘e’s