Indic transliteration
I. Selecting options and recommendations


1. Select

Either the diacritic option: diacritical marks are used.

Or the limited character set option: only 7-bit ASCII characters will be used. Apply the conversion table at the end of the transliteration process, and at any earlier stage if desired. (Table clarified 3 September 2009)
2. Next, select

Either the simplified nasalization option, as given in the Main Table of Section II, subject to Note 6.

Or the strict nasalization option: agrees with the Main Table of Section II (with Note 6) except as follows:

    ALL SCRIPTS - Anusvara before a class consonant is transliterated as the class nasal, unless it arises from sandhi of final m in languages other than modern vernaculars.

    VOWEL NASALIZATION IN MODERN LANGUAGES - Anusvara and Candrabindu used for modern vowel nasalization are transliterated by a tilde ~ above the nasalised vowel (above the second vowel of ai, au).

    MODERN PANJABI - Gur. Bindi and Tippi with the vowels a, i, u before a class consonant are translated by the class nasal; and elsewhere they are transliterated m_dot-a.
3. If the Indic text is not written continuously, continue at 4. If the text is written continuously, it is recommended that transliterated words are written separately, provided they do not share a common character.
     E.g. word division

4. If Malayalam language, Nepali language, and the Vedic accent Anudatta are not involved, continue at 5.

4a. For Malayalam language only: Select

    Either the Malayalam alveolar option: Mal alveolar
    Or the uniform alveolar option: not using [_t].

4b. For Nepali language only: Select

    Either the two-way urpha option suitable for reverse transliteration, 2-way urpha.
    Or the one-way urpha option where reverse transliteration will not be needed, 1-way urpha.

4c. For the Vedic accent Anudatta, it is recommended that it be transliterated as a line under the vowel (under both of ai, au).
5. If the scripts Ass., Ben., Dev., Guj., Gur., and Ori. are not involved, continue at 6.

5a. For these scripts: Select

    Either the uniform vowel option: the vowels 'e', 'o' will be marked long, uniform with the transliteration of scripts having both long and short 'e', 'o'.
    Or the non-uniform vowel option: the vowels 'e', 'o' will not be marked long, as usual for scripts not having short 'e', 'o'.
6. There is one more recommendation, connected with sets of up to 15 Indic characters sometimes used to represent certain P-A. characters in Urdu, Persian, or Arabic words. There are several such schemes, in which some characters have diacritical marks added, while some may not. It is recommended that such schemes should be transliterated according the details given along with Table B of II.

Note that the last six rows of Main Table - 3, which occur again as part of Table B, are part of the standard and are not a mere recommendation.

Last updated: 18 March 2012