Bindi, Tippi, and Adhak

Gur. Bindi and Tippi in modern Panjabi are used according to the following rule:

  The initial forms of short and long 'u' take Bindi;
  Short and long 'u' after a consonant take Tippi;
  All other short vowels take Tippi;
  All other long vowels take Bindi.

Gur. Adhak simply doubles the following consonant, or puts the unaspirated consonant before an aspirated one: Adhak.    Before a vowel, Adhak is treated by resolution of ambiguity (see Note 12).

Last updated: 10 June 2002