Biol 2 Variation and Organisms

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3.2.1        
1.    Variation exists between members of the same species        
2.    Random sampling reduces bias        
3.    Understand Standard Deviation and compare with Range        
4.    Variation is due to genes/environment/both        
3.2.2        
5.    The components of a nucleotide        
6.    Covalent bonding in sugar phosphate backbone        
7.    Hydrogen bonding between complementary base pairs        
8.    A gene is at a fixed position (locus) on a chromosome        
9.    Genes code for polypeptides        
10.    A triplet code codes for 1 amino acid        
11.    In eukaryotes there are introns – regions of non-coding DNA        
12.    Mutations can lead to a non functional protein        
13.    Meiosis forms haploid gametes        
14.    Independent assortment of homologous chromosomes at metaphase 1 leads to variation        
15.    Crossing over of homologous chromosomes at metaphase 1 can lead to variation        
3.2.3        
16.    Artificial selection reduces genetic diversity        
17.    The founder effect reduces genetic diversity        
18.    Genetic bottlenecks reduce genetic diversity        
3.2.4        
19.    Haemoglobin is a protein with a quaternary structure        
20.    There are different types of haemoglobin in different organisms        
21.    How haemoglobin carries oxygen        
22.    Explanation of the dissociation curve        
23.    The effects of carbon dioxide on dissociation        
24.    The structure of beta glucose (can draw simple form!)        
25.    How beta glucose condenses to form chains        
26.    The structure of cellulose      
27.    How the structure of starch, glycogen and cellulose are related to function        
28.    The differences between plant and animal cells        
29.    Label a palisade cell        
30.    The appearance of cell wall and chloroplasts (structure and function)        
3.2.5        
31.    How DNA replicates        
32.    Function of DNA helicase (break hydrogen bonds)        
33.    Function of DNA polymerase (form covalent bonds)        
34.    Messelson and Stahls experiment        
35.    Mitosis is required for growth , repair and differentiation        
36.    Sequence the events of mitosis  (identify pictures of stages)        
37.    To know the events of the cell cycle.        
3.2.6        
38.    Define differentiation        
39.    Define a tissue and an organ        
3.2.7        
40.The importance of SA:Vol  in exchanging substances and heat        
41.Gas Exchange in a protoctista (diffusion)        
42.How an insect achieves gaseous exchange        
43.How a fish achieves gaseous exchange        
44.How leaves achieve gaseous exchange.        
45.How insects conserve water        
46.How xerophytes conserve water        
47. Define MASS TRANSPORT        
48. The circulatory system of a mammal (incl. Hepatic and Renal artery/vein)        
49. The structure and function of arterioles,a rteries and veins        
50. How tissue fluid is formed and returned to the circulatory system        
51.The structure and function of a root        
52.Apoplastic and symplastic pathways        
53.Transpiration and factors affecting it (light, heat, humidity)        
54.The role of root pressure, cohesion and tension in moving water through a plant        
3.2.8        
55.The importance of taxonomy.        
56. Classification systems place organisms in non overlapping hierarchical groups        
57.The groups are based on evolutionary histories        
58. K,P,C,O,F,G,S (a hierarchy)        
3.2.9        
59.Species can be compared by using DNA base sequence or amino acid sequences        
60.Similarities in DNA can be compared using hybridisation        
61. Immunology can be used to compare species.        
62.Different species have different courtship behaviours (allows species recognition)        
        
3.2.10        
63. Antibiotics kills bacteria (by prevent cell wall formation and causing LYSIS)        
64.Mutations in DNA can result in different proteins (characteristics)        
65.Mutations can produce antibiotic resistant Bacteria        
66.Resistance can be transmitted vertically or horizontally        
67.Resistance is due to natural selection        
68.Evaluate evidence and data about antibiotic resistance (TB and MRSA)        
69. Discuss ethical issues with using antibiotics        
3.2.11        
70. Define species diversity        
71.The impact of deforestation on species diversity        
72.The impact of agriculture on species diversity        
73.How to use a species diversity index formula        
74.Interpret species diversity indices    
   

 Key Words
 

1.    Variation
2.    Sampling Bias
3.    Chance Variation
4.    Stadard Deviation
5.    Random Sampling
6.    Mutation
7.    Nucleotide
8.    Gene
9.    Triplet Code
10.    Chromosome
11.    Allele
12.    Haploid
13.    Diploid
14.    Homologous pairs
15.    Meiosis
16.    Gamete
17.    Chromatid
18.    Centromere
19.    Crossing Over
20.    Recombination
21.    Selective Breeding
22.    Founder Effect
23.    Genetic bottleneck
24.    Haemoglobin
25.    Dissociation
26.    Affinity
27.    Partial Pressure
28.    Bohr shift
29.    Saturation
30.    Starch
31.    Glycogen
32.    Cellulose
33.    Chloroplast
34.    Grana
35.    Stroma
36.    Thylakoid
37.    Root Hair Cell
38.    Xylem
39.    Semi Conservative
40.    DNA Helicase
41.    Semi Conservative
42.    
43.    DNA polymerase
44.    Prophase
45.    Metaphase
46.    Anaphase
47.    Telophase
48.    Cytokinesis
49.    Spindle
50.    Cell Cycle
51.    Interphase
52.    Differentiation
53.    Tissue
54.    Organ
55.    SA:VOL
56.    Fick’s Law
57.    Protoctista
58.    Spiracle
59.    Trachea
60.    Chitin
61.    Tracheole
62.    Gill Filament
63.    Lamellae
64.    Countercurrent
65.    Ventilation
66.    Stomata
67.    Double circulation
68.    Hepatic Artery
69.    Hepatic Vein
70.    Renal Artery
71.    Renal Vein
72.    Artery
73.    Arteriole
74.    Capillary
75.    Vein
76.    Valve
77.    Elastic Layer
78.    Muscle Layer
79.    Lumen
80.    Tissue Fluid
81.    Hydrostatic Pressure
82.    Osmotic Pressure
83.    Lymph
84.    Symplastic
85.    Apoplastic
86.    Cortex
87.    Transpiration
88.    Cohesion
89.    Tension
90.    Casparian Strip
91.    Endodermis
92.    Potometer
93.    Species
94.    Niche
95.    Gene Pool
96.    Taxonomy
97.    Natural Classification
98.    Artificial Classification
99.    Kingdom
100.    Phylum
100.Class
101.Order
102.Family
103.Genus
104.Dna     Hybridisation
105.Immunological Comparison
106.Courtship
107.Conjugation
108.Vertical Transmission
109.Horizontal Transmission
110.Antibiotic
111.Resistance
112.MRSA
113.TB Resistance
114.Natural Selection
115.Species Diversity
116.Biotic
117.Abiotic
118.Deforestation
119.Intensive Farming
120.Monoculture.