Foreword

This list was initially prepared, in September 2003, as an update to the irregular tone rule page at thai-language.com. The pronunciations given in the Roman alphabet therefore follow its phonetic scheme.

Scope

This is a list of words to which the special tone rule may be suspected to apply. It consists of words with words whose sequence of initial consonants is high or mid followed by a 'resonant', broken only by an inherent 'a'. By resonant I mean a nasal or approximant - for Thai, this means a consonant that may be preceded by a to change its tone class. I have not included ; historically it is an alternative to (cf. ձ v. ).

The group also functions a single mid consonant for this rule. This may be related to the fact that the Pali equivalents of such words just have (including its inherent vowel). I offer the hypothesis that such words were originally borrowed from Pali, and that the spelling, but not the tone, has been Sankritised. I could not find any evidence that functioned similarly.

The words are taken from Colonel Nit Tongsopit's 'New Standard Thai-English Dictionary'. Where possible, pronunciation from the Royal Institute Dictionary is given in brackets. If it is not available, the tones are shown in Colonel Nit's work are given instead. Colonel Nit does not always show the tone, so if he shows no tone I record it as N. Notes may follow. These usually just consist of the donor language in the case of known loanwords and a warning if the RID has used a different tone mark to the spelling.

Incidentally, it looks as though another contributor started this process, using a larger dictionary, but didn't go beyond the first instalment.

Results

Observations

Where I chanced upon other words subject to the special spelling rule, I also listed them. I noticed that the special spelling rule only implies the irregular tone rule if the second consonant is a 'resonant'.

I presume the 'special spelling rule' is to be taken to imply the 'irregular tone rule' - none of the examples below with predisposed vowels are listed under the 'special tone rule'. Many of the words listed below with predisposed vowels are not listed under the 'special spelling rule'.

- is a consistent exception to the 'irregular tone rule'. It makes sense that a cluster with a sibilant should be treated like clusters beginning with a Proto-Tai aspirate or voiceless fricative. (The essentials of the Proto-Tai system seem to have survived into the Sukhothai era.) With this cluster, the second syllable is treated as starting with a high consonant.

A few of these words are probably impossible to puzzle out - why does have an inherent vowel while Ժ doesn't?

, : No instances.

: Irregular tone rule:
(-ڹ) Pali, Sanskrit - not in site's list.

Independent syllables:
ɰ (-Դ-) Sanskrit
Թ (N-H-N-N-M) 'younger sister'

: Result independent of rule:
(-)

: No instances

: Independent syllables:
á (--) Sanskrit (karkat.a) or Pali (kakkat.a). Colonel Nit has N-N-L
áҤ (----; -ѡ---) Compound of á. Colonel Nit has N-N-N-N-M.
ó (--; --) Pali, Sanskrit. Colonel Nit has N-N-M.
ó (--, --) Pali. Colonel Nit has N-N-M.
ú (--ٹ) Colonel Nit has N-N-M.

: Result independent of rule:
ѹ (N-N-M) 'Kalantam'
(--)
ؤ (N-N-H) 'anarchy, confusion'

: Result independent of rule:
(-) Pali

: No instances.

: Irregular tone rule:
(-ڹ) Pali

: Irregular tone rule:
(-ڹ) - not in site's list
(-ڹ)
(-ڹ) Khmer
(-ڹ)
ͧ (-ڹͧ) Khmer - not in site's list
͹ (-ڹ͹) - not in site's list
Ѵ (-ڹѴ) - not in site's list
Ҵ (-ڹҴ)
ҹ (-ڹҹ) Khmer (for some meanings)
Һ (-ڹҺ)
(-ڹ) Khmer - not in site's list
ع (-ڹع)
ࢹ (-ڹ)
ࢹ (-ڹ)
⢹ (-ڹ)
͡ࢹ (͡--ڹ)
ᢹ (-ڹ)

: Independent Syllables:
ɰ() (-Դ(-))
: Irregular tone rule:
Ǵ (-Ǵ)
ͧ (-ͧ) Khmer
(-)
ѧ (-ѧ)
Ѻ (-Ѻ)
(-) - note the tone mark in the RID pronunciation!
Ժ (-Ժ)
բѹ (---ѹ) Khmer / Mon hybrid
֧ (-֧)
ء (-ء--)
غԺ (-غ--Ժ)
()
(-)
(-)
(-)
ͺ (-ͺ)
(-)
(-) Khmer
(-)
(-)

: Independent Syllables:
(-) Pali - Sanskrit is ks.ama:

: Irregular tone rule:
(-)
͡ (-͡)
͹ (-͹) - Note the tone mark in the RID pronunication! - not in site's list
(-)
§ (---§)
ѡ (-ѡ)
ѹ (-ѹ)
(-) - Note the tone mark in the RID pronunication!
Ѻ (-Ѻ)
Ҵ (-Ҵ) - not in site's list
(-)
(-) - not in site's list
(-) - Note the tone mark in the RID pronunication! - not in site's list
Ժ (-Ժ) - not in site's list
(-) - Note the tone mark in the RID pronunication! - not in site's list
ءԡ (-ء--ԡ) - not in site's list
ء (-ء--) - not in site's list
غ (-غ) - not in site's list
(-) - Note the tone mark in the RID pronunication! - not in site's list
¡ (-¡)
(-)
(---) - Note the tone mark in the RID pronunication!
(-)
Թ (-Թ)
Ժ (-Ժ)
͹ (-͹) - Note the tone mark in the RID pronunication!
¡ (-¡)
§ (-§)
(-)
§ (-§)

: Irregular tone rule:
(-) - not in site's list

, : No examples

, , : No examples.

: Irregular tone rule:
١ (-١) Khmer

: No examples.

: Irregular tone rule:
ô (-ô) - not in site's list.
Ǵ (-Ǵ) Khmer - not in site's list.
(-Ѵ) - not in site's list.
Ե (-Դ) Pali - not in site's list.

: Independent syllables:
(--)
к (--)
(--)

: Result independent of rule:
Ҩ (--͹)
٭ (-ٹ)
ԭ (-Թ) - in list for 'special spelling rule'.

: Result independent of rule:
Ҩ (--)

: No examples.

: Irregular tone rule:
(-ڧ) - not in site's list.

: No examples.

: Irregular tone rule:
ǹ (-ڹǹ) - not in site's list.
ҡ (-ڹҡ) - not in site's list.
⩹ (-ڹ)
䩹 (-ڹ) - in list for 'special spelling rule'.

: Irregular tone rule:
ǡ (-ǡ) - not in site's list.
ѧ (-ѧ) - not in site's list.

, : No instances.

: Irregular tone rule:
(-) - not in site's list.
ͧ (-ͧ) - not in site's list.
(-) - not in site's list.
ҡ (-ҡ) - not in site's list.
Ҵ (-Ҵ)
(-) - not in site's list.
(-) - not in site's list.
(-) - not in site's list.
(-) - in list for 'special spelling rule'.
(-) - in list for 'special spelling rule'.
(-) - in list for 'special spelling rule'.
§ (-§)
(-)
š (-š)
ź (-ź)
(-) - Note the tone mark in the RID pronunication!

: Irregular tone rule:
Ѵ¹ (-Ѵ--¹) - not in site's list.
(-) - not in site's list.
¹ (-¹)

: Independent syllables:
੾ (-) Khmer - in list for 'special spelling rule'.

Retroflexes

There are no examples in , or .

There are no examples in .

: Irregular tone rule:
Դ (-ڧԴ) - not in site's list.
(-ڧ) - not in site's list.

: No examples.

: Irregular tone rule.
(-ڹ) 'turtle - Chelonia mydas' (Colonel Nit & RID) - not in site's list.
⵹ (-ڹ)

: Independent syllables.
(-) 1. 'body, stem' 2. 'I', from Pali and Sanskrit. (RID only) 2 words in Sanskrit - _tanu_ 'body', and _tanu_ 'thin, delicate, small, trifling'. I could be wrong about the connection with the latter.

, , : No instances.

: Irregular tone rule:
š (š)
ź (-ź) - not in site's list.
ʹ (-ʹ)
Ѻ (-Ѻ) - not in site's list.
Ҵ (-Ҵ)
(-) - not in site's list.
Դ (-Դ)

: Irregular tone rule:
ѡ (-ѡ) - not in site's list.
Ѵ (-Ѵ) - not in site's list.
Ҵ (-Ҵ) - not in site's list.
(-)

: Irregular tone rule:
䶧 (-ڧ) Khmer - not in site's list.

: No instances.

: Irregular tone rule:
(-ڹ) Khmer
(-ڹ) Khmer - not in site's list.
Ѵ (-ڹѴ)
(-ڹ) - not in site's list.
(-ڹ-) - not in site's list.

: No examples.

: Irregular tone rule:
֧֧ (-֧-֧) - not in site's list.

, : No instances

: Irregular tone rule:
š (-š) - not in site's list.
Ź (-Ź) - not in site's list.
(-) - not in site's list.
͡ (-͡) - not in site's list.
ѹ (-ѹ)
(-)
(-) - not in site's list.
ն (N-R-N-R) - not in site's list.
ն (---) - not in site's list.
֧ (-֧) RID only gives the compound ֧. - not in site's list.
ا (-ا) - not in site's list.
(---)
ԡ (-ԡ)
ԧ (-ԧ)
͡Ź (-͡--Ź)
ŧ (-ŧ) - in list for 'special spelling rule'.
(-) - in list for 'special spelling rule'.

: Irregular tone rule:
(-) - not in site's list - because of analysis as a monosyllable.
(-Թ) - not in site's list.

There are no proper examples in -.
- is pronounced --, but this seems to be a different phenomenon.
(-͹) may be a related phenomenon.

: No instances.

: Independent syllables:
Ըҹ (--ҹ) Pali, f. Sanskrit _pran.idha:na_

: Independent syllables:
Ѵ (-Ѵ-) Pali.

, : No instances.

: Inherent Vowel is -aaw-:
ûѡ (--ѡ)

: Tones uncertain:
(N-N-H)

: Independent syllables.
Ҩ (---ҹ; ---ҹ) It looks like Sanskrit parama:carya to me.
ҳ (---; ---) Compounded of Sanskrit elements - JRW.
(----; ----)
Թ (--Թ, --Թ) Sanskrit
(--; --) Sanskrit
š (--š; --š) Compounded of Sanskrit elements - JRW.
੷ (--ੴ) Pali
ԹԾҹ (--Ժ-ҹ) Pali f. Sanskrit
ԾҪ (---) Pali
(---) Pali
ҳ (--ҹ)
ѵ (--Ѵ) Pali
(--) Pali
ҹ (---ҹ) Pali
õ (--Ѵ) Pali
(--Ҵ) Pali
Ե (---) Pali

: Irregular tone rule:
Ǵ (-Ǵ) - not in site's list.
ʹ (-ʹ) - not in site's list.
ͷ (-ʹ) Pali, Sanskrit pa:rada - not in site's list.

: Result independent of rule:
ԭ (-Թ-) Pali f. Sanskrit
­ (-¹)

: Irregular tone rule:
Ѵ (-Ѵ) - not in site's list.

: No instances.

- is often equivalent to -. This includes irregular tone rule effects:

Ч: No examples.

г: Independent syllables:
г (-)
гԸҹ (--ҹ) Sanskrit (Pali Ըҹ)
гյ (-մ) Sanskrit (Pali յ)

г: Result independent of rule:
г (-) Sanskrit
г (-) Sanskrit (Pali )

й: Result independent of rule:
й (-)
й (-)
йջй (---)

: Result independent of rule:
()
(-ǹ)
ҳ (-ҹ) Sanskrit (Pali ҳ)
(-ٹ)
Թ (-Թ)
(-)

: Irregular tone rule:
ҷ (-Ҵ) Sanskrit (Pali ҷ) - not in site's list.

: Independent syllables:
آ (-ء) Sanskrit (Pali آ)
(-)

: Independent syllables:
ء (-ء) Sanskrit (Pali صڵ)

: Result independent of rule:
(-ٹ)

: Irregular tone rule:
¤ (-¡) Sanskrit (Pali ¤) - not in site's list.
ª (-´) Sanskrit (Pali ª) - not in site's list.

: No instances.

: Result independent of rule:
ͧ (-ͧ)
(-)

: Independent syllables:
ҵ (-Ҵ) Pali ҵ
һ (---)

: Irregular tone rule:
ѵ (-Ѵ) Pali ǵڵ

: Result independent of rule:
ԧ (-ԧ)
dz (--) Sanskrit (Pali dz)

: Irregular tone rule:
(-ڧ) - not in site's list.
ͺ (-ڧͺ) - not in site's list.
(-ڧ) - not in site's list.
Ҵ (-ڧҴ) - not in site's list.

: No instances.

: Irregular tone rule:
ǡ (-ڹǡ) - not in site's list.
Ǫ (-ڹǴ) - not in site's list.
ѧ (-ڹѧ)
֡ (-ڹ֡) - not in site's list.
Ἱ (-ڹ) - in list for 'special spelling rule'.

: No instances.

: Irregular tone rule:
ͧ (-ͧ) - not in site's list.
(-)
Ժ (-Ժ)

: Independent Syllables:
(N-H)
- (---; -ش--)

: No instances.

: Irregular tone rule:
(-) - not in site's list.

: Independent Syllables:
༪ԭ (-Թ) Khmer

: Result independent of rule:
༴ (-) Khmer

: Independent syllables:
༴ (-)
༴§ (-§)

: Independent syllables:
伷 (-)

, , , , : No instances.

: Irregular tone rule:
(-)
(--ʴ) - not in site's list.

, : No instances.

We have only one instance for words beginning with -, which follows the irregular tone rule:
ǵ (-Ǵ) - not in site's list.

ʧ: Irregular tone rule:
ʧ (-ڧ)
ʧǹ (-ڧǹ) - not in site's list.
ʧѴ (-ڧѴ) - not in site's list.
ʧ (-ڧ) - not in site's list.
ʧ (-ڧ) Khmer

ʳ: No instances.

ʹ: Irregular tone rule:
ʹҤ (-ڹ--) - not in site's list.
ʹ (-ڹ) - not in site's list.
ʹͧ (-ڹͧ) Khmer - not in site's list.
ʹͺ (-ڹͺ) - not in site's list.
ʹѴ (-ڹѴ) - not in site's list.
ʹ (-ڹ) - not in site's list.
ʹѺ (-ڹѺ) - not in site's list.
ʹѺʹع (-ڹѺ--ڹع)
ʹҹ (-ڹҹ) Sanskrit - not in site's list.
ʹ (-ڹ)
ʹԷ (-ڹԴ) Pali f. Sanskrit - not in site's list.
ʹ (-ڹ)
ʹ (-ڹ-) - check if included under ʹ.
ʹء (-ڹء) Khmer
ʹ (-ڹ) - not in site's list.
ʹ (-ڹ) Khmer. There is also a variant with no tone mark, i.e. in the rising tone.
ʹ (-ڹ-) Sanskrit. There is a variant with no tone mark, but the syllables are treated independently in that form!
ʹ (-ڹ) Surely to goodness related to ʹ!
ʹ (-ڹ)
ʹ (-ڹ)

ʹ: Independent syllables:
ʹ (--) Sanskrit

: Irregular tone rule:
(-͹) Pali, Sanskrit
(-) Khmer (for the meaning 'stone') - in list for 'special spelling rule'.
ͧ (-ͧ)
Ѥ() (-ѡ) Mon, Pali, Sanskrit
ѹ (-ѹ) - not in site's list.
(-) Pali, Sankrit
ҹ (-ҹ) Pali, Sanskrit. Irregular tone rule is optional in compounds. - not in site's list.
(-Ҵ) Pali, Sankrit - not in site's list.
(---) - not in site's list.
ԧ (-ԧ) - not in site's list.
(-) Sanskrit (as tree-name) - not in site's list.
ء (-ء) Sanskrit (one meaning) - not in site's list.
ب੷ (-ش-ੴ) Pali, Sanskrit - not in site's list.
دҹ, صҹ (-ش-ҹ) Pali, Sanskrit - not in site's list.
ش (-ش)
ط (-ش) Sanskrit
ط (--; -ش-) Pali, Sanskrit - not in site's list.
ع (-ع) - not in site's list.
ع (-ع-) - not in site's list.
(-) Pali - not in site's list.
(-)
¹ (-¹) - in list for 'special spelling rule'.
͹ (-͹)
ʹ (-ڹ-) Sanskrit (-)

: Independent Syllables
(--) Pali, f. Sanskrit
(--) Pali, Sanskrit
ö (-Ѵ) Pali, Sanskrit
ö (-Ѵ--) Pali, Sanskrit
Ѫ() (-Ѵ(-)) Pali
Ҥ (--) Pali, Sanskrit
Ҫԡ (--ԡ) Pali, Sanskrit
ҷҹ (--ҹ) Pali, Sanskrit
Ҹ (--) Pali, Sanskrit
Һѵ (--Ѵ) Pali, Sanskrit
ҾѹѰ (--ѹ--Ѵ) Composed of Sanskrit elements - JRW.
(--͹) Pali

: Both forms occur:
ҹ- (---; -ҹ--) Pali, Sanskrit

: Irregular tone rule:
´ (-´) - not in site's list.
º (-º) - not in site's list.
(--͹) - not in site's list.
(--) - not in site's list.
ͧ (-ͧ) - not in site's list.
(-) - not in site's list.
(-) - not in site's list.
(-) - not in site's list.
(--͹) - not in site's list.
§ (-§) - in list for 'special spelling rule'.
(-)

: Independent syllables
ó (--) Pali f. Sanskrit
õ (--)
ҭ (-ҹ)
(--)
ê (-ô) Sanskrit
ɯ (Դ) Sanskrit. I don't believe the RID pronunication. Colonel Nit gives two syllables, and spells it ɮ.

: Irregular tone rule
(-) 'vowel' Pali f. Sanskrit - not in site's list.
(-) - not in site's list.
ػ (-غ) Sanskrit
á (-á) Khmer. Doublet of á.
(-) Malay

: Irregular tone rule:
Ŵ (-Ŵ) - not in site's list.
ź (-ź) - not in site's list.
(-) - not in site's list.
ʹ (-ʹ) - not in site's list.
͹ (-͹) - not in site's list.
(-) - not in site's list.
ѡ (-ѡ) - not in site's list.
ѡӤѭ (-ѡ--ѹ) - not in site's list.
Ѵ (-Ѵ) English - not in site's list.
Ѵ (-Ѵ-) - not in site's list.
Ѻ (-Ѻ) - not in site's list.
(-) - not in site's list.
(-) Khmer. Colonel Nit has this as N-M, and thus *not* following the irregular tone rule. - not in site's list.
ҡ (-ҡ) Pali f. Sanskrit - not in site's list.
ҧ (-ҧ) Note the tone marks carefully. - not in site's list.
Ҵ (-Ҵ) - not in site's list.
ҵѹ (--ѹ) Malay? - not in site's list.
(-) Colonel Nit has this as N-M, and thus *not* following the irregular tone rule. - not in site's list.
Դ (-Դ) - not in site's list.
֧ (-֧)
ص (-ش) English - not in site's list.
غ (-غ) English - not in site's list.
Ŵ (-Ŵ) Probably ultimately from Sanskrit
(-) 'fair beautiful, pretty, refined'. Not to be confused with the less common (-) 'hill, stone', from Sanskrit.
§ (-§)
͡Ź (-͡--Ź)
ŧ (-ŧ)

: Irregular tone rule:
ä (-ѹ) Sanskrit - not in site's list. (I originally listed it as Pali, which is odd, as the Pali is ʤڤ)
(-) - not in site's list.
ʴ (-Ѵ) Sanskrit - not in site's list.
ʴ (-Ѵ-) Sanskrit
ʵԡ (-Ѵ--) Sanskrit - not in site's list.
(-) Khmer - not in site's list - covered by ' diphthong'.
ҧ (-ҧ)
Ҵ (-Ҵ) - not in site's list - covered by ' diphthong'.
ҷ (-Ҵ) Sanskrit - not in site's list - covered by ' diphthong'.
ҹ (-ҹ) - not in site's list - covered by ' diphthong'.
ҹ (-ҹ) Note the tone marks. - not in site's list - covered by ' diphthong'.
, (--, --) Sanskrit. - not in site's list - covered by ' diphthong'.
(-) Khmer (for 'mango tree') - not in site's list - covered by ' diphthong'.
ʴ (-Ҵ) - not in site's list - covered by ' diphthong'.
ԧ (-ԧ) 'fishing-net, landing-net'
ԧ (-ԧ--) - not in site's list.
(-) Khmer
¹ (-¹)
ǧ (-ǧ) Khmer
(-)

: Independent syllables
ŧԧ (M-N-M) 'swing time' - English
Ե (-Դ) English
ԵŹ (N-H-N-M) English
ഹ (N-N-M) English - Thai tone pattern TBC!

ʴ: Result independent of rule:
ʴ (-)

ʴ: Independent syllables:
ʴ (-ᴧ) - in list for 'special spelling rule'.

ʶ: Result independent of rule:
ʶ (-¹) Sanskrit

ʵ: Independent syllables:
ʵ (-) English

The only cluster starting - with any relevant instances is .

: Independent syllables:
äس (--ع)
ô (--ҹ) Pali f. Sanskrit
ô (--) Pali f. Sanskrit
ѡ (--ѡ)
ķ (--) Sanskrit
(--ѹ)
˴ (--˴)
The good news here is that the irregular tone rule and special spelling rule don't apply to consonant groups begining -.

ͧ: Irregular tone rule:
ͧ (-ڧ)

ͳ: Independent of Rule
ͭ (N-M)

͹: Independent syllables - with negative prefix:
͹- (--) Pali, Sanskrit
͹ѵ (-Ѵ-)
͹Ԩ (-Դ)
͹Ԩѧ (-Դ-ѧ) Pali
͹Ԩ (-Դ-)
͹ԯ (-Դ--)

͹: Independent syllables - other cases
͹ (-) Pali, Sanskrit + all its compounds

͹: Independent of rule:
͹ (-)
͹ѹ (-ѹ)
͹ѹ- (-ѹ---) Pali, Sanskrit
͹ (-)
͹Ҥ (--) Pali, Sanskrit
͹Ҥ (---) Pali, Sanskrit
͹Ҩ (--ҹ) Pali, Sanskrit
͹ҷ (--͹) Pali, Sanskrit
͹ҸԻ (----; --Ժ--)
͹ (--) Pali, Sanskrit
͹ (---) Sanskrit
͹Թ (N-N-M) - investigate this word!

͹: Irregular tone rule
͹Ҷ (-ڹҴ) Pali, Sanskrit - not in site's list.
͹ (-ڹ) - not in site's list.

͹: Irregular tone rule, with irregular spelling?
๡ (-ڹ) Pali, Sanskrit - not in site's list.
๨͹Ҷ (-ڹ--ڹҴ) Pali - not in site's list.

: Independent syllables:
(--) Pali f. Sanskrit
(--ش) Sanskrit
ĵ (--Դ)

: Result independent of rule:
(-͹)

: Irregular tone rule:
ҵ (-Ҵ) - not in site's list.

: Independent syllables
صԸ (N-H-N-M)

: Independent syllables -aaw-
ê (--͹)
(--)
þԹ (--Թ) Pali f. Sanskrit

: Independent syllables -a-
ѧ (--ѧ; --ѧ) Pali
ѵ (--Ѵ, --Ѵ) Pali
ѹ (--ѹ; --ѹ) Pali
(--)
¡ (---) Pali
Һ (N-H-N-L)

: Irregular tone rule:
(-)
(-) - not in site's list.

: Irregular tone rule optional:
(-; -) Colonel Nit only has N-L.

: Result independent of rule:
ѭ (-ѹ) Pali, Sanskrit
س (-ع) Pali, Sanskrit
ٻ (-ٺ) Pali, Sanskrit

: Result independent of rule:
ŧ (-ŧ-) Pali f. Sanskrit
ŧó (-ŧ-͹) Pali, Sanskrit
ѧ (-ѧ-ҹ) Pali, Sanskrit
ԧ, ֧ (-ԧ, -֧) Sanskrit

: Irregular tone rule:
ͧͧ (-ͧ-ͧ) - not in site's list.
ѡ (-ѡ--) - not in site's list.
ҧҧ (-ҧ-ҧ) - not in site's list.
觩 (--) - not in site's list.

: Independent syllables:
Ѣ (N-H-M)

: Independent syllables:
ǡ (--Ҵ) Sanskrit
Ԫ (-Դ-)
Ǫҵ (--Ҵ) Pali, Sanskrit
ǵ (--ҹ) Sanskrit
(---) Pali
ҹ (--ҹ) Pali, Sanskrit
(---; ---) Pali, Sanskrit.  The latter pronunciation is consistent with the irregular tone rule.

Conclusions

The following rules of thumb can be given:

  1. After a high consonant (except ), the irregular tone rule applies.
  2. However, in long words beginning sa-maa- or sa-ma-, the irregular tone rule does not apply.
  3. After mid consonant, the tendency varies from cluster to cluster. The longer the word, the less likely the irregular tone rule.

These rules can be improved on!