Mingun Sayādaw

Bhaddanta  Vicittasārābhivaṃsa

Chapter on Miscellany

Edited and Translated by
Professor U Ko Lay and U Tin Lwin
Yangon, Myanmar

The Great Chronicles of Buddhas

The Great Chronicle of Buddhas

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7. What are the factors that defile the Pāramī?

To the question, “What are the factors that defile the pāramī?” the answer in general is: regarding the pāramī as “I”, “mine”, “myself” through craving, conceit, and wrong view is the cause of the defilement of the pāramī.

The precise answer, however, (in each particular case) is as follows:

(i) Thinking to discriminate between gifts and between their recipients causes defilements of the Perfection of Generosity. (The Bodhisatta who is fulfilling the Perfection of Generosity should give away without discrimination whatever gifts he has in hand to whoever has come to seek them. He should not think about the quality of the gift, “This is too bad to offer; this is too good to donate;” nor should he think about the recipient, “This man is an immoral person; I cannot give to him.” Such discriminating thoughts make the Perfection of Giving impure).

(ii) Thinking to discriminate between beings and between occasions causes defilement of the Perfection of Morality. (The Perfection of Morality should be fulfilled regardless of beings and occasion, thinking: “I shall refrain from killing only such and such creatures; I shall not refrain from killing others. I shall observe precepts only on such and such an occasion, not on other occasions.” Thinking discriminatingly thus will make the Perfection of Morality impure).

(iii) Thinking the two kinds of sensuality¹ and three realms of existence to be pleasant, and thinking the cessation of sensuality and existence to be unpleasant are the causes of defilement of the Perfection of Renunciation.

(iv) Wrong thought of “I”, “mine”, is the cause of the defilement of the Perfection of Wisdom.

(v) Sluggish thoughts which encourage sloth and torpor and restlessness are the cause of the defilement of the Perfection of Energy.

(vi) Thoughts discriminating between oneself and others (as my men and their men) are the cause of defilement of the Perfection of Forbearance.

(vii) Avowing to have seen, heard, touched, and known what was not seen, heard, touched, and known; and avowing not have seen, heard, touched, and known, what was seen, heard, touched, and known are the cause of defilement of the Perfection of Truthfulness.

(viii) thinking that the Requisites of Enlightenment, pāramī, cāga, cariya are disadvantageous and that their opposites are advantageous, form the cause of defilement of the Perfection of Resolution.

(ix) Thinking as to who is one’s benefactor and who is not (who is friendly or who is not) is the cause of defilement of the Perfection of Loving-kindness.

(x) Discriminating between desirable sense objects from undesirable ones that are encountered is the cause of defilement of the Perfection of Equanimity.

    ¹ Two kinds of sensuality: sense objects (vatthu kāma); sense pleasures (kilesa kāma).