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Published by El Shaddai Publications
First Edition published in July 2001.
Second Edition published in February 2002.
Third Edition published in October 2003.
Fourth Edition published in March 2005.
Fifth Edition published in November 2006.
Fifth edition revised and reprinted in March 2007.
Wake Up! The Lord is Returning is a scholarly yet reader-friendly presentation of a vital aspect of the Christian faith. You will be challenged as you explore the author’s insights and examine your own personal understanding of God’s purpose at this time in history.
Dr David Yonggi Cho, Senior pastor, Yoido Full Gospel Church, Seoul, Korea
There are three main strands in ‘Wake Up! The Lord is Returning’ (fourth edition) which are all fascinating: Alf Droy's careful and detailed interpretation of Scripture with its relation to world history; his visions, words of knowledge and prophecies (reminiscent in some ways of Clifford Hill's call to the prophetic ministry); his beliefs about events to come, some of which have already happened. Jeremiah had to wait a long, frustrating time before he was taken seriously. Alf has experienced the same, and he knows he has to be faithful to his commission. As always, Alf’s book is full of fascinating facts, dates and figures and careful deductions. He is never afraid to alter his conclusions in the light of further study and revelation. He may or may not be right in his prediction of the Rapture but the great need to be ready for it or for our own death is essential. Regularly many of his predictions come true, if not always at the proposed date. There’s another batch due before Easter 2005. Although the reader will tend to go for the future prophecies, there is much of value in the rest of the book, as Alf takes us through the Bible right from Creation, and fills in some intriguing gaps. He often pauses, usually in long footnotes, to make social comment with which the reader will go along wholeheartedly. Alf also charts his own walk of faith, reasoning, and study. Worth a(nother) read.
John Robins (former Co-editor Prophecy Today, now renamed Sword) Methodist Local Preacher
Wake Up! The Lord is Returning: (fifth edition)
As I read this 5th edition I am aware of more of Alf’s prophecies coming true or about to do so. The prophecies are provoked sometimes by visions and words of knowledge (Alf tells you which), by Alf’s interpretation of Biblical time codes or by his acute readings of current social trends and their likely consequences. One thing is certain, never was there a time in our lives so urgent to get our priorities right, both individually and collectively as Christians or as human beings, before the Lord comes to take us (or reject us!). An increasingly frightening time, but under-girded by God’s unfailing promises and strength-a very present help in times of trouble. This is not a time to keep our heads down and hope we will be all right because we have been ‘nice people’. We have to catch Alf’s (or the Holy Spirit’s) passion to share what we know, while there is still time and opportunity. This book, read or re-read will do us good, if we approach it in the right mood, not quibbling over details. I commend it to you!
John Robins B A. (Methodist Local Preacher, formerly involved in the Editorship of “Prophecy Today” and the Prophetic Ministry of Rev Dr Clifford Hill.)
Bearing in mind the fact that Alf Droy foresaw the events of September 11th of which he writes in Wake Up! The Lord is Returning: (second edition), e.g. ‘A major attack on American soil was being plotted by a group of Islamic extremists… Mayhem and devastation could result if a cold-hearted fanatical pilot chose to use any aeroplane as a missile against a significant target’. This very interesting and fascinating book is definitely worth a read. Three other of his prophecies have been fulfilled and nine are still awaiting fulfilment. The expanded second edition allows readers to weigh Alf’s words against actual events. Readers may disagree with some of Alf’s conclusions but this is not a book to be ignored. (Alf Droy’s autobiography ‘The Lord is My Shepherd’ is quite remarkable too, dramatic, challenging, illuminating, encouraging).
In the fourth edition of ‘Wake Up! The Lord’ is Returning’ Alf has updated and refreshed his material, with a combination of historical learning and comment; together with the prophetic edge that has marked the previous editions. Alf continues to chart, and share his understanding of The Lord’s plans and purposes for this earth. Not everyone will agree with Alf’s approach or beliefs, or be entirely comfortable with his revelations but simply look at what is happening around the world and plot it against the events spelt out in these pages. There is a new acceptance of the supernatural in many areas of society today but it continues to elude, even often, large tranches of the mainstream church. Regardless of what the church thinks or feels God is God and He is supernatural and if God supernaturally reveals parts of His plans and purposes to one of His people then so be it. I recommend you read this book with a spirit of openness to the things of God and an appreciation of Alf’s passion for the Lord. Then if and when you see the prophecies contained within these pages being worked out give the glory to the Lord for sharing His plans with His people
Nick Thompson, Former Director of Good News Broadcasting Association
R Mc Coull. Calcot Reading
This edition in PDF format is hyperlinked for those who have access to a computer and maybe choose to freely download from my web site http://www.wakeupnow.com. I believe it would prove a wise investment to obtain a copy of this book to pass on to one’s loved ones. The book is available only from El Shaddai Publishers at 41, Warkworth Street Cambridge. CB1 1EG. On the 13th October 2001 I received a revelatory ‘word of knowledge’ that within 3½ years of the diamond jubilee year of yovel, the sacred year of jubilee (which ran from the 17th September 2001 until the 6th September 2002) that sometime during the Hebraic religious year that began in Nisan 2006, and following the 50-day ‘counting of the omer’, but before the start of Rosh HaShanah (the Hebraic New Year’s Day Tishrei 1), Israel would carry out a retaliatory missile strike against Palestinian Hizballah based in Lebanon over cross-border incidents that were temporarily ‘dampened down’ by United Nation dictate (UN). That prophecy is now history, the 34 day war took place mid 2006, prior to Rosh HaShanah Hebraic year 5767). In December 2005 I received a revelatory word of knowledge that the world would be entering a third seven-year period of Tribulation, following the 50-day ‘counting of the omer’ of 2007, that would lead to the countdown to the commencement of World War III. On 6th September 2007 the Israeli Air Force made a peremptory strike deep into Syria. The strike occurred just before Hebraic year 5768 started. Without a doubt the attack will result in a response from Syria sometime before Hebraic year 5769 commences on 19th September 2008. The Islamic anticipation of a second Holocaust could possibly lead to the full scale invasion of Psalm 83 and mushroom out of control triggering off the invasion which I have written of on pages 213 and 239 of this sixth edition.
I experienced a revelatory dream on the night of 06 06 06, the 39th anniversary of the liberation of the Old City of Jerusalem (read footnote 274 for the occult significance surrounding these significant numbers). On this same date the Pentagon announced that America was removing itself from the Geneva Convention because of the adverse comments received regarding ‘humiliating and degrading treatment’ of suspect terrorist subjects. I was surprised that it took as long as it did for degrading reports of rape and murder of Iraqi families and prisoners being tortured and humiliated by US soldiers to emerge?
The dream was centred around the next Olympic Games in China. I have subsequently deciphered this riddle and found that the torch will be carried from Mount Olympus in Greece to Beijing and ignite the cauldron in the Stadium on the 8th day of the 8th month at 8.08 PM. In the astrology of witchcraft the number eight is the number of the sign of the scorpion, which starts the fifth monthly sign of the Zodiac, that commences at the Hebraic month of Nisan, which falls in the month of Av (aka the month of tragedy) in the Hebrew calendar. Av in 2008 starts at sunset on the 9th August. I have written of this dream on page 317, which confirms to me that the details of those revelatory words of knowledge received on 13th October 2001 and in December 2005 concerning the outbreak of World War III, and the third woe, were fore-runners to this climactic revelation which signifies to me the parallel, the beginning of the third period of Great Tribulation the three woes and the three world wars. The countdown to World War III started in 2006 with Israel’s retaliation to cross-border incidents, the tension was increased on 6th September 2007 with the peremptory strike against Syria. The third woe of Revelation Ch 11:14 (which is the fulfilment of Psalm 83) will precipitate World War III and will be the countdown to the Rapture of believers (see page 165).
Owing to British based militant para-church groups such as the Christian Institute, Christian Voice, the Maranatha Community and the Lawyer’s Christian Fellowship, proposed government Bills are being scrutinised much more closely than in less intensive times of outright hostility against perceived Christian ‘hectoring’ or harassment, as associated with followers of The Lord’s Day Observance Society. Such censorial accusations have been likened with the hysteria associated with the power of malevolent trade unionism which must be contained by political power at all costs. Christian NGO’s are advising their members to unite in protest at any perceived further infringement against godly government! Previous Governments have received a mandate to only exercise the power of deregulation to earlier Acts that have received parliamentary approval in that government’s term of office. I have drawn attention in earlier prophecy that the present government is attempting to render Parliament impotent and therefore unnecessary. New Labour is bent on establishing a militarist unelected Governing Council unaccountable to the electorate see page 152). In January 2006 a whale swam the River Thames to within sight of the Houses of Parliament. A revelatory word of knowledge revealed that the whale was sent as the sign of Jonah by God to the Head-quarters (HQ) of authority of the United Kingdom (UK) and as the inheritor of the blessings bestowed on Ephraim, that because successive secular governments had marginalised Christianity and its independence from Europe, Britain is to be severely judged through the rod of God’s anger (see footnote 345).
Whilst contemplating the significance of the sinking of the St Louis a German passenger liner, of which I have written in footnote 245, I received a disturbing revelatory word of knowledge. I was told that the details of the New World Global Government, of which I write in Chapter 3, was only the tip of a secretive submerged ice-berg. The Illuminati promoted by Cecil Rhodes is alive and flourishing in Britain through the activities of the Rhodes Trust of which you will read in this book (see page 152), and the seemingly innocuous activities of the Freemasons. Rhodes died in 1902 not living to see his Utopian dream materialise. The Inner Circle and their cohorts in the Illuminati, the Freemasons, and the New Age Movement infiltrated and now administer the corridors of power throughout not only Britain but former Christendom. 1234The Lord said to my deflated spirit:
The Jezebel spirit will be eaten by the dogs of war (1 Kings Ch 21:23-23) and nothing of the Illuminati’s perfidious capitalist system will remain.” “You rebellious people are the servants of Satan the father of lies. You worship him because he has made you promises of his payments in gratitude for your continuous support and the life-style you enjoy with no consideration for the under-privileged, poverty-stricken masses that your functionaries govern. I am going to punish you and your nepotistic families with failing functions in the human body that I have previously sustained. Your master will suffer greater humiliation in order that My glory as the Creator of the world will be glorified the greater. You meant the entrapment of My chosen ones for evil, but I will turn your plotting into paths of righteousness and into My good purposes. Says the Lord your God.”
My response to God’s righteous anger was to cry out: “Oh dear God to prophesy in the introduction of a book is bad journalism. Why could this revelation not be the finale of this exposition.” God smiled in response to my outburst as He hugged me. Do you know God as Father as I do? During the sleepless night hours have you been cuddled and reassured over your uncertainties by Him?
Unlike the reprieve of Nineveh no pleading will delay what God has decreed must now take place. God revealed to me at the Wailing Wall in 1993 the circumstances leading to World War III through prophecy (see page 204). The European Union (EU) riding roughshod over the constituted laws of its member nations and totally ignoring their own Human Rights legislation has decided to implement a regional policy of control. Dear Christian reader, European Christians are about to face persecution from an enemy that is controlled by Satanic influences. I am dreading the increasing levels of persecution that Christians, throughout what is known as Christendom, are about to endure as prophesied, but our suffering is not a question of choice, but of tempering.
This book is primarily focusing on the Second Coming of Christ, to encourage the vacillating insecure Christian to persevere determinedly with a good heart in the ways and purposes of God. In earlier editions of Wake Up! I had chosen to withhold some of the details of revelations received by me mainly because I sensed that the information and revelation to hand was incomplete or because my interpretation of events appeared to be too improbable to be likely to come to pass. Quite often I have received a revelation a second time in an alternative presentation and at other times the one dream is repeated to emphasise its importance, or I receive an amplification of the revelation later, having contemplated but not quite grasped its ultimate significance. Invariably I am driven back to passages in the Bible for a broader view of what God has revealed to His prophets. God is warning His children of the urgency of the perilous times we are living through and the need for repentance; coupled with a greater commitment to spread the gospel as widely as possible before the time of the Rapture. I believe that following World War III breaking out, the unholy trinity will emerge and be responsible for bringing the warring parties into an uneasy form of peace acceptable to most world statesmen. Since America’s invasion of Iraq God has called me to publish further editions of Wake Up! to pass later Biblical revelations and discernment of which I have received. I am aware from information on the Illuminati, Freemasonry and the New Age movement contained in other author’s books to investigate further. The general public do not realise how far they have been misrepresented and deceived by the self‑perpetuating political leaders imposed on the general public in Europe.
I prophesied in the fourth edition that one of the instigators (conspirators?) of the Oslo Accord was to die before Hanukkah 2004, and that the death of other instigators would occur before Pesach 2005; a prophecy since fulfilled. Norwegian Foreign Minister Johan Joergen Holst aged 57 years, at the pinnacle of his political career, died having hosted 14 secret meetings in Oslo. Chairman Yasser Arafat, Pope John Paul II and Ezer Weizman, a former president of Israel, also died. Perhaps former President (Pres.) Clinton’s heart did stop during the heart attack he suffered in 2004. Mr Shimon Peres, Mr Mahmoud Abbas and others of the ‘Norway plotters’ will surely die before the Roadmap Plan (more latterly known as the Geneva Accord, the further partitioning of Israel) is implemented, perhaps by assassination as did PM Yitzak Rabin (see page 222 ). I also wrote in the fourth edition of a tsunami of nuclear-sized proportion and of more tsunamis to follow during the last period of the Great Tribulation and until the Day of Judgement. The loss of life in other ‘natural and man-induced disasters’ would be one hundred times greater than experienced through the Papua New Guinea tsunami, the floods in China (see page 270), and the Izmit earthquake (see footnote 262).
I have detailed my understanding of the calendar of world events from the signs I have discerned from the Bible of the approaching events yet to occur. Without wishing to appear dramatic it is quite possible that I will not be alive at the Rapture of believers, for those who impose the New World Order of global governance will label my book as criminally and racially offensive and an incitement to the self-perpetuating hatred and violence of extremists. Deemed as such by ‘politically correct’ (PC) laws and perhaps silencing my argument through laws yet to be passed. Perhaps a religious fatwah leading into martyrdom might be called against ‘Christian bigots’ as I myself will be called. But regardless of any personal threats, I know I must be true to the commission entrusted to me.
Where I have used the word ‘paraphrased’ I am writing of my own understanding of the translation of Bible passages. Wherever I attribute any thought or action to a nation or an organisation, I am writing of the leadership (elected or otherwise) that determines policy. I have not used the term AD (anno Domini - after Christ) when quoting 19th and 20th century dates, except where I consider that the usage facilitates the flow of my thoughts. Where I have referred to dates in earlier centuries I have used the terms AD or BC (before Christ) rather than using the terms CE or BCE (to indicate Common Era or Before Common Era which are not used in everyday language). Where I have introduced an abbreviation I have continued to use the term throughout. It may be necessary to turn to the Glossary for the full title.
I wrote almost 220,500 words in the fifth edition and this sixth edition has 247,000 words. For fear of mockery, in earlier editions I had been reluctant to state from a revelatory word of knowledge received, that Jesus Christ was to return following an uneasy peace at the cessation of World War III, a war that I believe will commence before Rosh HaShanah 2008. My prayer is that my readers will be compelled to search the Scriptures for themselves, to ascertain the veracity of what I have written. In the time remaining I hope you will receive Holy Spirit revelation as to how you may choose to direct your endeavours in winning others to Christ.
Some prophecies I have made that have been fulfilled include:
1. the handing over of Bethlehem by Israel’s government to the Palestinians.
2. the election of Mr Netanyahu to the premiership of Israel.
3. a major attack on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon by an extremist organisation.
4. Devastating climactic disturbance occurring in America resulting in a great loss of life (footnote 378).
5. An attempt by an Islamic suicide bomber to blow up a UK airport (foonote 317).
6. the refusal of an Arab power previously supportive of Israel, to allow access for American forces to attack Saddam of Iraq.
7. the failure of the Oslo Accord.
8. The proposal of the Quartet formulated in 2000 to form a Palestinian state within Israel’s current borders (page 166).
9. A tsunami of nuclear proportion (page 264).
10. The building of the fence of separation between Arab and Israeli land (page 207)
11. The death of a number of the instigators of either the Oslo Accord, or the Roadmap Plan (aka the Geneva Accord that will supersede it, pages xii and 209) before the partition plan is implemented.
Some of the prophecies still awaiting fulfilment, but clearly awaiting God’s sanctioning are:
1. The appearance of the two witnesses before partitioning (page 214).
2. An invasion by either America or Israel on Syria or Iran before partitioning (page 244)
3. The imposition of a ‘Caesar’, to administer the Temple Mount, in a divided Jerusalem on behalf of the New World Order. (footnote 305 and page 318).
4. The commencement of the meltdown of the world’s economy. (page, 250).
6. The recognition of the Oslo Accord, the Roadmap plan, or the Geneva Accord as the ‘unholy covenant’ of Daniel Ch 9:27 (pages 103 and 166).
7. The first President of the Federation of the EU could be the ‘host’ of the Beast out of the Sea (page Error! Bookmark not defined.). Alternative contenders include Tony Blair and Kofi Annan the former Secretary-General of the UN (anan in Hebrew means ‘sorcerer’) or the incumbent President of America.
8. The introduction and imposition of electronic surveillance and/or identity cards to control trading by the EU (pages 307 and 314).
9. A major earthquake in Jerusalem
10. A series of earthquakes throughout the Middle East but causing shaking in Jerusalem, which will ‘swallow or divert’ the Euphrates (page 336).
11. Jerusalem becoming an international city (page 164).
12. The Rapture of believers (from their graves and for those living at the time of the Great Tribulation from wherever they are located) during the Feast of Tabernacles between 2007 and 2014 at the Second Coming of Christ (page 64).
13. The disestablishment of the Church of England (footnote 332).
14. The removal of ‘free’ NHS treatment of communicable diseases for the socially unregenerate (page 278).
15. The legitimising of euthanasia and the withdrawal of food and fluids from patients suffering irreversible brain damage (page 286).
16. Russia joining the EU (page 246).
17. The dismantling of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO, page 246)
I pray that this first Chapter is helpful in convincing the sceptic of the truth of a Biblical Flood, that mankind is covenanted to God through a ‘family’ (spiritual) relationship that may well be rejected from a secular pragmatically reasoned theory that cannot accept the ‘concept’ of a relationship with a divine Being. Throughout this book I will seek to prove to the atheist (that is the name by which non-believers in any god is known) that the Trinitarian God is alive and reigning. I will also attempt to persuade believers in other faiths that the Triune God is the only God that has ever existed. Perhaps my reader should turn to footnote 130 at this point, where I have written of the mathematical significance of the Bible codes, which are not present in any other faith’s sacred book. The account of the birth of civilisation in Genesis Ch 1-Ch 2:1-4, established by the Creator presents a synopsis of both the principles of Creation to Shabbat (translated into English as the ‘Sabbath’ and portrayed as the seventh day of Creation). The Genesis Ch 2-3 account was explicitly dictated by the Creator God to institute and sanctify marriage between man and woman whilst establishing the principle of the headship of the male over the female in authority in every family, and accountability of the male to his Creator. Eve was formed from Adam’s rib to be his helpmate (wife). Eve’s relationship with the patriarch established the authority given to man in every partnership since. The seventh and final day is not part of God’s ‘working’ week of Creation, having no starting morning nor ending to the day. The availability of superior technical and scientific equipment in recent years has revealed many previously concealed secrets.
The Moon was placed in our solar system as a faithful witness (Psalm 89:37) to man’s prosperity and will prosper in the heavens as long as the righteous prosper on Earth. The Moon was placed in our galactic solar system, together with the Sun in their controlled orbits to provide the balancing forces of nature for our solar system in order that each planet’s gravitational pull are balanced through their complementary magnetism to each other. In our galaxy there are three pairs of planets having a rapid-spin rate: Mars and Earth, Jupiter and Saturn and Neptune and Uranus, each pair within 3° (degrees) of each other in their uniformity (that is equivalent to their size, positioning, axis tilt, etc (etcetera).
NASA’s Viking space missions to the Moon discovered that a 10 centimetre (cm) layer of cosmic dust particles covered its surface (as was later similarly found on Mars). The scientists concluded that both of these planets were formed at the same instant of time but I found myself wondering if there could be some other explanation. I believe the different measured amounts of cosmic dust in other planets of the galaxy, may mean that their radiation fields are more able to resist receiving the same level of penetration of extraneous materials, or it may be that the theory that God introduced a space/time continuum containing planets from any solar system being put to one side until God ‘introduced’ a planet into any galaxy of His choosing in an instant of time. An alternative to a space/time continuum could be God judiciously and when necessary creating a cryogenic canopy, as a kind of protective umbrella around planets in their orbits to protect them from external bombardment. Geologists have concluded from the radiometric dating of rock (granite) that Planet Earth is at least 4.5 billion years of age. They have determined that nickel, uranium and silicon dust particles enter Earth’s atmosphere at the rate of 14.3 million tons per annum. God rhetorically claimed in Job Ch 38-39, that mankind will never be able solve the wonders of His creation, which includes the postulations of the most learned of scientists.
Planet Sedna, the oldest star discovered in our universe, is located on the extreme edge of the Milky Way some 36,000 light years from Earth but this star is part our galaxy and many Christian scientists believe this star to have been created some 13 million years ago. This star (number HE 0107-5240) is calculated to weigh hundreds of times more than celestial bodies discovered in any other galaxy. Sedna, some 8 billion miles from Earth, is the tenth planet to be discovered in our solar system. This information supports the theory that The Lord has plucked certain planets that fulfil His purpose for them, polishing them, to be used in a designed network of planets, which are featured as a necklace, against a midnight blue backdrop, in one of the galactic solar systems. It has recently been calculated that Sedna’s elliptical orbit around the Sun takes 10,500 years to complete. I cannot believe that such a large planet as Sedna could have suddenly entered our solar system without causing mass catastrophes throughout the solar system. Therefore it is feasible that Sedna (which is not the oldest of our planets) must always have been part of our solar system, but deliberately hidden from view, to fulfil some objective of The Lord. The solar rotation system must be very old, I imagine that our galaxy was circulating long before Planet Earth was formed and introduced into orbit. I sense that the spaces now occupied by the fields of density and magnetic attraction may have been allocated centuries before Planet Earth and perhaps other planets were placed into the solar system, when the ‘recently’ allocated Sun (the greater light to govern the day) to regulate the speed and passage of the orbiting solar system (as a watchmaker might regulate a time-piece). Long before mankind was created, God created the panoply of stars in the sky for man to enjoy and wonder over what omniscient Being could create such an enormous wealth of awe-inspiring beauty, apparently conceived purely for mankind to enjoy.
Scientists have located in our solar system 1,700 asteroids approximately 1 km in size, travelling through space in our galaxy at 100,000 miles per hour (mph). There are more than 1 million asteroids approximately 90 m across. If the magnetism of the Earth draws just one such asteroid into Earth’s atmosphere on impact it would destroy the largest of cities or even decimate a continent. A report concerning a fall of meteorites over France on 24th July 1790 AD, was the reason why in 1803 scholars and scientists accepted as fact the phenomenon of space fragments and asteroids impacting Planet Earth; much evidence has been recorded of such events (see footnote 41). Smaller and innumerable pieces of substance occasionally ‘shower’ areas of Earth but invariably do not get reported by the media.
Atheistic scientists proclaim that evolution is a naturalistic type of belief-system, totally denying a universal God. They pour scorn on the Biblical version of the creation of Planet Earth expounded by the Creationist reasoning the proposal that creation occurred only 6,000 years ago over a six-day period is not believable. They theorise that humanity evolved from an ignition of dissimilar inflammable chemical compounds, colliding in space with sufficient force to split into a new type of molecule. Non scientific atheists accept this explanation, because it supports their belief that God does not exist. The controversial argument over the theory of evolution of the species has beset the scholarly world since 19th century Darwinism and is taught in our schools as incontrovertible truth. Evolution is an ameliorative support of others to deny God’s existence but nevertheless it was God who created all life-forms into being out of nothing, just by His commanding their existence. ‘Theistic evolutionists’ have a belief in a master Creator who may have been involved at the birthing of the universe but acting only as a watchmaker might, but taking no further part in its future developments. Reincarnationists and those of other faiths follow this unsupportable philosophy. They maintain erroneously that God created through the evolutionary process, which then guided the cycle of outworking of development of a soul in an established mankind, as a completed work. The belief of the theistic evolutionists side-steps the controversial dating of the birthing of mankind.
Until the advent of space investigation cosmologists had theorised that the heat engendered at the ’big bang’ and radiated from the ignition point of the Creation explosion emanated from an infinitesimal point. The intense heat generated would have cooled rapidly but uniformly in a similar way that a heated oven on its door being opened, releases its trapped heat throughout the ‘kitchen’. The cosmologists measured the amount of helium in heavy-element deficient galaxies, so distant from Earth that their existence predates evidence of significant stellar burning, and established that following the impact, which results in a nuclear explosion, greater amounts of helium are produced than were present prior to the explosion, which later change in nature into more exotic elements. Cosmologists have discovered evidence of a ‘black hole’ in our galaxy and believe that there may be others as yet undetected.
The astrophysicists of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) research team detected fluctuations in the background radiated heat which had been uniform, cool, smooth and low in temperature, suggesting that 25% (per cent) of the hydrogen present at the explosion was turned into helium between the first 20‑seconds and four minutes from the initial explosion, resulting in neutrons fusing together to form elements heavier than hydrogen, helium, or lithium. Astrophysicists have concluded that only a rapid cooling from an intensely high temperature could have resulted in a gaseous mass becoming 1a supernovas, having a ‘built in’ magnetic force field. 1a supernovas may have initially been comets, asteroids, or meteorites that on passing a ‘liquid’ satellite drew an immense tide of matter from the cooling mass. On amalgamating and coalescing forming a larger mass that on cooling became a ‘solid’ planet. This circumstance is known as the tidal theory. These 1a supernovas were the earliest of stars are identified by the name ‘Population III’ stars, and found to be composed of a chemical mixture of c72% hydrogen, 25% helium and 3% of heavier elements, which on cooling turn into liquid before solidifying into what scientists have named as ‘exotic’ matter. To measure the speed of cosmic expansion the astronomers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Space Telescope Science Institute of Maryland plotted the localities of the most ancient of supernovae. They found that the small differences between nearby and more distant type of 1a supernovae, which were among the first solid masses to form in space on the gases coalescing, did not indicate their distance from Planet Earth at the time of their formation.
In January 1990 American astrophysicists confirmed the findings of the COBE satellite exploration team, that, assuming that the speed of light has always been constant, all matter, energy, time and the dimensions of space burst forth at the creation explosion. The team calculated the creation explosion as occurring some c15-20 billion years ago. The constant release of temperature, density and pressure, provides a reasonable explanation of how the galaxies were formed and have held together through supportive interconnected gravitational forces. The light from the most distant galaxy in the universe has travelled great distances through space measured in light‑years before reaching Earth. The close similarity to a perfect radiator energy through radiated heat, suffering initial enormous energy degradation following the initial explosion of power enhanced the belief that, at the creation of the universe, every particle of matter and energy that was initially created (the fundamental building blocks of matter and energy) was limited by the combined strength or presence of all other natural forces of energy. Some level of non‑uniformity would have been necessary to explain how star-clusters, galaxies and eons later clusters of galaxies were formed, but the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers used to measure temperature fluctuation were not accurate enough to plot the path of the earliest expansion of the universe. In April 1992, using a second satellite probe (almost 100 times more precise) the astrophysicists were able to reinforce their earlier deductions.
In a binary system a ‘white dwarf’ star does not become a supernova until the solar mass of a neighbouring star is drawn into the orbit of the greater magnetic power of the larger solar mass. The Earth’s sun was formed from the scattered ashes of Population II stars, which I believe were placed into a space/time continuum until God chose to start the solar system (Genesis Ch 1). Joint research programs provide confirmation that the rate of expansion of the universe was slowing down for the first 8-9 billion years of its history and accelerating over the last 6‑7 billion years.
In September 1994 the Keck telescope (the world’s largest optical instrument) was commissioned and has (together with the Hubble Space Telescope) enabled astronomers to produce a proposed photographic image (or picture) from a Microwave Map of the universe at 300,000 years of age when light first separated from darkness before any stars existed, of the history of the universe that spans the years since that initial explosion, demonstrating that the universe is between 14.5‑14.9 billion years of age, not far from the conclusions of COBE’s scientists who produced the ‘opening pages’ of this ‘universal scrap book’, featuring the universe at 0.5‑1.5 billion years of age (equivalent to infancy) before the gases coalesced and condensed into solid matter some 500,000 years following the Creation explosion. Subsequent ‘pages’ reveal the newly formed galaxies in a youthful universe. Later ‘pages’ show pictures of a fully developed universe, at which time nearly all known galaxies had ceased forming new stars and collisions within galaxies became less frequent.
In April 2000 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) released results of their conclusions from the ‘Boomerang’ high altitude balloon experiment, proving that the universe has a flat geometry and with that certainty the researchers were able to calculate the total density of the universe (mass density plus ‘space energy’ density also known as [aka] the cosmological constant). Further research has proven that the space energy density component is c70-80% of the total content of the cosmos, which is approximately four to five times greater than the mass density initially released; from which it can be deduced that most of the mass of the universe is ‘exotic’ in nature, consisting mostly of particles that travel at a slower rate than the speed of light. NASA’s cosmologists are confident that future teams of scientists will substantiate their theories on the formation of the universe during future exploration.
Old Testament Jewish scholars wrote of ten dimensions, six of which although co‑equal, collapsed or folded into themselves at Creation into a size so small that they became inaccessible and outside of mankind’s understanding of the ‘natural’ or explainable realm of the universe; leaving only the recognisable dimensions of length, depth, height and time. In what has become known as the ‘September 1984 Revolution’ two American theoretical scientists, Michael Green and John Schwarz determined that the accepted theory of points of interconnection between gravity, relativity and quantum physics, was not a navigational point but a string of loosely connected coincidences of ‘duality’. They believed in a unified ‘Theory of Everything’, calculating that there must be a mathematical relationship (as yet unfathomed) between gravity, relativity and quantum mechanics and between the known and the unrecognisable in the natural realm (discerned through further improved sophisticated equipment by more experienced scientists) for their successful coexistence in a multi‑dimensional universe. This all encompassing theory is known as the ‘M‑theory. Most modern day scientists and some theologians accept the linkage between the mathematical relationship of five quite different theories of ‘superstrings’ each one describing exactly the same physics despite the lack of testable predictions. Scientists could not know how the Creator might use a universal continuum of space/time dimensions ‘supernaturally’, sometimes halting, reversing, or fast‑forwarding time to fulfil a preconceived systematic design. God does advise mankind throughout the Scriptures that such options were available to Him.
The imagination of some authors of books and films and TV screens run riot, with aliens living underground on inhospitable planets, whilst searching the galaxies in spacecraft for a benign alternative homeland. I have never been able to accept that little green men with huge brains were created in God’s image. In my youth I read sensational articles featured by the popular press that had cross‑examined people who claimed that they had been kidnapped by aliens visiting Planet Earth in spaceships from more distant galaxies. Personally I have no interest in such conjecture, because I believe God has always intended the galaxies to be a display to please those who search the night skies, and to wonder at the awesome Creator behind their construction.
Some space scientists believe that life‑forms could exist and evolve in other galaxies or other ‘habitable zones’, always providing liquid water was present or could be manufactured. There are also the hazards of temperature, density and gravity control, together with a satellite invasion to take into account. I learned of the research conducted by American Frank Carlisle into Ezekiel’s vision of Chapters 1 and 10. Carlisle’s analysis suggests that Ezekiel was writing of a technology in aerial transportation of which Ezekiel could have had no concept and could only describe what he saw in the most basic of details. Carlisle maintains that angelic beings during Christ’s ministry on Earth were transported in spaceships (that were referred to metaphorically in 2 Kings Ch 2:11 as ‘angelic chariots of fire’) under God’s direction. Furthermore some scholars speculate the Nephilim were fallen angels but angels are spirit Beings with no reproductive organs. The Nephilim who are referred to in Genesis Ch 6:4 as the ‘sons of God’ had sexual appetites towards ‘earthlings’ and were presumed to have fathered the Amalekite race, who were of gigantic size. Some scholars have speculated that the Nephilim may have been an earlier creation of God than mankind, aliens who were created on another planet. It is intimated in Job Ch 1:6 that Satan and his followers, who I assume to be the fallen angels, were called by God to a ‘confrontational’ meeting. My readers will need to investigate for themselves further, perhaps drawing their own conclusions through sending an email to [email@example.com].
Perhaps it may be difficult to believe a loving heavenly Father would place our solar system in such a chaotic unpredictable environment, but in Matthew Ch 5:45 Jesus said that God causes ‘His sun’ to rise, implying that Earth’s solar system has been especially installed in order to sustain God’s creation, and to warn mankind when transgressions need to be corrected. I believe Christ’s statement refutes the view of many scientists, that life-forms exists in other galaxies.
Equally fascinating is the report that scientists from the Cambridge-based British Antarctic Survey have drilled 3 km into the ice at a most inhospitable site known as Dome C, with average surface temperatures of minus 54°c (centigrade). It is believed that the solid bedrock is only 100 metres (m) beneath the latest drilling, which despite difficulties the scientists expect to reach quite soon. From the samples of matter trapped in the ancient frozen air within the ice cores, palaeontologists have been able to distinguish what they believe to be eight different ice-ages that have occurred between interglacial periods over the last 1 million years. Many Bible believing folk believe that vegetation and animals were created many eons before any ice-ages took place. I imagine that all the ice-ages had been caused through volcanic activity blotting out the sun, resulting in heat loss causing the seas to freeze over. It has been proved that the last ice-age was caused by the known eruption of the super volcano in Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia c70,000 years ago, which is believed to have led to the extinction of the dinosaurs. Presumably the seven earlier ice-ages developed in a similar way.
It is known from laboratory tests on blue-green algae fossil (which provided oxygen) that the oceans must have been living organism as far back as c3 million years ago. Therefore the seas must have originated prior to any of the ice-ages. The algae formed through photosynthesis on the surface of the waters and any other plant life also emitted oxygen into the atmosphere. Following the final ice-age God ‘baptised’ and therefore purified Planet Earth, for only following the final ice-age did God order the sea to retreat to demarcated boundaries. The purification was done in order to create the Garden of Eden, and ‘cleanse’ the soil used to create Adam. Many scientists believe that water had been a solvent created in some form or other throughout the universe. But I believe that from the time of the cooling star that we call Planet Earth being placed into orbit, long before the ice-ages started, God provided the source of water vapour and moisture enhancing humidity, which formed into huge rain clouds, holding literally millions of gallons of water formed from tiny droplets, created by temperature differences carried through currents of air (as has happened since the Flood). As clouds rose even higher into the rarefied oxygen-deficient atmosphere the moisture in them congealed into ice. The base of the clouds closest to earth contained more oxygen and on the ice melting would have fallen as rain, hail or snow onto the lands beneath, supplying nutrients to God created vegetation and fruits to feed His personally designed and fashioned menagerie of animals, reptiles, insects and birds, that would thrive in their habitation and then mankind was created. By the time of the fashioning of Adam, ice caps and ice floes would have been formed that on thawing pushed their way towards the warmer climates, in a continuous process. At various spots around the world, traces of five separate ice sheets (or frozen deserts), have been recognised from the huge accumulation of stone moraines that have been found, which originated from the time of the frozen deserts, when the ice sheets pushed their way towards the warmer more moderate latitudes where they melted.
Planet Earth is situated in a particularly providential place for life to exist within an orbit located in what astronomers refer to as the ‘habitable zone’. The Sun is 93 million miles away from Earth and provides the source of life. If it were any nearer the temperature would be too hot to sustain life and if the Sun was further away blood would not circulate (mankind would freeze to death). The atmosphere and magnetic field are sufficient to protect the Earth’s surface from harmful radiation and the moderate heat from the Sun does not endanger fresh water collection or circulation on Earth. The Moon (the lesser of the two great lights), is c250,000 miles from Earth. If it were any closer the tidal forces would be massive causing inundation at every high tide. God positioned the Moon to govern the tidal movement for without regular flushing the otherwise stagnant un-oxygenated waters, the ultimate death of Creation would follow. I believe that standing beside His throne God spoke Creation into being, standing with one foot on His footstool that became Planet Earth, which He has determined to be the centre of the universe. Every star in their multitudinous galaxies could not possibly have been counted by a super computer, let alone Abram, but the Father planted them as flowers placed by His very Word of commandment.
Many Christians have accepted the hypothesis that miscellaneous genes (of unconvincing origin) evolved naturally into Homo sapiens, whilst other genes mutated into stronger types of vegetation or more enduring forms of animal life. However life-forms on Planet Earth prior to humankind being formed in God’s image and the degree of precision needed to sustain that life, could not possibly have been provided by evolution. The belief in the survival of the fittest animal through evolving into a better equipped species to resist predators and climate change is not realistic. From the specimens of skeletal remains of dwarfs and giants exhumed and the great age attributed to them, it could be construed that early prototypes of earthlings had evolved from animal species. A skull of what was believed to be a Neanderthal was found in Gibraltar in 1848, as was a skeleton exhumed in 1856 in the Neader Tal valley near Düsseldorf, Germany. Many anthropologists hypothesise that during an earlier ice-age, an anthropoidal creature may have evolved into a race of Neanderthals which may have been exterminated by the first Homo sapiens. Perhaps any creature living in any of the ice-ages were manufactured and scientifically constructed by Lucifer, who may have been given permission by God to carry out experiments, but that is supposition. Globally some skeletal remains have been found of humanoids that from the appearance of their bone structure suggests that they had walked upright, whilst their brains were larger than those of early humans. In 2001 archaeologists in Australia excavated the fossilised bones of a female humanoid that was believed to have walked upright, calibrated as being 42 inches in height and c3½ million years of age. This discovery does not confirm the theory of an amphibious crawling creature that later evolved into a tree‑climbing ape whose descendants evolved into man. If such a hypothesis was correct all earlier specimens of monkeys may by now have evolved into humans! The nitrogenous compounds of all creatures are identical, indicating that they were all fashioned from the dust of the earth. However geneticists found that the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted made no genetic contribution to ‘modern’ humans. The investigations did match the chromosomes of bipedal primates (anthropoids), therefore Neanderthals cannot be related to humankind. Pope John Paul II pontificated ‘ex‑cathedra’ (Latin meaning ‘from the throne’) that God may have placed a living soul into a creature that evolved into a humanoid which the Master Creator found acceptable to be changed into His own image. I can understand an atheistic scientist not accepting God’s specific word but surely the Pope can believe in the evidence of DNA!
Mankind can only guess at what transpired on Planet Earth in the epochs prior to God populating it with His always intended creation of humankind fashioned in His own image. Carbon dating does give credence to the belief in an earlier date for Adam’s life. However it is illogical and irrational to believe that the gills of a fish and the lungs of a porpoise, the antennae of a moth and the radar of a bat occurred ‘by chance’. A Master Creator developed all the magnificent variations of nature ‘after their kind’ and at the time He designated. It is possible that Lucifer experimenting with cross-fertilisation or through bestiality through mind-control (hypnosis) undertook creation of life experiments, just as some scientists are trying to create today. Modern-day scientists can create life and may have a greater knowledge than available to pre-Flood mankind. It is true that many ancient constructions have been unearthed, leaving modern-day designers puzzling over the fete of implementing such constructions.
In Morocco a discovery was made of a hoard of 500 double-edged axes each weighing 8.5 kg, 20 times heavier than a man of today’s average height could wield. Anthropologists have calculated that to use the axes as a working tool, a giant of even proportions would have to have been 4 m tall and weigh approximately 250 kg. In Australia a cache of adzes, hand axes, chisels, and knives of extraordinary weight and size have been unearthed that supports the ‘Moroccan’ find.
In a paper jointly presented by two physicists, B J Rees and M J Carr, entitled The Anthropic Principle and the Structure of the Universe, they explained that the geometric mean size (average mass) of the human body and of every micro and macrocosm contained in the universe, including the tiniest of protons and the largest of planets is directly proportional to the mean size of Planet Earth. Every component of a cell is interdependent and co-dependent, with each proton responding to its specific function. Planet Earth is uniquely imbued with life-giving water to endow God’s Creation, supporting the ‘anthropic principle’.
The evidence for macro-evolution being the process by which life forms originated and developed over billions of years is unconvincing. Macro-evolutionists believe that a bolt of lightning striking and eliminating any previous specie of developing life-forms, or alternatively energising them, perhaps through repeated strikes over centuries, caused mutation of the evolving genes, transforming and sustaining both plant and animal life asexually, leading to a natural mutation occurring within organisms. But experimentation carried out under laboratory conditions reveal that any mutation leads to the specie deteriorating into extinction. Despite much research chemical evolution has not provided any answers to the origin of life. That universities, libraries, museums and schools without equivocation, postulate the evolution of the species does not make the theory a fact. A team of international taxonomic-believing anthropologists have declared that every mammal including Neanderthals, Homo sapiens, aardvarks, and mankind are descended from common living ancestral relative, genetically similar to the aardvark, which commonly shares the greatest number of genetic mammalian features. The hypothesis of macro‑evolution (for that is what the conjecture is) is only a theory that mutations within organisms occur naturally, evolving through time through various cell changes into different species in order to survive and develop; my supposition is much more worthy of consideration!
The hypothesis of growth on an evolutionary tree, which has its roots firmly embedded in non‑living granite is not acceptable to entomologists, who can provide a great deal of evidence of co‑dependency of dissimilar species. For example there is one particular type of fig tree that cannot produce fruit without the co-operation of the fig wasp. Both tree and wasp had to have been created within the same week for neither species could have survived without the other. Inside the fig are ‘closed’ male flowers (a chrysalis) out of which a male wasp emerges. The male wasp fertilises every unopened female flower before eating its way out of the growing fig (forming a tunnel), returning to its ‘chrysalis’ where it dies. The female wasp hatches some time later, at which time she enters every other flower on the tree, pollinating their ‘anthers’, covering herself with pollen in the process depositing her eggs onto the female flowers and then she dies. The annual ‘death cycle’ is repeated at the following seasonal blossoming of the fig tree. The inherent procedure is very much akin to the ‘bride of Christ’s generational cycle of evangelists keeping the fig tree alive through preaching the Gospel. Nuclear scientist Robert W Faid writes in his book A Scientific Approach to Christianity of the interdependence of the Pronuba moth with the yucca plant and of many other instances of dissimilar co-dependent species flourishing, totally rejecting the random mutation theory of evolution.
I believe that once the final ice-age was over, the earth was once again bombarded by the heat of the sun and atmospheric radiation. At some point prior to Adam being formed God purified Planet Earth supernaturally through cryogenically freezing the waters of the sea and the waters under the expanse above (Genesis Ch 2:7) created the ice‑canopy, which acted as a thermal blanket or shield. Extraneous objects and any harmful atmospheric radiation were prevented from invading the Earth’s atmosphere, whilst filtered sunrays enforced growth and decay. The ice‑canopy was engineered to act as a giant fibre-optic, throughout the 24‑hour day; bestowing the suffused beneficial pink coloured rays at dusk and throughout the twilight hours, when the direct rays of the sun were hidden owing to the rotation of the Earth. During the Flood the ice‑canopy was destroyed probably through satellite invasion and the waters that God had separated homogenised as before. The Manuscript Troano records a cosmic tragedy during which oceans fell (collapsed from heights) on continents, whilst tumultuous hurricanes swept the planet.
Once again God sealed the clouds (Job Ch 26:8-14). My prognosis seems to be a reasonable explanation. God seemingly only ‘put a lid on the planet’ from the Biblical time of Creation, until the Great Flood (Genesis Ch 7:4). God’s ability to do this is spoken of in Job Ch 28:25-26.
The Hebrew cabbalist Nechunya ben HaKanah believed that God had formulated the creation of Planet Earth before creating the universe 15.3 billion years ago, which he named as ‘a concept in the mind of God’. This great tranche of time was the gestation period that included the birthing of Earth’s solar system, and the creation of mankind. HaKanah reasoned that the 42‑lettered name of God encoded into the first 42‑letters of Genesis, represented 42,000 divine days, each one 365.25 terrestrial years in length (42,000 x 365.25 years = 15.3 billion years). It is written in Job Ch 38:4‑7:
“The laying of the foundation stone of Planet Earth was watched by the angels, who shouted for joy at God’s bountiful and consistent mercies.” (paraphrased)
This passage must mean that the angels had been created before the universe was called into being (existence). Angels are spiritual beings that can never cease to exist, who were given self will (as was mankind) in order to decide for themselves whether or not to serve God.
The first phrase of the first verse (v) in the Bible states: ‘In the beginning God created’, and the final phrase of the second verse records: ‘And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters’, or in the NIV (was hovering over the waters). My point is that between these two verses millions of years appear to have passed by. Either way the sum total of numbers derivable by Bible Numerics, which from this wholly numerical alphabet-based passage points to God as the author of the Bible. The late Russian mathematician and Biblical scholar, Ivan Panin held a Masters Degree in Literary Criticism, and produced a convincing argument in his interpretation of Genesis Ch 1:1, in explaining God’s covenant of grace that was offered universally to all of mankind. I have come to believe that mankind’s task for the duration of unredeemed existence is to procreate and fill the earth throughout the 6,000 years of 120 jubilees of 50 years length (for I believe when God said in Genesis Ch 6:3 that mankind would in future not live beyond 120 years (which few attain), Surely The Lord was speaking of Jubilees, see page 64) prior to the seventh day of Sabbath rest commencing (eternity outside of time)? But who can be sure of God’s intentions for mankind past and present? Panin in his book Bible Chronology, calculated that the Great Flood took place in c2346 BC. Faulstitch dates the Flood as 2470 BC and Bible scholar Arthur E Ware (1885‑1978) in his book The Restored Vision dates the Flood similarly. Based on Panin’s Biblical expertise and logic, it follows that any Continents not separated prior to the Flood were formed by 2007 BC, for Peleg (which means ‘division’) was the second son of Eber and was born 101 years after the Flood, living for 239 years. Tribal languages, customs and ethics were subtly changed and became particular to various people groups over centuries of time. Distinctive differences in pigmentation of skin, racial characteristics and bone structure in build etc were introduced, after the division of the land into continents and tribes into nations I reached this conclusion mainly due to the fact that unless Noah’s children were married to half-castes of different skin pigmentation, their children would have been of the same pigmentation and bone structure as himself, also the various marsupial breeds of animals were confined to Central and Southern America or the antipodes.
I speculate that God may have given permission for Lucifer (aka Satan) the freedom to use the satellite that became Planet Earth as a place of solitude to compose his music without distraction and as an auditorium for the angelic choir. This freedom allowed for a place to develop his creative safari park as a hobby for Lucifer’s own creative and inspirational pleasure. The omniscient omnipresent God would not have been deceived, He would have known that Lucifer was building a menagerie of his own creation. Equally possible is that Lucifer may have experimented with different animal forms through cross-fertilisation or through artificial insemination under laboratory conditions (in the same way that Dolly the sheep was created). I suggest that it may be inferred from Isaiah Ch 14:12-14, that God was so appalled at the results of the experiments and of one third of His angels supporting Satan’s rebellion in seeking to establish independence from (if not equality with) God, that He has imprisoned the rebellious angels on Earth in order to use them to fulfil His later purposes. Certainly four of the miscreant angels have been chained ever since at the Euphrates River for their part in the rebellion (Revelation Ch 9:14). Owing to God’s righteous justice He would not annul Satan’s tenancy of Planet Earth choosing to leave the decision to Adam’s progeny, for whom the tenancy had always been intended, of who to recognise as the god of the planet. No doubt Lucifer contaminated Planet Earth, which was why it was necessary for the Spirit of The Lord to hover over the waters of the deep before renewal and purification (Genesis Ch1:1-2). It has been proved that vegetation was provided on Planet Earth during earlier ice ages, which provided food for any pre-historic animal life including Neanderthals and humanoids that perished and were buried. The huge reservoirs of coal that have been found where there no trees were thought to have grown, suggests that perhaps The Lord created prior to the last ice-age, and maybe even earlier. It is unlikely that God would have needed to experiment with the development of animals over billions or even millions of years, but perhaps over an ice-age or two, He did purify by successive baptisms to install that which would be beneficial to Earth and challenging to scientists and scholars, whilst allowing only 6,000 years of Biblical history for the full development potential of humanity.
In 1628 AD Dr Harvey discovered the circulatory system of blood (haemoglobin) could not fulfil its function if the iron atoms in the body surrounded by other atoms did not receive sufficient current to stimulate the circulation of oxygen. The life‑producing blood of all vertebrates is oxygenated and sustained by automatic spin (or mass) of the proton and circulated by the breath of God, without which the heart could not pump the blood which through circulation feeds the body. This fact is substantiated by God’s word stating that ‘the life of the flesh is in the blood’ (Leviticus Ch 17:11, written c3,600 years ago).
The parabolic orbit of the ‘angry red planet’ Mars is plotted to be at its nearest point to Earth every 60,000 years (indicating a greater age of Earth’s solar system than the 10,000 years attributed to its existence by many Biblical scholars and scientists). American Bible chronologist Gene Faulstitch believes that our solar system started with the conjunction of the Moon and the planets, Mercury, Venus, Mars and Earth at 343°, which were within 1° of geometric alignment with each other on the day preceding the rising of the new moon over Planet Earth at the Spring equinox, when the planets first came into alignment occurring on the 21st March 4001 BC. He forwarded his computer findings to the Center for Astrophysics at Harvard University in America who agreed that this alignment did take place. However their affirmation does not preclude alignments in earlier eons. It should be possible for the computer experts to trace the first ever solar eclipse seen from Planet Earth. Such research might determine whether the galaxy in which Planet Earth was placed was developed gradually by uniformitarianism or put in place suddenly through God’s intervention. The contestable history of the world’s existence prior to mankind being created in the image of God almost shipwrecked my already shaky faith in a Creator God! In May 2000 six planets: Mercury, Mars, Pluto, Saturn, Jupiter and Venus came into alignment with Planet Earth. Astronomers commented that there has not been a conjunction of this many planets for 6,000 years!
New Age followers believe that the beetle has evolved into the creature best able to survive a nuclear or asteroid attack, however the beetle was not made in the image of God. I believe it is not unreasonable to deduce that there may have been various experiments of humanoid construction carried out by Lucifer that died on the laboratory table soon after the experiment. This theory assumes that God allowed the fossils of any creation not developed by Himself, to be buried on Planet Earth, leaving their remains to fossilise. The (1 m long) skull bones of kangaroos as large as hippopotami that have been excavated and the skeletal remains of koalas and wombats as large as rhinoceros suggest possible experimenting with genetic engineering by Lucifer or his agents, prior to the Flood, or even before God created humankind in His image.
On forming into a cooling star the surface temperature would have sustained a surface atmospheric pressure of 970 lbs per square inch (lbs psi), and would have been far too hot to sustain life even of micro-organism for perhaps billions of years. In 1835 Carl Friedrich Gauss, knowing the present atmospheric pressure was 14.7 lbs psi. calculated that the strength of the Earth’s magnetic field halved in intensity every 1,400 years. Calculating empirically from 2000 AD, but in reverse, in 600 AD the magnetic field had been twice as strong as it is currently, whilst in 800 BC the atmospheric pressure and temperature was four times stronger. In 2200 BC the force would have been eight times stronger and in 3600 BC 16 times stronger than today’s magnetic force. The availability of a space/time continuum would overcome this objection.
Russian scientist, Dr David Otway-Wray, a specialist in the theory of quantum mechanics, subjected the Book of Genesis to particle and solid-state physics and algebraic formula. He concluded that our galaxy could not be any older than between 6,000-10,000 years of age. The space/time continuum overcomes this objection. I believe that this tiny number of years is the length of time that has passed by since God made mankind in His image, but this leaves the geneticists belief that the first man so created was an African born 80,000 years ago (see page 18). Australian scientist Barry Setterfield extrapolated that the speed of light approached infinity approximately 6,000 years ago, empirically calculating that the decrease in the power of radiation is proportional to the slowing speed of light (which provides a measurable effect of the expansion of the universe, a phenomenon known as ‘Red Shift’). American scientist Dr Robert Gentry has taken more than 200,000 core samples of granite from various locations around the world at various depths of drilling and challenged the great age attributed to rock samples by some of his peers. Every examined sample of varying laminations of granite contained halos of black flakes (known as mica) scored into its fabric, confirming that radioactivity had been present at the time of the crystallising of the granite, each sample had traces of polonium 210, 218 or 214. The half-life of these three materials respectively is 22 minutes, 3 minutes, or just 164 milliseconds suggesting that granite was formed in less than a day.
I had thought of the Bible only as an interesting storybook on ethical morality, which the children at school in British society were taught as acceptable standards of behaviour of ‘British’ culture. I had not thought of the Bible as a manual on how to conduct my personal life. To my enquiring young mind Jesus was a legendary saintly man but nothing more than an historical figure, no more believable than the stories surrounding the legends of Robin Hood or Dick Turpin. During my mid-teens I attended Sunday school classes but I could not accept the teachings concerning the creation of the world, the theology of a tripartite God, the incarnation of Christ nor His vicarious (substitutionary) death for the salvation of all generations. Equally I could not accept the theory of the evolution of mankind supported by a wider scholarship taught at school. I had grown into adulthood not convinced of Christ’s deified immortality, or that I could enter into a personal relationship with Him. I accepted the unsubstantiated theory offered by school teachers and Darwinists who declared that mankind evolved from pre-historic times. I had accepted the lie propagated by liberal theologians that Adam and Eve were a microcosm of mankind randomly selected from a greater number of ancient tribes and civilisations located throughout the Planet to portray the Biblical principal of following Godly behaviour, and that the Garden of Eden was their fairy-tale homeland. That Roman Catholics and Jews were excused from attending the morning prayers at school assemblies, suggested to me that there was alternative understanding of religious history and worship. As far as I could understand, the Church of England promulgated the life-style of Jesus and the cultural behaviour that Jesus’ advocated as worthy of imitation, in order to ensure that at least in Britain God’s law and order were observed, but the leaders who were supposed to lay their lives down in recognition of ‘sainthood’ did not fight their ‘corner’.
In later life I became aware that the established church has become an anachronism of a previous world order, to whom modern day political leaders paid scant attention, whilst the religious leaders were defending their differing doctrinal opinions. Can any Bible-believing Christian believe that the world‑wide Biblical Flood had been a localised flood covering little more than the Middle East? Once I became aware that many civilisations on other Continents have in their folklore the story of a flood inundating their ancestral homelands; I accepted that the Great Flood had to have been a universal flood.
Nothing has befallen mankind that God did not ordain or allow. Generally God does not frustrate the intentions even of the most evil of men but rather He allows their malfunctioning through His ‘permissible’ will. In Job Ch:12, God says that even the animals are aware of His ‘hands on’ involvement in every aspect of Creation and redemption; therefore as man has greater intellect than the animals with which he shares natural instincts mankind has no excuse for not recognising God as the Creator.
Spiritualists believe that perfection is completed after several quality lifetimes lived on Earth. Reincarnationists differ from spiritualists in that they believe that people may live through many lifetimes as different life forms, perhaps as a tree or as an animal until they reach perfection. Reincarnation is central to the belief of Hindus and Buddhists. Karma is a doctrine that teaches the eternal law of cause and effect on a moral plane, referring to a debt accumulated against the soul as a result of one’s actions during an earlier existence. The implication is that if one is born physically or mentally handicapped, it is due to sin during a past life, making the doctrine discriminatory towards the handicapped. Reincarnation is a myth. Man has only one lifetime in which to seek and accept Jesus, following which (at the end of time) they will be judged. Hebrews Ch 9:27-28 states:
“Just as man is destined to die once and after that to face judgement, so Christ was sacrificed (once only) to take away the sins of many people (of every generation) and He will appear a second time, not to bear sin but to bring salvation to those who are waiting for Him.”
To those who seek guidance from astrology, God says in Isaiah Ch 47:13-14:
“Let your astrologers come forward, those star-gazers who make predictions month by month, let them save you from what is coming upon you. Surely they are like stubble; the fire will burn them up.”
God showed clearly that it was Satan who questioned God’s decree and God asks the question of each of us: "Do you accept that mankind is morally responsible for Adam’s original sin?"
Mankind corrupted by original sin became an unregenerate beast of burden, equivalent in stature to a donkey (an animal that was supernaturally used by God to speak His word to the prophet Balaam), so henceforth mankind would govern the Earth, not benignly but by subjugation. Owing to his ‘Fall’ into ‘original sin’, Adam’s progeny were as much in need of a saviour redeemer as was Adam. Adam and his progeny would over their lifetime be able to decide for themselves whether or not to serve the one true God. Through repentance and application of servitude, personal faith is born and matures into greater conviction. Becoming ‘born-again’ and sanctified into holiness, is a once only experience but is part of a process of spiritual growth. God’s response to Adam’s rebellion was (a) “Who convinced you to doubt My word?” and (b) “What have you done?” God asks those questions of each believer of every generation.
In 1930 Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli was ruminating over the mysterious loss of energy in certain nuclear reactions. He was familiar with Einstein’s ‘special theory of relativity’ (that any moving particle or mass emitted by the sun embodies kinetic energy and is capable of conversion into dissimilar atomic or nuclear particles). Pauli came to the conclusion that there had to be an undiscovered subatomic particle which carried no electrical charge, so small and light yet having a force-field, or a magnetic repulse reaction that would deflect against invasion. Such particles would pass between other moving particles of matter (atoms), rarely colliding. He named this undetected particle, the neutrino (which means little neutral one). Pauli’s theory was proven correct when in 1956 two particles collided in outer space resulting in a nuclear explosion, which was monitored by two physicists Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. That the neutrino oscillates is proof that it has mass, and forms the greater part of the mass of the universe. Three types (or flavours) of neutrinos have been identified, namely, electron, muon and tau, which can oscillate into one of the other types whilst moving almost at the speed of light. It has been detected that the Creation explosion generated c10 billion neutrinos for every baryon (proton or neutron) and that the same ratio was produced through impacting with another satellite.
The Scriptures do state that a dark chaotic planet existed before God introduced order and regularity, blessing Earth with a pleasing environment and seasonal variation and laws of nature that were inviolate. A careful reading of Genesis Ch 1 reveals that God did not bless the first two days of Creation as ‘good’ (one of which days may have been the day of Lucifer’s appointment as Prince of the Air, or ruler of the kingdom, Ephesians Ch 2:2), also God did not create anything on these days, He only separated that which needed to be divided. God introduced light on Earth but His command to separate the darkness from the light was issued billions of years earlier, only occurring later than the lighting of many other galaxies (see page 18). I believe that once God had set the scene of the six days of creation, He lifted the curtain (as happens in the first act of a play), having a backdrop of the vista of the night sky that God had ‘painted’ into a moving awe-inspiring display.
On the third day God separated the seawater from the land delineating the boundaries of the sea. The sodden land presumably dried through the effects of a supernatural wind, in a similar manner to the earth drying following the abatement of the Flood of Genesis Ch 8:1. The emerging land was presumably already covered with the enriched soil into which seeds were easily rooted and germinated. On the fourth day God set the planets of this galaxy spinning in their magnetised orbits and on the fifth day the vegetation was created in full flower, fully fruiting to provide food for the animals and birds (also created on this day). On the sixth day God created humanity. He rested on the seventh day not because He was in need of a rest from His efforts but to inform mankind of their need to rest one day in seven, in order to retain physical and spiritual health (Genesis Ch 2:2-3). There was no mention of evening and morning, or of the seventh day being ‘good’, for this day is yet to be completed.
Some astronomers believed that the tilt of 23.5° of the planet from upright took place at Creation; others believe that there had been no tilt or a lesser degree of tilt before the Great Flood. It is essential for the time taken for Planet Earth to complete its daily orbit to be of a consistent controlled period of time, in order to establish a continuous 24‑hour day, but this feature was unnecessary until the creation of mankind. The formative millennia’s have been deliberately obscured from human understanding, in order to build up personal levels of faith.
In faith believers in the Trinity accept that Adam was the first of mankind fashioned from the dust of the Earth, with whom God made a covenant, on behalf of all mankind. The Adamic Covenant is not mentioned in the Book of Genesis, but Hosea Ch 6:7 makes reference to this Covenant in detailing mankind’s fallibility and the waywardness of self-will and instinctive ‘animal reasoning’. The establishing of Planet Earth and God’s commanding of order out of chaos has to be the opening argument in persuading atheists that God exists and is a relational loving Father. Mankind did not evolve into Adam but this does not disprove that ‘time’ was created perhaps billions of years earlier on God commanding the appearance of light.
The Bible clearly states that Adam was the first man formed and that every person born outside of the Garden of Eden carried the stain of the original sin, which confirms that no other person fashioned by God had been living on Earth prior to Adam’s creation. It is absurd to believe that life species evolved by chance over vast periods of (inert) ‘time’ (which is abstract) able to produce life‑giving properties. It is possible to determine where the first male was born because the Y‑chromosome is uniquely passed from father to son (with no input from the mother). My concern is that geneticists have cast doubts over Adam being the first male fashioned from mud, and his fall into original sin. Other geneticists are certain that the first human was an African born 80,000 years ago, which is supported by the skeletal remains found in Africa of a man believed to have been born some 60,000 years ago. American geneticist Spencer Wells and Lebanese geneticist Pierre Zalloua believe that the first western European (Y‑chromosome type, identified as M173) migrated from Africa c30,000 years ago, whilst the first Mesopotamian (Y‑chromosome type, identified as M20) migrated from Africa c45,000 years ago. The oldest identifying Y‑chromosome is known as M168. I am bound to point out that at least the geneticists have established that the world was not populated by clones of the original Adam strategically placed in every nation. Of course the Garden of Eden is not located in Africa, so again the origin of mankind’s evolvement is inconclusive. If the geneticists are correct there must have been several unrecorded generations before the Flood and Adam could not have been the first man fashioned by God. Progressive (or ‘step’) creationists believe that Adam may well have been moulded much earlier than most theologians believe. If the geneticists are correct over the age and birthplace of the first man, then Adam must have been fashioned in Africa many years earlier than the Scriptures allow, and then translated to the Garden of Eden. Such speculation is very theoretical and blasphemous.
God’s intention towards mankind is revealed through His breathing life into an inanimate clod of mud moulded in the image of the Godhead. Mankind initially thrived in a perfectly orchestrated, ecologically balanced environment, in which Planet Earth was sustained in harmony with creation. Adam was wholly a mortal man. He did not lose immortality through original sin but his progeny of every generation have been stained by that original sin. God foreknew that in a similar manner to the fallen angels the human couple would eventually succumb to their fleshly desires to be as omniscient as God resulting in their banishment. Adam’s sin of seeking to be as equal to his Creator eclipsed the previously uncomplicated relationship between the Creator and mankind. God replaced the fig leaves covering Adam’s anatomy with an animal’s hide, that would not deteriorate as would a flimsy leaf. Adam’s concern over his nakedness before God ultimately resulted in Narcissism. This action was an indication of God’s love and willingness to accept a sacrifice of blood for personal sin (until Christ’s once-only sacrifice for the sin of all mankind). Cain became the precursor for the rejected elder brother, seemingly of less importance to God; except that God does not reject any elder brother, He just occasionally commissions the younger brother for a lifetime of servitude which is a ‘grace’ appointment. Later the acceptable sin offering was to be a young bull, whose carcass was to be disposed of outside the camp (Leviticus Ch 4:1-12), in the same way that Jesus was crucified ‘outside the city walls’ (John Ch 19:17-19). God’s intention for humanity has always been loving and benevolent, but He imposed the laws of nature upon His creation and Himself, choosing not to intervene despite the increasing signs of climactic and racial disturbances.
God created man as the completion of His universal purposes and splendour, that mankind might breathlessly wonder at the vastness and beauty of the panoply of the heavens and come to realise that a pre‑existent, omniscient Being (God) had ordained this creation. God warned Adam of the consequences of eating from the tree of knowledge before He created an unnamed female from Adam’s rib. Eve had not been created at the time of God forbidding Adam to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge. Eve received her warning from Adam and must have often wondered why God allowed the animals (monkeys), reptiles (snakes), birds and insects (bees, all of which had been rejected as a help mate to Adam) to eat from the fruit denied to Eve. Genesis Ch 3:18, 24 confirm that God rejected bestiality and homosexuality, in that Adam’s help mate was to be feminine and not a replica of Adam with feminine tendencies. God made Adam and Eve, NOT Adam and Steve As it states in the New Testament Eve was deceived by Satan but Adam sinned in allowing Eve to be influenced by Satan’s overtures to disobey God’s commands. God’s curse of birth pains (Genesis Ch 3:16-17, over all women), was wrought through the sin of the wife of Adam. She having no separate identity was named by Adam (v 20) subsequent to the ‘Fall,’ following which time every woman was to suffer an increase in pain through childbirth, which leads me to believe that Eve and any other women alive prior to the ‘Fall’ probably produced ‘litters’ of children pain‑free (similar to other animal species).
It could be construed from Genesis Ch 5:1-5 that Eve bore sons and daughters both prior to and following the birth of her three named sons. My belief that Eve conceived several multiple (non royal bloodline births) prior to and in between the two royal conceptions is based on God’s injunction to “Be fruitful and multiply throughout the Earth.” This command was for mankind and animals to obey. But God had to reaffirm this command in Genesis Ch 9:7 for a global Adamic civilisation who had missed the boat! (please forgive this pun). It seems unnecessary to record any other birth in the Book of Genesis, that were outside of the parameters necessary to establish the royal line of succession, but God has deliberately included Satan’s high priestly line of unrighteous mankind to alert the discerning disciple of Satan’s duplicity.
If Eve and her daughters and granddaughters had not already experienced pain‑free births whilst living in the Garden of Eden how would Eve have been able to recognise the difference in the level of pain during labour? It seems unlikely to me that Eve was infertile until Cain and Abel were conceived (as twins, in that only one pregnancy is written of in Genesis Ch 4:1-2). Cain and Abel were not of the royal bloodline and their birth may have been preceded and followed by other non-bloodline litters prior to Seth’s royal bloodline birth, the Scriptures do not mention such a possibility. Eve becoming pregnant only once more (on Seth’s birth, 130 years after Creation. If my hypothesis is correct any children born to one of Eve’s daughters would have been conceived through incestuous intercourse with one of her brothers or half-brothers, and in later years their progeny through cousins, none of whom would have been part of the royal bloodline. Prior to a God‑ordained time in history, blood was purer than it is today and interbreeding would not have led to mental handicaps. Possibly every female experienced painless multiple births before Adam and Eve were banished from the Garden of Eden or perhaps until the Flood and maybe even until much later in time.
Having slain Abel, I assume Cain buried the body. On God asking Cain the whereabouts of Abel, narcissistic Cain, who today would be recognised as a hedonist and therefore evil, quite unrepentant, and full of remorse at being found out retorted “Am I my brother’s keeper?” Cain was saying in effect “I know heavenly Father that in the decrees that you have written on the heart of your children, that the welfare of all created beings should be the concern of each other, but in my rebellion I chose to act unilaterally.” God said “Your brother’s blood cries out to Me (for justice) from the ground.” (grave). Lucifer instigated Cain into a consuming jealousy to kill his twin brother, the result of his murderous action was that he became the high priest of Lucifer. God banished Cain from His presence, for rejecting the Family of God and eternally seeking the House of an alternative fraternity. It is my belief that Cain was condemned to becoming a restless wanderer throughout the Earth, and for eternity. Cain was blotted out from the Book of Life (as are all those who have rebelled against God through disobedience Exodus Ch 32:33). In answer to Cain’s plea for mercy, God placed a mark (probably of 666) on Cain, swearing that this mark would protect him from being killed or harmed by anyone. Anyone who ignored God’s mark would suffer God’s vengeance seven times over. The sages spoke of olam haba’, which I understand to be the outcome on humanity to the inescapable will of God in life and beyond the grave (Hebrew Sheol, Greek Hades, aka the underworld), a ‘half-way house’, the realm of the dead, a separated place for reflection and self-propitiation. Entering Abraham’s bosom is entering Paradise before entering Heaven.
Adam as patriarch would have developed his teaching skills in animal husbandry and crop growth and passed them on to his children and grandchildren. Many of Adam’s progeny would become pioneering explorers. Adam would have emphasised the importance of producing pictorial information concerning ‘prevailing local conditions’, for the benefit of those of his family who would venture into the great unknown in their seeking lands with greater irrigation possibilities, and easier transportation of goods to the sea and seaports, or a more amenable climate, perhaps for grazing of cattle, or for access routes to other Adamic communities, with whom they might trade. P J Wiseman developed the theme in his book Ancient Records and the Structure of Genesis that spoken and written language must have been a gift that was not learned, for Adam and Eve could communicate with each other and with God. The preserved universal written language was transcribed as symbols known as hieroglyphics, which originally were recorded on clay tablets but later on papyrus reed. Adam’s progeny must have embarked across oceans or travelled overland through various zones to establish links with other Adamic communities who all spoke the same language. The earliest pictorial messages would have been placed in prominent positions on trees and rock surfaces. What must be realised is that Adam’s descendants became communities of civilisations across the world. This more adventuresome but also more sophisticated progeny would have recorded oral traditions of the universal Flood for posterity.
Until the Great Flood there had been ten generations of royal bloodline but only seven of the unrighteous generations, as recorded in Genesis Ch 4 and 5. I imagine that the unrighteous were given longer life-spans in order to give them longer to repent. Gen Ch 4:17-24 reveals that the non-royal line was not counted in generational years. Proud and haughty Lamech, the first bigamist, was the seventh generation of unregenerate mankind from Adam. His second wife gave birth to Tubal Cain, a leading figure in today’s freemasonry (yesterdays [quaint old-fashioned] devil worship) and a specifically named sister Naamah, Tubal Cain and Naamah completing a notional ‘divine family’. God’s intention being to draw the attention of believers to the deception offering an alternative to the Holy Trinity with Satan at its head. The Lamech of Cain’s line was evil personified. Lamech confessed that he had killed in vengeance as had Cain, furthermore, as master of his own destiny, he would kill 77 times in retribution for anyone who sought to harm him in any way. In Matthew Ch:18:21-22 Jesus said that “Forgiveness should be offered not just 7 times but 77 times,” totally denying personal retribution that is seen in evil Lamech’s statement of life.
1. Adam in Hebrew means MAN, he lived for 930 years, fathering Seth at 130 years of age.
2. Seth means APPOINTED, he lived for 807 years, fathering Enosh at 105 years of age.
3. Enosh means MORTAL, he lived for 815 years, fathering Kenan at 90 years of age.
4. Kenan means SORROW, he lived for 895 years, fathering Mahalalel at 70 years of age.
5. Mahalalel means GOD WHO IS PRAISED, he lived for 895 years, fathering Jared at 70 years of age.
6. Jared means SHALL COME DOWN, he lived for 962 years, fathering Enoch at 162 years of age.
7. Enoch means TEACHER, he was translated into heaven at 365 years of age, fathering Methuselah at 65 years of age.
8. Methuselah means HIS DEATH SHALL BRING THE FLOOD, revealing Enoch the seventh generation from Adam to have been a prophet, confirmed by Jude 14-15. Enoch as prophet and teacher who was translated into heaven was the first precursor of Christ. Methuselah lived for 969 years, fathering Lamech at 87 years of age.
9. Lamech means WEARY, he lived for 777 years, fathering Noah at 182 years of age.
10. Noah means REST, he lived for 950 years, Shem, Ham and Japeth were fathered before Noah reached 500 years of age. In Genesis Ch 6:3 God decreed that mankind’s age would now be limited to 120 years. It is my belief that God issued this decree 120 years before the Flood was released. Genesis Ch 8 13 states that the waters dried up on the first day of the first month of Noah’s 601st year, signifying mankind’s new beginning. Together these ten bloodline generations spell out the gospel message. “Man is appointed to mortal sorrow, but the God who is to be praised shall come down, teaching that His death shall bring the weary rest”.
All things were fashioned by a cosmically sovereign Creator, whose omniscience is incontestable, but totally separated from His creation. Western philosophers and most religions accept this analysis, whilst rejecting that God had a Son who is part of a Holy Trinity. This sovereign Lord often chooses to give revelation through dreams, and their interpretation. Atheists do get angry when told that God equally is able to reject those whose hearts are hardened towards the Godhead! Truth is fact and is universally true whether accepted or rejected. The philosophy of the relativist is that there is no absolute all-encompassing truth and that every theory is ‘relative’ to every other theory that may be rejected or accepted. Mankind cannot escape from this ‘imprisonment’ on Earth, whether a creature spends eternity in Heaven or Hell is solely down to God’s grace or His judgement. God’s Will is unconditional and His final judgement certain; yet He has chosen in His sovereignty to make Himself known to His creation, because God is ‘love personified’.
I do not accept the theory that there could have been ‘Adam and Eve’ type relationships and ‘Garden of Eden’ experience on other Continents. In faith I unshakably believe that all tribes and races were descendants of Adam and Eve and therefore that all of mankind is stained by original sin.
The 120 men who sat as learned sages in the Great Synagogue believed that on day one, at the instant God commanded light to appear, Planet Earth was sent spinning on its axis at the same controlled rate of 1,100 mph which has been maintained ever since. I believe Hebrew cabbalist HaKanah was right in believing that God had planned the creation of Planet Earth before creating the universe 15.3 billion years earlier. A E Ware believed that Adam toiled in the Garden of Eden for a 40 day probationary period as a type of wilderness experience to which Christ was later subjected. I believe that I received a revelatory word of knowledge that Adam lived in the Garden until ‘the fall’ for the exact length of time allocated for the final generation of Jews to be returned to Israel for the second time, but neither of these ‘ideas’ cannot be substantiated. I have read confusingly that the sages believed that Planet Earth was created in 3,760 BC over six divine days of inestimable length, with the seventh eternal day of rest falling on Shabbat. The sages differ in the date of the separation of light from darkness on Earth by c300 years from Faulstitch and Ware. Panin believes the Adam was created in ‘0’ am (anno mundi), which Panin dates as 4003 BC. Faulstitch determined that March 25th 4001 BC was the date of Creation. Faulstitch, Ware believe that the Flood occurred c2000 years after Creation. Ware further believed that the years of the Messianic calendar are reckoned from the eighth-day of Creation, which he dates as occurring in 4075 BC (the first evening and morning being the 4th/5th March).
Ware believed that the years of the Messianic calendar are reckoned from the eighth-day of Creation. Faulstitch and Ware believe that the Flood occurred c2000 years after Creation. My position is that I believe that studious atheistic scientists have reached conclusions similar to my own, that life on Earth of a people created in the image of God was an alternative people to those developed through Satan’s laboratories. Surely this is evidenced now through Adam, that the peoples of the Earth were assigned to develop order and discipline through a new mankind in a righteous world. My belief in eternal justice and condemnation does not make me a heretic or a non-believer! Many who follow a belief in an alternative God will be struck down as lemmings accepting no alternative.
I find Ware’s references to five calendar chronologies throughout Biblical history as confusing. But he has produced a comprehensive diary of events of Biblical history from Creation until the day of Christ’s ascension through these calendars:
1. The calendar of Israel which lies on the surface of Holy Scripture.
2. The calendar of Jehovah, which differs in that it lies one day of the month, and one day of the week, ahead of the calendar of Israel.
3. The Messianic calendar solely based upon the years of Jesus the Messiah’s life.
4. The Roman or Gentile calendar inaugurated by Julius Caesar in 45 BC.
5. The personal chronological calendar of Christ’s life on Earth.
The Biblical seventh day was the Sabbath day of rest and would have been of the same length of Earth time allocated to it (24 hours or 1,000 years, which will be the millennium reign). We know from Psalm 90:4 that a thousand years is as a single day to the eternal God, so possibly 1 million years is but a fleeting moment of time. Jesus told the parable of the unlawful tenants who would not leave the vineyard of their own volition as the illustration of what would happen prior to His return to rule throughout the millennium (Matthew Ch 21:33-46). Even at the lawful return of the Jew (in 1948) only those Jews with circumcised hearts (the Messianic Jews) were the legal tenants of the land. Perhaps God used a time dimension which may have allowed for an epoch of millions of years passing between the periods when animals and the vegetation for them to eat were called into existence. Adam and Eve may have been created an epoch later.
I had been fasting for three weeks whilst seeking for a revelatory dream’ over how the lands of Earth were repopulated with people and animals after the Flood and was heartened on Sunday the 1st March 1998, to experience a trance.
I was sitting upon a boulder amongst a large number of people from a bygone age, some were clothed in animal skins, whilst others wore cloth. I was one of a number of the men living in a fishing village, who were listening to a man whom I knew to be Noah, speaking of the error of following a false god in order to receive short term benefits at the expense of a later but greater reward. Noah had travelled to this fishing village to advise his fellow clansmen of their need to believe only in the one true God.
I retired to bed that night, pondering over the trance, and was rewarded with a ‘revelatory dream’. I awoke having a deeper understanding of a dream that since 1983 has often been repeated to me but for which I had never previously received any enlightenment.
Again I was sitting with others of Noah’s extended family listening to their patriarch. Noah emphasised that salvation lay in believing that only the God of all creation held power over each person’s soul. Noah preached to the families concerning their sinful condition, which may have included their sexual proclivities and any experimenting with genetic engineering and cloning, in which their 'pre-Flood illuminated' minds might have indulged. Volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes accompanied by the other twin terrors of after-tremors and widespread flooding were caused by glaciers being breached. The lives of the beleaguered villagers threatened by the consequences of the coming calamity were of deep concern to Noah. The eruption of volcanoes, together with the effects of the hot sun on the frozen surfaces of mountainous glaciers, had caused these huge creeping bulks to slide slowly into the valley plains, engulfing whole communities that had settled in the plains between the mountain ranges. I became convinced that Noah’s words were true and I had retired to bed confident that a watchman would awaken me if the prevailing weather conditions became critical.
As the new day dawned a group of men woke me, by shouting my name loudly outside my home. They urged me to join them in escaping in one of several large passenger ships that had anchored at the harbour mouth overnight. As we made our way down the steep slope to the quayside I clearly saw the mariners and the fishermen from the village assisting their neighbouring families into the rowing boats and ferrying their passengers to the larger boats. Hastily but orderly the rescuers rowed their empty boats back to the quayside steps where other would-be passengers, many with infant families, waited to board. The field on my right was illuminated by the multi‑coloured phosphorous globules of flaming molten lava that rained down from the sky, turning to steam on impact with the sodden ground with a loud hiss. The field on my left was strangely dark and quiet; lightning flashes and thunderclaps added to the dramatic vista. The cliff road ahead and the valley road leading to the harbour had become impassable, having been engulfed by avalanches.
Without warning the massive wall of ice tumbled onto the quayside. The escaping villagers in the small rowing boats screamed in terror, as they were knocked overboard by the boulders of ice that rained down holing the boats. Frightened people were wildly thrashing about in the sea trying to avoid the avalanche over their heads. The rescue ships had raised their anchors for they were sailing into deeper water away from the harbour in which they may have become land-locked. I placed my hands over my ears to drown out the terrified screams, closing my eyes to block out the picture of the disaster that I was witnessing. I swiftly turned and ran inland clambering over a secured five-barred wooden-gate into a field and sought shelter from the strong wind in a shallow hollow. Snowflakes rapidly blanketed the grass around my feet as the wind banked the drifting snow around me filling the hollow in which I stood. I silently prayed committing myself to God. My numbed body felt no pain as I physically died. I knew that I was unequivocally and eternally saved through my own unusual baptism into Christ.
On analysing the trance and dream I knew that I was being told that having received and accepted the Gospel, every believer is expected to respond by obedience to the ‘Call’. It serves no useful purpose complaining to God that the unrighteous are prospering at the expense of the faithful. One cannot sit around waiting for one’s death and resurrection. Natural disasters, ill health, anxiety over how to cope in times of distress are given to believers to test and mature their faith. Each of us should serve willingly in grateful and loving worship to God and our loving service to others in our communities until called ‘home’. My reader must surely know even from this first chapter that a believer has to walk by (spiritual) faith unsubstantiated by scientific fact.
Russian born Immanuel Velikovsky in his book Worlds in Collision, shows clearly from the Scriptures that God has been behind the conduct of interplanetary behaviour. Velikovsky offers recorded reports by chronographers of ancient times in many nations that Planet Earth suffered a world-wide catastrophe through an invasive attack, that just prior to the Exodus when comet Typhon (that became analogous with Pharaoh Taui Thom the last pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom) was drawn into Earth’s magnetic field. Pliny writing after Christ’s sojourning on Earth sums up the evidence of ancient reports, recording that comet Typhon’s appearance occurred within the time frame of the Exodus. Herodotus wrote of a comet, the head of which looked like a twisting convulsing disc of bloody redness having a long glowing gaseous tail (composed of carbon and hydrogen) like that of a serpent’s body. I accept that Typhon was sent by God to fulfil a specific purpose.
Some portions of the superheated gaseous tail of the comet would have broken away from the main body, igniting on coming into contact with the oxygen of the Earth’s atmosphere. I imagine that the of the combined gases of carbon and hydrogen changed in nature into a creamy solution of bitumen, falling on earth as a thick oily liquid penetrating all pores and crevices at ground zero. Some of the gasses would have been trapped in rain clouds and solidified. Also on the pull of gravity the towering seas when they crashed onto the various land masses would have trapped the majority of the gases that cooled as bitumen which developed into oil and gas fields (pockets). The main elements of a comet brought together in the rock formations of the earth under great heat and pressure. Other comet invasions may have repeatedly occurred. This is the inorganic theory of how these huge energy sources were formed from carbon and hydrogen. A comet with a head as large as Planet Earth could slow down the rotation of the Earth, causing a pole-ward tidal recession.
Typhon did not crash into Planet Earth but the comet’s tail caused major electrical discharges. It caused global destruction, which was witnessed on all Continents across many Middle East countries, India, Polynesia and recorded as calamitous by the Incas, Aztecs and Mayas of the continent of greater America over several weeks at the sun’s rising and setting at its perihelion. Servius wrote that this comet globally caused many plagues, evils and hunger. An Egyptian papyrus records that the haematoid pigment filled the air and settled on the ground as dust causing skin irritation, boils, sickness, and plague of both animals and humans. The Manuscript Quiche of the Mayas records that the earth shook and the rivers turned blood red as particles of ferruginous or other soluble pigment caused plagues throughout the land discolouring the waters killing the fish and making the water undrinkable. These accounts certainly support the Scriptural accounts of the plagues of Egypt leading up to the Exodus from Egypt of the tribes.
Moses’ staff had been raised over the Red Sea at a particular time and location, the sea parting was not coincidental but miraculous, for The Lord must have frozen the waters that were climbing skywards (Exodus Ch 15:8). According to Velikovsky under certain circumstances the speed of Typhon when passing between the Moon and Earth was such that in the vacuum resulting in its wake, the seas and rivers were ‘pulled’ or ‘sucked up’ to towering heights of as much as 4 km, as the waters entered the vacuum tail of the comet, with material items, including full grown, well-rooted trees on the land being consumed in whirlwinds of hurricane proportions. The rain of atomic debris torn from the body and tail of the comet and from the disintegrated materials fell to the earth and were carried by the seas and rivers onto the ocean floor.
In the absence of a detailed transcript of Scriptural events, it is reasonable to assume that no sea-creatures were taken into the Ark and that God restocked the seas and fresh waters of the world at the receding of the floodwaters. The evolutionist’s theory of uniformitarianism over the entombment of complete fossils (uneaten by predatory fish) die and settle on the sea bed at the end of their natural life eventually covered with silt and sediment does not hold water! Perfectly complete fish fossils could only have been preserved intact if buried in the slurry at the time of a universal Flood when every other predatory carnivore died choked by the slurry shutting off their air supply. Every sea creature died through ingesting slurry through their gills, whilst the land creatures drowned when their lungs were similarly filled with slurry. On the tumultuous conditions subsiding all the carcasses and shells of these drowned creatures carried by the currents became part of the horizontal sedimentary silt banks, that formed against the various land masses of igneous rock that were the shoreline of the Continents. The entombed bodies became fossils.
Repeated collision of the released tectonic plates caused tsunamis and earthquakes pounding all rock to fine particles turning the sea into slurry. Normally the tectonic plates slide by each other but less frequently passed one beneath the other (subduction). Geologists have found evidence from the examination of magnetite specimens of hardened lava, that at the time of the Great Flood as many as ten cataclysmic variations occurred at the Earth’s magnetic poles; which was probably caused through a satellite storm striking the Planet, causing the release of the tectonic plates. Such conditions may have occurred prior to every ice age, which could have led to older banks of fossils in earlier climes being laid down. It is also possible that the ice ages may have been caused by the unusual event of the eruption of super volcanoes, not involving extra terrestrial activity, but being spontaneously created through natural earthly disturbances.
Under normal climactic conditions the carcases of fish at death always float slowly to the surface, an invitation to the other carnivorous fish to eat from the remains. On breaking surface any particles remaining are eaten by carnivorous birds. Some years after the Great Flood entombment of all living creatures not in the Ark, other disturbances of the tectonic plates occurred, which caused the sedimentary rock (that had formed around the fossils) to rise out of the sea forming new islands. Investigation only corroborated that the animal and fish fossils discovered at the shoreline had all been encased at the same time in history of this ice-age. The fossils were not ‘layered’ vertically but were buried in what became horizontal banks. In recent times, some samples of ‘living fish fossils’ have been discovered which implies that some species of fish may have survived the Flood through entering into a state of suspended animation.
German geologist Johannes Vulta at the end of the 19th century, whilst boring core samples from the ocean floor from a ship moored in the bay of Naples discovered that the banks of strata on the sea-bed in the deeper waters of the bay were sequentially formed vertically and sideways in exactly the same way as the banks close to the shore. Vulta’s discovery proves the previously accepted hypothesis of stratification (that each layer was formed horizontally on top of the previous layer) was nonsensical. The theory that fossils of anthropoids encased at deeper levels were entombed many centuries earlier than the fish and crustacean fossils found at shallower depths; was due to the lighter flotsam not being carried as far by the currents. The fossils were encased at the same level irrespective of the depth of sea water that the species had inhabited. There were no surviving predatory fish to eat the dead bodies of the smaller fish (all of which are carnivorous). Obviously the remains of predatory fish must have been encased in silt deposits at the same instant of time otherwise there would have been no complete fossils. That the silt banks were also built vertically, explains why fossilised trees throughout the world, at several excavations were buried in an upright position, through several layers of stratified sedimentation. No tree deprived of air, water and light could continue to grow over several more centuries. Vulta’s thesis was reinforced by the scientific investigations carried out at varying depths in the Pacific Ocean in the 1970’s and 1980’s from the Gloma Challenger vessel.
In 1965 researchers exploring off the coast of Peru at depths of 1,000-fathoms made a startling discovery. A powerful underwater camera filmed statues on stone pedestals, enormous stone pillars, and massive areas of broken walls on the ocean bed. The photographs confirmed the presence of a city that had been inundated in ancient days remaining submerged even today. The saline Lake Titicaca, located some 3962 m asl in the Andes mountains, unaccountably has sea-shells galore scattered around its shoreline. From ground level and easily discernible on looking upwards are agricultural terraces, seemingly cut into the mountain but as the terrain steeply rises to the snowy heights some 1524 m asl, clarity is lost in the hazy mist. A short distance away is the huge abandoned former dockland City of Tiahuanaco, where evidence has been discovered of docking facilities for ocean‑going vessels from centuries earlier. These discoveries point to a formation of some Continents prior to the Great Flood, and to a global commercial civilisation. Following the ferocity of the Flood the topography of the Earth must have changed dramatically, scoring huge ravines (gorges) 1,000-fathoms deep plunging one city into a deep ravine, yet powerfully forcing another city from the same land mass to a height of 5,486 m in a newly developed range of mountains, the highest of which were submerged to a depth of 7 m totally changing the topography!
Noah preached that the royal seed of righteousness had not been lost at Abel’s murder but had been passed on to Seth and in succession had been passed on to himself. The royal bloodline ultimately led to the immaculate conception of Jesus Christ as the prophets foretold. The passage in Genesis Ch 3:15 was misinterpreted by Nimrod’s followers as referring to the seed of their beloved leader as the ‘Great Deliverer’ (of salvation). The wording is not consistent in all versions of the Bible but in the New King James (NKJ) God was stating that ‘the Seed of the Woman’ would finally overcome Satan. Galatians Ch 3:16-19 states that the promise of God to Abraham was ‘to his Seed’ (singular not the plural, ‘seeds’) meaning the one person who is ‘the Christ’. The Ten Commandments, were given to Moses 430 years after God bequeathed the Abrahamic Covenant (in 1896 BC) but did not annul the promise made to Abraham, but confirmed its fulfilment. The inheritance does not depend on obedience to the law; which was introduced only to make the Israelites aware of their sinfulness until the ministry of the Seed on Earth was completed with the defeat of Satan. A combination of Romans Ch 8:17 and Galations Ch 3:29 reads:
‘If we are the true sons of Abraham we are heirs to the promises of God, and if we are willing to share in the earthly sufferings of the man Jesus until our own resurrection then we are co‑heirs with Christ and will share in His glory throughout eternity.’ (paraphrased)
Noah’s son Shem fathered what became the nation of Elamites, one of the four people groups that Abram’s mercenaries defeated, part of which had migrated from Sumerian lands and settled in Canaan. Shem’s second son Asshur developed into the tribes of Assyria. Arphaxad was the grandfather of Eber (from where the Hebrews received their familiar name) of the ‘royal line’. Some of the descendants of Eber became the Chaldeans, with part becoming the Hebrews, Lud, the Lydians of Asia Minor, and Aram, the Syrians (Genesis Ch 10:21-22).
According to the NKJ version of Genesis Ch 10:7-8 Bacchus (Bar-Cush or son of Cush, aka Nimrod) was begat, which presumably could mean that supernaturally the father could become the son. Nimrod is not listed in with the other sons of Cush. Cush followed by Nimrod became a mighty hunter before the Lord, which means ‘he flew in the face of God’s displeasure’ and has been linked by some scholars with Proverbs Ch 15:11 and the rebellious being accompanied by angels to receive their just deserts. On leaving the family home, Nimrod travelled with his entourage and their flocks along the River Euphrates until settling and extending his rule over the whole Plain of Shinar region (Babylonia). Nimrod as evidence of his skill as a hunter clothed himself in a tunic made from the coat of a spotted beast (a fawn, leopard or jaguar) and the headdress of a horned animal. Each of Nimrod’s priests dressed similarly to associate their priestly role with divine authority. Nimrod was idolised by his followers and his son (or reincarnation) assumed his divinity and received the title of Pontifex Maximus (the high priest of Satan). The legend was perpetuated of this priest as a divine or eternal being. Nimrod died soon after impregnating his wife Semiramis. She claimed to have received a visitation from an ‘angelic being’ who informed her that Nimrod would be reincarnated as her son. Semiramis was immortalised as the Queen of Heaven (Jeremiah Ch 7:18, Ch 44:17-19) with the introduction of an annual festival of remembrance to the mother goddess of mankind of which early historians Athenagoras and Lucian both wrote. Archaeologists have unearthed tablets recording the marriage of Nimrod to Semiramis. The cult was perpetuated of worshipping a ‘blessed mother and her son’ as divine mediators between bad luck and good fortune. 
Nimrod in Assyrian folklore was thought to be a Sumerian shepherd whose wife Semiramis was linked to the Syrian goddess Ishtar aka Astarte, a name which has metamorphosed into Easter, a pagan name celebrating a pagan festival. The earliest ancestors of Nimrod’s system of religion were accepted throughout Babylonia. The indigenous people were an ethnic group known as Hittites that developed through Ham a son of Noah. Over time Ham’s ancestors inevitably split into smaller social groups. They developed their own customs and religious culture that were slightly off-centre from the ‘Nimrod system’ of authoritarianism. Centuries later (as major people groups, the Hurrians, the Aryans and the Mitanni, amongst smaller groupings), religious conformity was assimilated through imposing greater strength over rival religious observances of a form of worship to a perception of a superior Being. Quite naturally the Chaldean religion had assimilated the magic and the astral features of the Mithras cult, fused with the Indo/Iranian worship of Cybele, demonstrated by drug induced orgiastic sexual rites that worshipped Baal the god of fertility. Couples were encouraged by the priests to copulate without restraint and often, believing that this would provide the key to the fertility of the land, the crops, the herds and the offspring of mortals. An illiterate, superstitious, poverty-stricken society, accepted the priest’s assertions of the gods demanding the sacrifice of a family’s first-born child as a confirmation that they accepted tribal uniformity. (Does not infanticide through abortion in today’s intelligent sophisticated society suggest that modern culture has reverted to ancient primitive acceptance of murdering the first-born?) Abram’s father Terah was from one of the nations of the competing people groups that sought for religious recognition in Babylonia, embracing the ambrosia of the day. The historian Eusebius wrote that Abram was born eight years before the death of King Ninus of Ur. Ninus’ subjects accepted their king as a reincarnation of Nimrod (aka Tammuz or Bacchus), in the same way that today’s emancipated Western society has elected both skilful military men and charismatic politicians to rule in the best interest of their electorate. The democratic system has been accepted by modern society as paving the way of the materialistically comforted towards mankind’s future esoteric destiny. Society has not progressed very far spiritually in 6,000 years!!
On the 25th December Semiramis bore her son naming him Tammuz, but among classical writers he was known as Bacchus (the Lamented One). Semiramis became associated with Venus and she was worshipped as Rhea (mother of many gods). Noah had taught that one day in the future the Seed of a (blessed) woman (a virgin) would be fertilised supernaturally and on reaching manhood, would bruise the heel of the serpent (Satan aka the ‘evil one’). Nimrod’s followers believed the misinterpretation of Scripture that Semiramis and Tammuz in a later lifecycle of existence would fulfil this omen. The Madonna and Child concept comes from the same pit of hell. Tammuz the Great Deliverer, alternatively known as Zoroastra or Zero Ashta (meaning the ‘seed’) or Zoroastes (meaning the ‘seed of the woman’) was venerated as the high priest, whose soul was transferred in some mysterious way to his successor. My belief is that the successor of this mother and her son as the false Messiah, would be part of the unholy trinity of the final generation. The historians, Herodotus (484-430 BC) and Diodorus Siculus (80-20 BC), recognised the legends of Osiris and Bacchus as being culturally interchangeable. The spirit behind these false gods or ‘mighty ones’ of Greek, Egyptian and Babylonian mythology were thought to ‘possess’ the mind and body of earthling high priests.
A famine throughout the land resulted in Abram moving his household and flocks into Egypt. Abram asked his wife Sarai who was also his half-sister to connive in a ploy that suggested she was Abram’s unmarried sister. Abram schemed this idea to protect his life, from the not unheard of event of an envious male suitor seeking to kill a perceived rival in order to acquire a strikingly beautiful or rich wife. Pharaoh took Sarai into his harem and during this relationship he gave Abram gifts of many cattle, as a form of dowry, which resulted in Abram becoming very wealthy. Within months of the deception, Pharaoh realised that his household had become subject to serious diseases, which were easily traced back to the time Sarai had entered his harem. In support of Pharaoh’s conclusions was the fact that Sarai was not suffering the same symptoms, as himself or his household. On persistent questioning Sarai revealed that she was married to her half-brother Abram. Pharaoh ordered Abram to leave Egypt and take Sarai, his nephew Lot, his servants and accumulated wealth with him. From Biblical silence it is apparent that The Lord supernaturally directed Abram into Egypt and presumably condoned the conspiratorial ploy.
On his return from Egypt Abram (recognising his need of a ‘spiritual protector’) began to call on The Lord for prosperity and a successor for the family name and inheritance. Having acquired great wealth in Egypt, Abram financed Lot into becoming a self-employed independent shepherd in the family tradition. Initially the two shepherds grazed their flocks in the same fields, but later accepted the complaints of their herdsmen of the need to divide into separate households as their flocks grew in number. In Genesis Ch 13:8 Abram offered Lot the first choice of the land of Canaan in which to pasture his flocks and Lot looked with calculation at the alternatives offered, choosing the lush plains of Jordan. The Lord rewarded Abram for his lack of greed, by commanding him to look in every direction and reiterated His promise to bequeath to Abram all the land known as Canaan where Abram placed his feet. The Lord had not said to Abram: “Go to Canaan and become a Canaanite,” but: “Go to the land that I will show you, that will be bequeathed to your offspring” paraphrased from Genesis Ch 12:1,7). “Once the sins of the Amorites reach full measure your descendants will return to claim their birthright” (paraphrased from Genesis Ch 15:16). The Lord had meant for Israel to ethnically cleanse all the clans recorded in Genesis Ch 16:15. Deuteronomy Ch 20:17 confirms this and further The Lord commands them to kill every creature that breathed including animals; very drastic but necessary if The Lord’s chosen ones as a holy priesthood were to resist becoming tainted into worshipping other gods. God did relent in the same chapter saying that if other tribes accepted subservience to Israel, then they would be spared. The Hebrews did not follow God’s instruction, and He used the nations as the rod of His anger against a rebellious unholy Israelite federation. The early prophets bore witness to this and spoke of God relenting, enabling individual Gentiles to become members of a holy priesthood in return for a life of servitude and worship. The Lord demonstrated this new situation in (temporarily) overlooking the unrighteous ways of the Assyrians. It is reasonable to conclude from that episode that salvation is conditional on faithful observance from conversion (repentance of one’s previous life) until death.
To seal the original irrevocable covenant of promise Abram was renamed by The Lord as Abraham, whilst his wife Sarai was renamed Sarah (The Lord added the ‘H’ God‑breathed aspirate to their names, to indicate that which appeared impossible became ‘Him possible’). The Lord promised that Abraham’s spiritual progeny would be more numerous than the stars. In return the male progeny of the patriarchs, their servants and the male children of their servants were to be circumcised on the eighth day following birth. This shedding of blood through circumcision confirmed the Israelites continuous acceptance of the eternal covenant. Genesis Ch 15 explains that through spiritual intervention, Sarai would bear Abram a son, Isaac, whose spiritual progeny through Abraham’s grandson Jacob (Israel) would inherit Canaan. Abram was unaware that his (spiritual) seed would include ‘born‑again’ Messianic Jews and Christian Gentiles who would know of Christ Jesus the only begotten Son of God, and be obedient to God’s Holy Spirit living within them. Abraham must have believed that his earthly descendants had been chosen for a special ministry, that may have extended throughout the 12 tribes of Ishmael, who were to populate the land from the Egyptian River Nile to the Mesopotamian River Euphrates, for there is much evidence that many Arabs in every generation since Christ’s ministry in human flesh, have become believers in Christ, infinitely more in number than Jewish converts, despite horrific persecution and contempt practised against them in Satan’s fortress.
Some years after the return from Egypt, Lot’s property and household were taken as plunder by the tribesmen of an alliance of four Canaanite kings. Abraham had 318 herdsmen trained to use weapons that would discourage marauding bandits or tribes attacking and also able to frustrate rustlers, either humans or animals. These herdsmen cum mercenaries defeated Kedorlaomer’s forces at Sodom, rescuing Lot and his herdsmen’s families and recovered their possessions. King Melchizedek of Salem (Jerusalem) took communion with Abraham following the battle, mindful of Abraham’s role as the priest of God Most High (El Elyon) Creator of all matter, who had delivered Abraham’s enemies into his hands. I believe King Melchizedek’s arrival after the battle, to be a sign of Christ’s two periods of life on Earth.
Upon a second severe drought, Abraham moved his family, his herds and flocks and his 318 armed herdsmen with their families into Gerar, to find water and food for them. His retinue must have numbered about 1,000 strong and resembled an invading army with a king and queen at their head. It is certain that the Philistines would have heard of Abraham’s victory over the four combined kingdoms and been very afraid of confrontation with Abraham’s forces. A delegation of palace officials would most certainly have called on Abraham to ascertain the purpose of his visit. Abraham must have assured the officials that his presence offered no threat to the populace, for his only intention was to obtain water and food for his household and flocks. He repeated the ruse used in Egypt in saying that Sarah was his sister. King Abimelech on being told of Sarah’s beauty and believing that she was Abraham’s unattached sister took her into his harem, partly because this was seen as a gesture of goodwill. Abraham acted in faith in this deception, believing that Sarah would not be violated and that a battle would be avoided if he acted as a man on a peaceful mission. After a period of time, during which none of his harem bore children, The Lord threatened Abimelech in a dream that his nation would be destroyed unless Sarah was returned to Abraham, who was His prophet. In return for Abimelech’s penitence Abraham would pray for the king and his subjects blessings for their lives to continue and be fruitful. I believe that Sarah conceived following this blessing. Abimelech knew of God and was convinced that God could destroy every Canaanite tribe if He so wished (Genesis Ch 20:4). Abimelech called his officials together and told them of his dream. They were equally fearful of the threatened dire consequences and they agreed that Abraham should be given 1,000 shekels of silver, plus sheep, cattle and slaves to appease a wrathful God. Abraham was given permission by the king to continue his business anywhere in Canaan he chose. Abraham’s herdsmen dug a series of six wells that supplied the needs of the family and their livestock at the places where they camped, for a week or so until supplies were exhausted. Abraham’s retinue and flocks arrived in Beersheba, that derived its name as being the place where the seventh well was dug, where Sarah delivered her supernaturally conceived son Isaac and where they settled as a family. Beersheba may also be translated as ‘the well which witnessed the covenantal oath.’ Abimelech, accompanied by a military contingent travelled to Beersheba to initiate a binding treaty of friendship.
Abraham could not have known that most of the countless number of the spiritual descendants of Isaac his son, as the child of the promise, would not be blood relatives. Isaac was a precursor of Christ in that at the age of 37 years, Isaac was prepared to lay his life down in sacrifice (Genesis Ch 22). He even carried the wood for the sacrifice to what is now known as the Temple Mount, just as Christ, in the same manner carried what was to be His rugged cross part way to Calvary to pay an incalculable price, in order to complete His earthly assignment. Regardless of whether Isaac was a child or an adult at this time, what believers are having confirmed, is that the tabernacle in heaven is the ‘sublime truth’, as is the unique divinity of Jesus. Many people believe that Sarah immediately died of shock knowing of the sacrificial intention of the two men she loved. Unfortunately Scriptures invariably do not mention any female children born to any luminary. I accept the possibility that following Sarah’s death. Possibly one of Sarah’s servants took her body from Beersheba to Hebron for embalming, because it was not known how long Abraham would be gone, and Sarah’s body would quickly decompose in the heat. Sarah died at 127 years of age. 38.8 years after first meeting the Holy Trinity (Genesis Ch 18).
Scriptures are silent over Abraham’s walk with God following Sarah’s death, but Abraham would have continued to circumcise his sons by his second wife Keturah on the eighth day of their birth, and taught the children of their marriage of the personal need for dependence on The Lord for their future well-being. Abraham’s Keturah bore him six sons, who initially inhabited the lands in which Ishmael’s children (the half brothers of Isaac) lived. Abraham gave gifts to of cattle and sheep all of his sons before commissioning, blessing and sending them eastwards together (as a forerunner to the Exodus), for their better protection from marauders, accompanied by their wives and children, and their flocks and herds to the lands of the east (Genesis Ch 25:6).
What a breathtaking handed down oral account of Arab proselytising occurring in Satan’s fortresses over many centuries. My reader must realise that endemic Arab nationals were and are more comfortably received by their Islamic neighbours, when speaking of The Lord’s covenantal love, than are despised Jews or the overbearing Western Christians, a truism that would have been doubly more effective after Christ’s supernatural ministry, supported by supernatural healings and appearances of Christ, no doubt through fervent prayer of the Arab saints, despite the continuing humiliating persecution.
From Genesis Ch 24:3-4 we can know that Abraham undoubtedly received a revelatory word of knowledge, that Isaac was to marry Rebecca the niece of Abraham’s brother Nahor (Genesis Ch 22:20-23). Within three years of Sarah’s death Isaac married Rebecca, who travelled from Paddan Aram to meet and marry Isaac in Canaan. It was 20 years into Isaac’s marriage to Rebecca before she became pregnant with twins. On enquiring of God concerning the babies jostling so much in her womb, The Lord told Rebecca that of the contesting foetuses’ the eldest child would be the servant of the younger child. Abraham died before Isaac fathered the twins and must have wondered if The Lord was faithful to deliver His promises. At Abraham’s death Isaac inherited the great wealth of his father and his business connections, but soon afterwards Genesis Ch 26:2-6 reports a severe famine. The Lord appeared to Isaac and forbade him to go to Egypt and reiterated the promise He had given to Abraham of an inheritance of all the land through which Isaac was to travel, whilst promising him descendants as numerous as the stars. Isaac travelled to Gerar with probably double the number of herdsmen, their families and the flocks and herds than had accompanied Abraham many years earlier.
The effect on the population and the palace officials in Gerar must have been similar to the shock of Abraham’s sojourning so close to the palace many years before. Isaac asked of King Abimelech, that the treaty made with his father Abraham be honoured. Isaac was granted permission to use the city wells for his household and his flocks, and to settle and plant crops. Isaac became very rich because all his crops yielded a one-hundred-fold increase, which meant that his flocks and herds were well-fed and multiplied. Out of envy the Philistines pressured Isaac into leaving Philistia, by backfilling the wells to prevent Isaac’s herds and flocks from obtaining water. Isaac decided to move from the city environs into the Gerar valley but still his household were forced to move further away from the capital city by the jealous attitude of the Philistine herdsmen who backfilled other wells. Isaac’s herdsmen dug three wells as they retreated through the Gerar valley towards Beersheba. They finally dug a well (at Rehoboth) far enough away from the herdsmen of Gerar to satisfy them that their livelihood was not threatened. Isaac had followed in the footsteps of his father in planting wells as a symbol that Canaan was later to belong to the confederation of Israelite tribes. The seven wells dug by Abraham’s herdsmen, symbolised The Lord’s seal of tenancy and with the three wells dug by the herdsmen of Isaac (who never set foot outside the Promised Land) making ten wells altogether symbolised The Lord’s seal of completion. Isaac was rewarded by The Lord for his fortitude and wisdom in not reacting to the humiliating treatment by the herdsmen of Gerar through his own herdsmen finding water at a well he named as ‘Beersheba’ (the seventh well, the well of The Lord’s approval and confirmation of the oath made an honoured by Abraham and King Abimelech, Genesis Ch 21:31). The Lord appeared to Isaac (for a second time) and confirmed the promises made to His father Abraham, of which Isaac must often have heard his father speak.
King Abimelech believed that the supernatural God that Abram and Isaac followed was faithful to all who put their trust in Him. King Abimelech once again returned to Beersheba, to extend the earlier treaty between the patriarchs, but on this occasion with Isaac. Out of gratitude for the confirmation of the promises fulfilled, Isaac built an altar of worship to The Lord at Beersheba. It is impossible to out give The Lord, which was why the well at Beersheba proved so bountiful for many years (Genesis Ch 26:23-33). There were no further droughts in Canaan until Joseph’s second seven year period as PM of Egypt. The twin boys, Esau and Jacob were born and raised in Beersheba. Isaac moved his family to Hebron, presumably when the well at Beersheba ran dry. On reaching the age of 40 years Esau, who founded the Edomite nation, married two Hittite wives, and later a daughter of Ishmael. In between these marriages Jacob, obtained by trickery the birthright that Esau had belittled so many years earlier.
Jacob received his father’s inheritance of birthright, through Rebecca resorting to feminine wiles. She disapproved of Esau’s choice of wives and constantly recalled God’s explanation to her during her pregnancy that the older brother would serve the younger (Genesis Ch 25:23), and chose to resort to the deception of her husband Isaac, in order to see that prophecy fulfilled, not realising that The Lord’s calling overruled any earthly tradition, or preference by mankind. Rebecca could not know that the main blessing was on the fruit of Jacob’s loins. I presume that Esau’s in-laws were offended at the ‘flying in the face’ of tradition which caused Esau to move his home to Edom. Rebecca was told of Esau’s vowed intention to kill Jacob for the trickery and abuse of tradition performed against him, and suggested to Isaac that he command Jacob to go to Paddan Aram and marry one of her brother Laban’s daughters, to which Jacob submitted. In obedience to Isaac’s wishes, 93 year old Jacob set out to seek his bride, (yes Jacob was 93! He fathered his first child Reuben at 100 years of age, the same age that Abraham had been on fathering Isaac, see page 65). Jacob slept overnight at Luz. having received a revelatory dream in which I assume The Lord appeared at the top of a ladder (or escalator, the stairway to heaven) connecting heaven to Earth on which angels were ascending and descending. The Lord vowed to bless Jacob and his offspring, and all the peoples of the Earth through his descendants (Genesis Ch 28:13-15). Jacob constructed a pillar, over which he poured oil of anointing, as confirmation of his oath of obedience that was favourably remembered by The Lord in later years (Genesis Ch 31:13). On awakening the following morning, Jacob renamed Luz as Bethel (meaning the house of God). Later Israel built an altar in Bethel, where he was commanded to settle his family (Genesis Ch 35:1). Many years later Bethel became the place where the sacrificial flocks and herds of the Judaic sacrificial system were penned.
Jacob agreed to work for Laban for seven years, in return for Rachel’s hand in marriage. On completion of the agreement and Jacob insisting on his rights, a marriage feast was prepared. Jacob found through substitutionary trickery on awakening in his marriage bed that his marriage partner was Rachel’s elder sister Leah. It can be seen that each of the patriarchs had married Indo/Iranian wives from their own family background. Rachel and Jacob did marry a week later. Leah Jacob’s ‘unloved’ wife bore him six sons, three of whom he disinherited when bestowing his deathbed blessings on his sons. Jacob prophesied to his children on his deathbed in Egypt, that his children’s descendants would settle in Canaan (Genesis Ch 49:1-7). Jacob had expressed no desire to return to his Canaan homeland, but following Joseph’s birth the first words to Laban were that he wished to return; regardless of the fact that Esau might carry out his vowed intention to kill him. Jacob was persuaded to stay longer in return for a share of the flocks. Whilst negotiating the cost for his further hire Jacob remembered a recent dream in which The Lord had shown him how he would receive the true rewards for his labour (Genesis Ch 31:10-13), having been tricked into fulfilling a further period for the hand of his beloved Rachel. It was agreed that the goats and sheep that were streaked, speckled, or spotted and looked inferior would belong to Joseph. Over the following six breeding seasons Jacob watched The Lord confirm His promise to readdress Laban’s trickery (Genesis Ch 31:11). Jacob was quite astute and each year exchanged some of his livestock with other traders for cows donkeys and camels. These other animals during their breeding season also produced young that thrived. Jacob became a rich man, as can be seen from the gifts he gave to Esau (Genesis Ch 32:14-15). Jacob realised that Laban’s selfish and demanding attitude was a family trait, and following the six breeding seasons overheard Laban’s sons complaining out of jealousy of Jacob’s changed circumstances that Jacob had taken much of what would have been their inheritance. He prayed to The Lord for wisdom over this impasse, and was commanded to return to his homeland, where The Lord would protect him from harm. Jacob told his wives Rachel and Leah of The Lord’s provision and of what The Lord now commanded. They were aware of their brothers resentment over Jacob’s improved circumstances, and of their father’s meanness, having in effect sold them, his daughters as wages to Jacob. Unitedly they agreed to flee to Canaan.
Jacob sent his wives and concubines across the Jabbok River with their 11 children. 93 year old Jacob wrestled all night with the anthropomorphic deism that was probably God the Father. It is logical to believe that the earlier deity encounter was now blessing Jacob with his special name Israel, and of his descendants, who were first known as Hebrews and later Israelites. In explanation his heavenly opponent said the blessing was given, “because you have struggled with God and with men and overcome adversity”. Jacob named the place of the crossing of the Jabbok River as Peniel, which means the ‘face of God’. Jacob’s meeting with his twin brother Esau and the preparation leading up to the appeasing of the wrath of Esau resulted in genuine pleasure at the restoration of their earlier relationship. The twin brothers resolved their differences, and I believe Jacob to have then spent eight days in building booths for his family and his livestock at Succoth (Genesis Ch 33:17), being the forerunner of the Feast of Booths or Tabernacles, for Jacob ‘tarried’ in Succoth. Jacob was revealing The Lord’s will in that he was the forerunner of Moses as shepherd of The Lord’s flock, and of the son of David as the shepherd of the elect, until the Son of God was sent. On leaving Succoth Jacob moved on to Shechem, where he bought some land on which he settled his family and his flocks for six years, when Rachel again became pregnant. She was as distraught as her sister Leah had been to hear that Dinah, Leah’s daughter, had been raped by the infatuated ruler’s son of Shechem.
Following the retributive slaughter of the Shechemite males by Simeon and Levi (two of Leah’s sons) and the taking of the Shechemite wives, children, animals and the contents of their homes as plunder (Genesis Ch 34), Jacob became very alarmed. On his deathbed Jacob (Israel) claimed this ‘honour killing’ as having been a battle for the land (Genesis Ch 48:22), which he bequeathed to Joseph). Rachel was well into her second pregnancy, and Jacob, knowing that the Perizzites (that I believe to be close relatives of the Shechemites, but living outside the city’s environs) would seek revenge by attacking and destroying Jacob’s family. On praying to The Lord for guidance, God spoke into the situation and commanded Jacob to first get rid of all his family’s acquired foreign gods, and paraphernalia; thus purifying themselves. Jacob then move his family and herds to Bethel where he built an altar on the site of the pillar Jacob had anointed 20 years earlier. Being aware of Isaac’s impending death, The Lord knew that Jacob’s family would travel to the patriarch’s homestead in Hebron, far enough away from the Perizzites to avoid retribution. He also knew that the upheaval would cause the death of Rachel. Jacob’s family camped in Bethel, where Jacob built the altar as commanded. At the same time a messenger was hastening to tell Jacob of the death of Isaac. Jacob’s family hastened to Hebron, but as they were passing through Bethlehem Rachel went into labour and died during the delivery of her second son Benjamin. I believe we were being shown that for the beloved children of God (the pupil of God’s eye), the tribal mother had to be buried, in order to arise as the supernatural manna to sustain her beloved children. It is on dying to self and being buried as a kernel of wheat, Jacob buried Rachel in Bethlehem (the house of bread), following which the two brothers buried their father Isaac in the family tomb in Hebron. Less is recorded of the third patriarchal wife in the Scriptures, but she through her ‘reign’ had the greatest significance. In that she figuratively until Christ died became the manna supplied in the wilderness, through dying in Bethlehem (the House of Bread) and being planted in the earth (John Ch 12 24). The Lord had always intended including amongst the Hebrews the more peaceable humble females of Egypt (where Sarai’s servant Hagar was born) and Ur from where Abraham, Bilhah and Zilpah, the concubines of their mistresses’ shared husband Jacob were born and birthed their children, with the Canaanite children of Judah.
Joseph and Benjamin were the children born out of love to Jacob (Israel) and Rachel. I believe I received a revelatory word of knowledge that similar to Jesus having spoken at the Temple aged 12, Joseph likewise was 12 years of age, when, following the death of his grandfather Isaac, he received a revelatory dream and interpretation, in which his sheaf of corn rose up whilst his half-brothers sheaves bowed down before him. Following a second dream in which the implication was that his parents also would bow down before him, on recognising his future importance to The Lord. The hatred of his half-brothers was already festering, for it was clear that their father loved Joseph more than any of them. In telling them of this second dream, Joseph increased their jealously further. This resulted in the brothers, who were grazing the flocks at Shechem, at Judah’s suggestion, selling their 17-year-old half-brother into slavery in Egypt. Shortly afterwards Judah (the fourth son born to Leah, Jacob’s first wife) married the daughter of Shua a Canaanite from who Adullam who bore him three sons. The eldest son Er married Tamar of Adullam (who I believe to have been a younger sister of Judah’s wife, but definitely a Canaanite women). The story is featured in Genesis Ch 38. Judah became the father of his daughter-in-laws twins, Perez and Terah.
At 30 years of age Joseph, through his prophetic gifting and interpretation, was appointed by Pharaoh as PM of Egypt. He was 38 years of age on first seeing his brothers again, on their journeying to Egypt to buy emergency food supplies. Because Joseph was dressed and spoke as an Egyptian, his brothers did not recognise him. This confirms to me that believers must separate themselves from those whom they recognise as peaceable neighbours who have no affiliation to The Lord (nor wish to be identified with His promises). In obedience to the PM's command, Benjamin the younger brother accompanied his brothers on their second journey to obtain further emergency food supplies. It is my belief that Joseph was 38.8 years old when revealing his identity. In Genesis Ch 49:29-32 Jacob gave Joseph instructions to bury his body in the family tomb in Hebron along with the patriarchal forefathers, and their wives. Joshua Ch 24:32 states that Joseph’s bones that were brought out of Egypt in an ossuary, were buried at Shechem, in the field purchased by his father Jacob from Hamor son of Shechem, which became the capital city of the descendants of Joseph’s two sons Manasseh and Ephraim.
Abraham’s spiritual family tree is symbolising the Jew as a natural olive tree which is holy Israel (Romans Ch 11:16). It is the Gentiles, as the wild olives who as spiritual branches (descendants) are grafted into the body of Christ. Dendrologists have discovered that the olive tree is the only tree that is not capable of accepting a grafting from any tree other than the wild olive tree. There is only one eternal bride of Christ and she is the Church of Christ (both Jew and Gentile). However the Gentile is not the natural olive tree but an ingraft, the Gentile does not have a greater claim on God’s promises. Clearly mankind as the bride of Christ includes both Jew and Gentile.
In the first Chapter I concentrated on what I believed to have been The Lord’s focus on first creating the angels, and then the Planetarium that became the universe, before homing in on His garden that became Planet Earth. He filled the garden with a various breeds of animals and vegetation, before concentrating on His masterpiece, an animal unlike any others, made in His own image, who would worship Him in gratitude. The omniscient, omnipotent God was aware that through granting free-will humankind would rebel at what they would consider a restriction on their actions. After several generations God found in Abram a man who was prepared to be unquestioningly obedient and faithfully follow God’s dictates and believe in His promises of patriarchal fatherhood. The House of Israel that would extend throughout the Earth was birthed, and the family of God, although imperfect, did recognise the one true God, and Joseph their brother as their kinsman redeemer. There was still much work of discipleship to be done to a greater community, but the foundations were in place. The Israelite tribes were established through the 70 members of Jacobs family that migrated into Egypt. Their numbers swelled with the inclusion of the tribal descendants of Manasseh and Ephraim, whose mother was Egyptian. Joseph was summonsed by his dying father to bring his two sons to receive their inherited blessings from their grandfather. Joseph tried to correct ‘Israel’ giving the primogeniture blessing of the firstborn son to Ephraim the younger brother of Manasseh. Jacob gently prophesied that his two grandsons, were to be blessed as if they had been created from Jacob’s own loins by becoming leaders of the two largest Israelite tribes, but the younger would be better blessed than his elder brother. Jacob renounced the eldest son Reuben’s birthright, and that of Leah’s next in line two sons and spoke the blessing of the first-born over Judah her fourth son.
All Jacob’s other sons received their prophetic blessings, with Judah being told that he was the Lion of Judah bearing the sceptre of ownership of the land of Judah, until Jesus’ Second Coming when the sceptre would pass to Christ (Genesis Ch 49:10).
“You are the lion’s cub, the Lion of Judah, from whom the sceptre would not depart until it was handed on to the one it was designed for.” (paraphrased)
Until that time there would always be a continuous Jewish presence in the Promised Land. I consider this to mean that not all Diaspora Jews of the final generation would make aliyah. Jacob then transferred the earthly and spiritual birthright of patriarch to Joseph prophesying in Genesis Ch 48:21-22:
“God will take you back to the land of your fathers, the patriarchs, and as the senior of your brothers, I bequeath to you the land of Shechem, which I won from the Amorites through battle.” (paraphrased)
Following Israel’s death the Hebrews trusted in the words of their first kinsman redeemer Joseph. I can only imagine that it was the act of worship and customs living a community life in Goshen, that separated the two cultures. Today Ephraim is the spiritual head of the ten northern tribes scattered throughout the world, who through intermarriage are now absorbed into the Gentile family of nations.
The Lord’s blessing had been a split spiritual inheritance between the 70 members of Jacob’s House, who had settled in Egypt as a race of economic refugees, together with other non-Jews with whom they may have intermarried over the 400-year sojourn in Egypt. The Egyptians were not a Semitic people, having developed from a tribal people who migrated from Mesopotamia.
I wrote earlier of Dr Gerald Schroeder’s calculation reconciling the apparent great age of the universe and the six days of Creation from The Lord’s perspective. The 15,000,000,000 years since the explosion, divided it by the rate of expansion 1,000,000,000,000 which totals 015 and by multiplying the 365 days of a year by.015 (015 x 365), which equals approximately 6 (six 24 hour) days. From God’s perspective being outside of time, the two periods are identical!! What is seemingly truthful is not necessarily the whole truth. I have also written of the dichotomy between the observant Christian, and those who accept that Biblical interpretation of earlier colophons and the re-writing of Old Testament Scriptures, sometimes centuries later by skilled redactors, under the direction of Rabbinical Judaism bias, which are inaccurate at best and deceitful in its lack of integrity. Rabbinic Judaism accentuates that one day a Messiah will be born (to human parents) commissioned by God as a crusading victorious king, who they refer to as the ‘son of David’. They refer to the suffering servant as the ‘son of Joseph’ and alternatively as ‘Israel in exile’. The Rabbinic Judaisers do not acknowledge that Jesus is the (divine) Messiah and forbid their race from reading the New Testament. I wrote briefly that Cain and Abel were twins, and that bestiality and homosexuality was forbidden by God (page 20). I wrote my reasons for believing that the Adamic language, pigmentation of skin and bone structure had been universal until the geological upheaval that followed the Flood, or the confusion of languages at Babel, when the tribes separated across the globe.
· The world had been hermetically sealed by the ice canopy, experiencing a universally controlled temperature and only one season (page 11) until the Flood. No rain had fallen, no winds had blown, no earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods or tempests had occurred in this mild in this temperate climate.
· Distinctive differences in pigmentation of skin, racial characteristics and bone structure in the build of humans that would segregate from this time forth inhabiting climactically different regions. All changes not only of languages and geological variation, but of breeds started following the removal of the ice-canopy and have increasingly altered ever since (see page12).
· The alternative to accepting that The Lord was realigning society and its future behaviour from this point, is to believe that The Lord had altered the male reproductive sperm cells before the Flood. I am puzzled that Biblical genealogists, have studiously ignored the possibility that Noah’s sons had married three half-castes with yellow, black or brown skins. Like many scriptural analysts I had puzzled over racial differences, pigmentation of skin and bone structure being markedly different (i.e. of pygmies, Suma wrestlers and other proportional differences). It does appear from Genesis Ch 10:6-20 that the children of Ham (whose name in Hebrew means ‘black skinned’), were selected to introduce black pigmentation, Canaan white, and Mizraim yellow. It is known from 1 Peter Ch 3:20, that no children of Noah’s three sons were present in the ark. They were not born until the parents disembarked.
· Ham is named second of the brothers, although he was the youngest child (Genesis Ch 5:32). Why is this so? I assume that the other sons of Ham were older than Canaan as he is named as the fourth son in Genesis Ch10:6.
I suggest that it is a reasonable assumption that Noah’s wife, and the wife of Ham had died before Canaan reached his teens, but the libido of Noah and Ham had not diminished. Within the confines of a private tent the reader is being advised that probably grief over his wife’s death caused Noah to suffered melancholia and rely upon alcohol as a sleeping therapy.
That Ham ‘saw’ his father ‘uncovered’ (meaning ‘flawed’ or ‘imperfect’, or ‘laid bare’ which in Hebrew translates as Hithpael) meaning that Ham ‘recognised’ (or identified with the behavioural pattern, that he may well have shared with his father). Ham may have harboured paedophilic tendencies that he imposed on his youngest son. The conduct of Noah led to the distinctive intent for which Noah had entered his tent. Ham may have tricked his father into seduction, but following the event Ham spoke disparagingly and degradingly of his father; in that he ‘told’ his brothers of their father’s (non-consenting to more extreme) behaviour. Perhaps my next assumption is unreasonable, my reader will have to discern for themselves. My conjecture is that Ham committed incest with his son Canaan (probably after Canaan’s wife died), but the relationship led to a psychological change in Canaan’s behaviour in future life, which was why his affliction was cursed, and not his rebellion in conforming to cultural tribal behaviour. My reasoning is reinforced in the knowledge that not all Canaanites were slain by the Hebrews on entering the Promised Land as demanded by The Lord, and that is why the ‘affliction’ was not stamped out, in fact some Jews today are themselves homosexual.
There is also the suggestion that Ham tried to coerce his blameless brothers into accepting the behavioural tendencies that he exhibited concerning the latest sexual experimentation as ‘normal’ or acceptable behaviour. I believe Ham to have been effeminate, possibly a trait that surfaced on the death of his wife. The brothers were of one mind how to react to Ham’s cajoling in refusing to respond to the recognition of their father’s weakness of character, as rebellion against God. They saw their father’s temporary withdrawal from mainstream activity as being caused through a mind befuddled by alcohol and grief. That Shem and Japeth clothed their father without comment or question, implies that they knew that their father had been taken advantage.
It is unknown how many years had passed after disembarking from the Ark before Noah’s inebriation. It is likely that Noah had become a lonely widower at the time of his weakness being recognised. I suspect that Noah may have fallen into the guilty of Onan’s sin of ‘onanism’ (for which Onan’s life was taken from him because he had never repented of his evil disrespect of tribal culture, Genesis Ch 38:7-10).
A single issue of disobedience was emphasised more graphically in the eradication of Achan and any patriarchal succession he might have enjoyed, through the inclusiveness of his ancestors with the tribes of Judah in the eternal kingdom of God (read Joshua Ch 7). It follows that the sin of Onan and Achan were not irremovable as a tribal genetic defect if repented of.
On hearing the cursing of Canaan, the brothers, who may have known earlier of Ham’s sexual tendencies, knew that Noah had been tricked by Ham. As they heard Noah’s blessings poured out on themselves, they would have had confidence in their father’s deep repentance of this engineered situation.
Reading between the lines, I sense that Noah and Ham came to their senses and repented, perhaps through some wise counselling by Shem and Japeth. That the other grandsons of Noah were not cursed, is evidence that all the tribal descendants of Ham’s children were not carrying a second hereditarily transmitted gene (as had been the gene of ‘original sin’), passed down ancestrally on all races. I believe that only the rebellious who mock conformity to social and moral behaviour, and chose the same rebellious path as did Cain and Canaan would become so incontrovertibly stained, that their behaviour would infect those who embraced unacceptable discordant social behaviour patterns, and not the whole of their ancestral tribe who indignantly would choose to live in conformity to the moral standards of the prevalent culture. Canaan’s hegemony stains those who follow his (repented of) rebellious defect, retained in his memory but overcome throughout his life, for otherwise how could The Lord forgive the penitent reforming sinner?
If not eradicated in the global life-span in which the sin became an ‘acceptable practice’, such sin without repentance and turning from, will certainly become an insurmountable barrier to entry into the eternal kingdom. Further confirmation is that almost every ‘genetically dysfunctional Canaanite’ chose to live in the Canaanite cities of Sodom and Gomorrah (which means ‘the lowest place’, a place where only the unrighteous dwell). God eradicated these cities of iniquity, but not all rebellious Canaanites lived in those cities, and their homosexual tendencies have continued to blight the lives of later generations.
The only wholesome outcome of this episode was the knowledge that Japeth’s ‘descendants’ may live in the tents of Shem. In modern parlance that means that the ‘born-again’ Gentile believer may live in a brotherly relationship with the Messianic Jew in the Kingdom of God on Earth. While considering sodomy and paedophilia in parallel with lesbianism, and the choosing of the selfish values of human avarice, Lot in opting for the best grazing land acquired legally the land that in a future time would be inhabited by Abram’s descendants. More emphatically Biblical, the Gentile has been ingrafted into the olive tree, whilst former ‘chosen’ ones have been cut off.
· My second controversial, but paramount argument is the choosing of Lot’s family to reside in the sin city of Sodom. This only confirms that they were ‘out’ to receive the benefits of everything readily available to the ‘appreciative; of that generation. Today the world would say that they were ‘up for it’, which is where the lost are today. Sodom was a city, wholly given over to unrighteous homosexuality (Genesis Ch 13:13), the citizens did as they saw right in their own eyes. The Lord saw that the thoughts of the hearts of the men of Sodom were only evil all of the time (Genesis Ch 6:5). From Genesis Ch 18 it can be seen that the grievous sin of Sodom was that both male and female were engaging in homosexual acts. The sin of the homosexuals of Sodom was of performing hedonistic detestably sinful acts before the Lord, and not just the self-centredness expressed in Ezekiel Ch 16:49.
· I am sure that Lot’s wife was not turned into a pillar of salt by The Lord for looking back in disobedience, but of having looked back regretfully at the lifestyle she was leaving. Lot’s two daughters practiced the same deception on their father, as had Ham on Noah, believing that their family line would come to an end unless they took drastic action for themselves. Moses was forbidden to attack the tribes of the descendants of Lot (Deuteronomy Ch 2:9, 19), confirming that it was the unnatural sexual act through anal sex and lesbianism that is detestable to The Lord, and was not an unforgivable hereditary weakness.
· The regret of Lot’s wife was as the murmurings of the Israelites, expressed in Exodus Ch15:24. For they looked back and said that even as slaves they had eaten salmon from the River Nile, cucumbers, melons, leeks, garlic and onions without cost, for such food products was readily available. Now the Israelites survived on spiritually supplied manna, a type of coriander seed, sticky to the touch and unappetising to look at. When Moses ground the golden calf into a solution of water, and forced the Israelites to drink the words of their complaint into their stomachs (Exodus Ch 19:20), we were being shown a parallel from Matthew Ch 27:26 that the blood of the Hebrew Messiah, who the Orthodox Rabbinic Jews had condemned to death, was on their heads.
· There is a further anomaly, this one concerning the age of Jacob when he started his journeying. When questioned by the pharaoh in Genesis Ch 47:9 Jacob told the pharaoh that he was 130, when in fact he was 148 years of age. Genesis Ch 35:28 states that Isaac was 180 years of age at his death. It can be read in Genesis Ch 25:26 that Isaac was 60 years of age at the birth of his twin sons, therefore the twins were 120 years of age at the death of their grandfather. Joseph was sold into slavery in Egypt at the age of 17 years and at the age of 30 years he became PM of Egypt. It can be calculated that nine years later, (two years into the famine Genesis Ch 45:6) that Jacob was 120 years of age, plus the 39 years that Joseph had lived, that is 28 years later, (on subtracting the 11 years that Joseph had lived in two homes in Canaan, firstly at Shechem and secondly at Bethel), which confirms my assertion that Jacob was 148 years of age on entering Egypt.
· The results of extrapolation in reverse from the death of Isaac provide interesting information. Jacob had returned to Israel from Canaan six or seven years earlier (calculated from the six years Joseph had lived in Paddan Aram following the birth of Joseph, plus the six or seven years he had lived at Shechem, from the revelation received that Joseph had been 12/13 years of age at his grandfather Isaac’s death). Having spent 20 years in Paddan Aram, it becomes obvious that Isaac would have been 153/54 years of age on his commanding his 92/93-year old son Jacob to travel to Paddan Aram to marry one of Isaac’s nieces. My extrapolation may seem pernickety, but I am determining truths concerning the patriarchs of the Christian faith. Please do not misunderstand me, I am not writing of one's faith in Scriptures being built on sand, or of redemption being founded on an unrealistic dogmatic belief that the Scriptures are inerrant. I believe that through the numerical alphabetic code contained in the Bible code, certain errors have been allowed by The Lord to have been transposed by redactors, because the alterations have not altered the coded message. The essential qualification is that any errors do not interfere with the Bible code, written by The Lord, to enable devout believers to have no doubt over the identity of the true author of the 66 Books of the Bible. The Bible is contradictory in some parts, and not all passages give a fulfilled picture. The Source behind the Scriptures is infallible even if the redactors are not. My readers will not lose their inheritance of salvation through agreeing with my conclusions. I am anxious to cause every believer to search the Bible for themselves, as did the Bereans (Acts Ch 17:11) and not to accept unquestioningly what they read or is preached to them.
· The most fascinating truths to emerge from the extrapolations are that Jacob had been 100 years old on fathering his first son Reuben, the same age that Abraham had been on fathering Isaac. Jacob had been 92/93 years of age when he experienced his anthropomorphism of the stairway between heaven and earth (Moses had been 80 years of age when he experienced his anthropomorphism of the burning bush).
· It is obliquely recorded that Jacob fathered Joseph after working for Laban for 14 years, (and then worked for Laban for a further 6 years to secure his own flock (Exodus Ch 31:41). At the time of fathering Joseph Jacob was 107 years of age.
One other feature not fully explained before the Exodus from Egypt that is a conundrum is that Joseph lived with his family presumably at Goshen, which must have been within easy access to Pharaoh’s palace, in order to discuss national policies regularly with the pharaoh. Later Moses was also able to confront the Pharaoh of his day early each morning during the period of the plagues Exodus Ch 8:20, Ch 9:8, 13, Ch 10:1, without many hours of travelling.
Jacob moved into Goshen because his favourite but long lost son Joseph lived in this district of Rameses in the region of Zoan, and from Genesis Ch 47:6 it is known that pharaoh’s livestock grazed here.
After c400 years Goshen grew from a tent town of 70 relatives into an impressive city of c603,550 men together with their wives and children, probably between two to three million people in total. (from the census of men over 20 years of age, Exodus Ch 38:26, Numbers Ch 1:46). I understand that the tent city designed in the wilderness would have needed to be 750 square miles in extent, without counting the pens for the cattle of each tribe. Therefore Goshen and its environs must have been a formidable size and was probably a walled city in order to keep out predators. No doubt the shepherds had weapons to protect the pharaoh’s flocks and his herds as well as the livestock belonging to the Hebrew tribes. Initially Jacob’s family were one household, but 400 years later I suggest that the Hebrews had split into tribal communities, perhaps living in separated but close community, as they continued to do throughout the wilderness wanderings. The main difference being that the Hebrews had formerly lived in brick houses, and had built a hospital with a pre and post natal clinic a funeral parlour and public square (see Exodus Ch 4:29) from which official notices were proclaimed and worship was conducted. Quite possibly after many years the tribes had separate cemeteries and public squares because the 750 square miles of occupation (at least) was too large for whole communities to gather at a central point. That the pharaoh was able to locate the two midwives, who ministered to every tribe, confirms that the Hebrews were not spread throughout Egypt, and that their slavery was confined to the district of Rameses only. It would seem to me that Goshen was a Hebrew city (today we would call such a conurbation a ghetto) in which the Egyptian people would choose not to live. If my summations are correct, it is understandable why the pharaoh was intimidated by a foreign fortressed city so close to his palace. It is not recorded how long the severe oppression lasted, but Exodus Ch 7:7 tells us that Aaron was three years older than Moses, therefore the period of enforced slavery was less than three years, which must be added to the 80 years, prior to Moses’ commission. Manasseh and Ephraim lived in Goshen as part of Jacob’s family, which over the 400 year period developed into large tribes.
· The Israelites appear to have ceased working for Pharaoh once the magicians could no longer emulate The Lord’s miracles by trickery. How long the latter plagues continued is not recorded, but from Exodus Ch 12:1-13 it seems reasonable to assume that the plagues lasted 14 days. The first day of which marked a new beginning for the Israelites. I also believe that in The Lord’s mercy and judgement that the plagues were confined to the district of Rameses, rather than traversing the whole of Egypt, for a wider collection of materials could not have been made in the time scale available.
To fulfil the promise made to Abram in Genesis Ch 15:14, in Exodus Ch 3:21 The Lord put the thought in the heads of the Egyptian families who lived in the district of Rameses to give generously of their articles of silver and gold and clothing to the former despised slaves of pharaoh (and yet it clearly and repeatedly states in Exodus Ch’s 8-11 that all Egypt will suffer the plagues). In Exodus 11:2 The Lord commanded Moses to tell his charges to ask the Egyptians in the neighbouring villages and towns for offerings of articles of silver and gold and clothing. Verse 3 is written in parenthesis, perhaps as an explanation of how the gifts were passed on to the Israelites, for it states that pharaoh’s officials and the Egyptian people (of this district of Rameses) highly regarded Moses. It is reasonable to assume that pharaoh’s officials arranged for transportation of such goods on ox-drawn carts to Goshen on the day preceding the night of Passover, which could have been completed the following morning. It would not have been possible to collect gifts from the whole of Egypt in the limited time available. The collection must have been a district-wide undertaking, which was completed before the Israelites departed Goshen. What these Egyptian households were coping with the morning following the night the angel of death visited every household may have been a dead husband lying in bed beside a distraught wife, or an eldest son similarly smitten. Such a horrendous and dispassionate event must have meant that The Lord had extended the hardening of Pharaoh’s heart, to His own heart, in order to complete His wrath.
I have questioned many scholars over what they believe happened to the 400 prophets of Asherah, that with the 450 prophets of Baal were summonsed to contest with Elijah on Mount Carmel (1 Kings Ch 1819)? Needless to say my scholarly friends have never been able to provide a satisfactory answer. The witnesses were commanded to seize the prophets of Baal and drag them to the Kishon Valley, where Elijah slew them (v56). Was any reference to the 400 prophets of Asherah omitted deliberately? Were they allowed to go free and continue to eat at Jezebel’s table, proselytising the Israelites and continuing to offer their worship to false gods? I am sure you must be aware that throughout this book you are faced with a controversial interpretation of what The Lord would like every disciple to have gleaned for himself.
Turning back to the matter of redactors and translators, the original translation into English transcribed into the NKJ has recorded the Sixth Commandment as “Thou shalt not kill.” The Hebrew word for kill is harag, but natzach is the word for murder and was what had been wrongly translated. The killing of animals is harag, but the killing of humans as crimes of passion is natzach, which was what was intended to be interpreted from the commandment. This was verified from Peter’s trance at Simon the Tanner’s house (Acts Ch 10:10-16), and that through the commanding of a disembodied voice calling out, “Rise Peter: kill and eat,” and following Peter’s protest “What God has cleansed you must not call common.” reveals that the killing of animals had not been the prohibitive command that The Lord had issued. Moses had interpreted The Lord’s command as “Thou shalt not maim or murder human beings intentionally through a crime of passion.” This is confirmed by The Lord in Deuteronomy Ch 19:21, that if an intentional death can be lain at the feet of a person or group of persons then: “Show no pity, a life for a life, an eye for an eye. a tooth for a tooth, a hand for a hand and a foot for a foot.”
But Oral Traditionalists have got it wrong!
This error of translation over centuries has led to the politicians in Christendom introducing ‘humane’ laws allowing intentional and unintentional deaths to be similarly dealt with in the Courts of Justice. The murderer of today has no fear of losing their own life, knowing that, if caught and found guilty, he or she will be imprisoned for a short period of time before release, when, they may often murder again, having no concern for society’s values. This same error of translation has led many into becoming pacifists, vegans and even violent animal rights protesters. Our lives are not our own (Jeremiah Ch 10:23), and the NKJ commands in Exodus Ch 20:13 “You shall not murder.”
Moses was born into serfdom to unnamed parents of the tribe of Levi. The Lord had appointed Moses, giving him the advantage of being taught, if not totally raised by his natural parents. Moses was groomed as being a personal servant of the Pharaoh’s daughter, but spent much time with his natural family, witnessing slave beatings and hearing of harrowing tales. Moses did not aspire to become the next Pharaoh, but he sensed he had been chosen by The Lord to free his people from slavery and become their leader if not their first king. He presumed by killing an Egyptian ill-treating an Israelite slave to be The Lord’s timings. Mortified the following day, by two Israelites fighting, who turned on him for interfering. They rejected him as ruler and judge, and realising that Pharaoh would make an example of him, he fled to what is how known as Saudi Arabia. It can be realised that he departed from his earlier faith, in that on marrying the daughter of a priest to a foreign god, he chose not to circumcise his two sons, Gershom and Eliezer. The Lord was unconcerned, for He had known in advance of Moses’ ‘aberration or presumption’. It was after a personal wilderness experience of 40 years that The Lord commissioned Moses (the only man The Lord ever acknowledged as a friend) into immediate activity, into 40 years of dedicated service on behalf of the House of Israel.
When receiving the anthropomorphism of the burning bush and his commission from The Lord, Moses protested that he stuttered and had low self-esteem. The Lord showed Moses some of His miraculous power, which He gave to Moses ( Exodus Ch 6:30-Ch 7 v 2). The Lord instructed Moses over a new religious calendar year starting from the time of the astronomical New Moon introducing the Spring season (Exodus Ch 12:1). This was to be the spiritual year was to start on the appearance of the New Moon in mid-March, lasting until the new moon formed in mid‑April. The Canaanite name for this month is Abib, which means ‘young head of grain’, later receiving the Hebrew name of Nisan. September (which would still start the agricultural or civil calendar) was no longer the first month, being of less importance. The Lord stated that on the 10th day of this first month a lamb was to be selected and hidden in the home (set apart), away from the eyes of the Egyptians, and slaughtered at twilight on the 14th day for the Passover meal.
It follows that any children resulting from the marriage of any half brother of Isaac or Joseph to a Canaanite or Mesopotamian bride, accompanying the House of Israel into Egypt. would also have qualified to become a Hebrew, and be accepted as an ‘Israelite’. Judah is one example, who fathered Canaanite children. Joseph, who fathered Manasseh and Ephraim by Asenath his Egyptian wife, whose father was Potiphera a priest of a territorial Egyptian god. Many other such marriages would have occurred during the 430 years of tarrying in Egypt. Moses was married to Zipporah, whose father was Jethro the Kenite, a priest to a Midianite god (Zipporah became being obedient to The Lord having circumcising her two sons, Exodus Ch 4:25.). The descendant relatives of Rachel, Asenath and Zipporah accepted the Hebrew God, by casting out their foreign gods. There would have been many other such marriages to Canaanites and Mesopotamian spouses that are not recorded in the Scriptures that had married what were first called Hebrews by the Pharaoh. That all became part of the Exodus from Egypt. I believe every nation was represented at Mount Sinai, when The Lord issuing His ten words (the Ten Commandments) at the theophany. 
Moses led the Israelite (Hebrew) tribes out of bondage in Egypt on Monday the 18th of Nisan following the high Sabbath day (Saturday the16th). The lambs were eaten on the Thursday (the 14th) and the tribes departed from Rameses on Friday the 15th of Nisan (the day after Passover (Numbers Ch 33:3). and this momentous undertaking was taken having endured three days of travelling and camping overnight in an unknown environment. It has been speculated that if 2-3 million people and animals crossed the Red Sea in one night, their formation must have been three-miles wide.
Fifty days after crossing the Red Sea the tribes reached Mount Sinai (at the beginning of the third month from having been instructed to select a sacrificial lamb. On day 47 after crossing the Red Sea, The Lord called Moses up the mountain, where He detailed the covenantal promises and stipulations detailed in the Book of Genesis. On Moses return he summoned the elders and repeated The Lord’s words, who confirmed their acceptance words “We will do everything the Lord has said.” Moses told The Lord of the elders acceptance and The Lord responded by telling Moses to consecrate all who had accompanied him from Egypt, instructing them to prepare themselves through washing their clothes and refraining from sexual relationships, and to gather at the foot of Mount Sinai to witness The Lord’s solemn promises to His people (Exodus Ch 19:5-25). Moses descended the mountain and told his people that Aaron his prophet was permitted to ascend with him to savour a special mountain-top experience. The Lord advised Moses of the Sabbath Laws to abstain from planting and harvesting crops every seventh year. This was primarily to give the poor and the wild animals The Lord’s overflowing abundance. Similarly the tribes were to observe the seventh-day of each week as a day of rest. This rest period was equally to allow the poor, the enslaved and alien to recover from six days of toil. The Lord gave instruction over the preparation of the celebration of the two seven-week harvestings and the three annual feasts (Exodus Ch 23 10:19). Following the reception of these additional codicils Moses wrote the Book of the Covenant (the Book of Genesis?), which on descending the mountain he read to the gathered people (Exodus Ch 24:4-8).
The Lord acted no differently from human kings in expecting to be magisterially obeyed by His subjects. The Lord instructed Moses to bring the 70 elders to meet Him formally, but to remain at a distance. Having experienced The Lord speaking His Commandments during what appeared to be a volcanic eruption without a lava flow, but the mountain trembled violently, and smoke billowed up as the accompanying loud trumpet blasts grew even louder. It states in Exodus Ch 24:1617 that the cloud appeared to the Israelites like a consuming fire, but was the glory of the Lord that always surrounds Him. The Israelites were fearful that as they had been forbidden to see the Lord as Moses and Aaron had done, even hearing The Lord personally would cause their death (Exodus Ch 20:19). They unitedly proposed that Moses should listen to The Lord’s commandments and act as their mediator. Individuals within the tribes accepted their commitment by saying: “We will be obedient to God’s demands and conditions.” (paraphrased from Exodus Ch 24:7).
Moses told the 70 elders to consecrate themselves and to accompany him to the summit of Mount Sinai, the priests and elders had to remain at a distance. Moses had told the people and their elders that The Lord was to send an angel before them on their attacking and eliminating the tribes in the lands The Lord had promised to the patriarchs as part of the covenant. I assume this meeting was to reassure the elders of His faithfulness to carry out His promises. The Lord did not raise His hand against them, revealing Himself to them in a theophany, after which the elders shared a meal before returning to the encampment. The omniscient God was aware when He commanded Moses stay on the mountain in order to receive the tablets bearing The Lord’s commandments that on the 40th day of Moses and Joshua, despite the Israelites receiving daily manna and water supernaturally, they would forsake both Moses and The Lord.
The Lord foreknew of the flagrant disobedience of His ‘chosen ones’, and told Moses of the people’s continuing disobedience in constructing the idol that was the golden calf, resulting in Moses leaving the mountain in haste, carrying the two tablets of the Testimony back to the Israelite camp and throwing them down in anger breaking them as symbolic of the disobedience of the tribes, NOT symbolising being blotted out of God’s book of life, but retribution. The Lord wanted to give the blue-print for the tabernacle (the Tent of the Lord’s Presence, aka the sanctuary) and its furnishings, and the details of priestly attire. Punishment and restitution was to be followed after repentance. Having heard Aaron’s weak explanation, Moses cried out for those who had remained true to draw their swords and 3,000 rebellious idol worshippers were slain by those Levites who had remained faithful, whilst an unknown number were struck down by a plague over a period of days as the Lord’s anger burned until the retribution for wholesale disobedience had been paid (Exodus Ch 32). Through this incident the Lord chose the tribe of Levi to serve Him at the tabernacle. Aaron showed a lack of leadership in that he listened to the criticism by all the tribes and their leaders of his brother Moses, many also from his own tribe of Levi. He agreed to their rebellious request and made the idol on their behalf. It should not pass unnoticed that Aaron was not even chastised, although following using unauthorised fire in the Tabernacle his priestly sons Nadab and Abihu were consumed by fire (see footnote 84). It is written in Exodus Ch 34:10-17 that following the tragic rebellion surrounding the golden calf incident, an early remission to the price that Jesus paid for mankind’s sins and the arrival of the Holy Spirit at the first Pentecost with the salvation of 3,000 souls (Acts Ch 2) was made. The Lord told Moses that if the Israelites were obedient in the future, He would drive out all the six warlike people groups from Canaan, but in the meantime the Israelites should not enter into treaties with any of these unholy tribal people.
Tradition has it that Moses ascended Mount Sinai to receive the second set of tablets on the first day of Elul, which marks the sacred 40-day period known as Teshuvah. The hiddenness that exists between the length of time from the first Teshuva, and the Rosh Hashana (Hebraic New Years Day, Tishrei 1, aka the head of the year, or the Feast of Trumpets) that followed the Confederation of Tribes first harvesting the food of the Promised Land, was of 14,000 days or 2,000 weeks, this 38.8 year period has proven to be significant. This celebration is an annual reminder to the Jew that he should obey the Torah, repenting and asking for forgiveness from all his sins of omission and commission. The 30 days of the month of Elul precede the ten Days of Awe (the High Holy Days), during which time the observant are meant to search their heart for any area of their life that has not been completely dealt with as far as offending others, and if situations are not resolved to make reparation. In Leviticus Ch 23:23 God commanded that a ‘Day of Rest’ was to be commemorated to mark the ending of the agricultural year. This ‘Day of Rest’ is the first of ten holy days of repentance, which is an annual reminder to the Jew that he should search his heart to ensure that all matters needing forgiveness had been repented of.
The sages believed that the confirmation of Moses narrating the Book of the Covenant to the 12 tribes of the Confederation was their acceptance of the terms of a covenant of marriage to The Lord, for their obedience as chosen ones (a holy separated priesthood in a predominantly unholy world). The two’ intended’ confirmed their vows of the ‘betrothal ceremony’ standing under the clouds of glory which covered the mountain. The canopy of clouds figuratively becoming the chupah (the wedding canopy), the formal wedding contract (the Ketuba) between The Lord and His people, which also signified acceptance of the Torah. The regal solemnity of this unique occasion was considered to be a legally binding procedure fulfilling the groom’s (The Lord’s) acceptance of the bride. The sages pointed out that the inauguration of the religious calendar opened the Spring season, with the almond trees blossoming. Moses as The Lord’s ‘best man’ had in effect presented The Lord as the bridegroom. The traditional Rabbinic proposal by the Hebrew suitor and acceptance of his offer of marriage to his beloved’s father. At the bride’s father’s satisfaction the offer was set before the intended bride with the traditional glass of wine, if accepting the proposal she drank the wine.
Traditionally following the formal agreement of the marriage partners the bridegroom-in-waiting would return to his father’s house to build an annexe or a home for his bride. On its completion his father would judge the timing of the marriage based on whether it was right to expect relatives and friends to spend a week in celebration perhaps with a harvesting of crops or a pilgrimage likely to take precedence. The bridegroom’s father would solely decide when was right for the wedding to take place. Hence the analogy that Jesus could not hasten the day of the wedding, it was totally in the hands of His Father. The date of the spiritual wedding (the Second Coming) was to be an undefined date, only known by the Father a date when He was satisfied that all conditions had been favourably fulfilled. One can see the close similarity with the Israelite marriage tradition when Jesus said in John Ch 14:3:
“I am going to My Father’s House to prepare a dwelling place for you, and will return at Our Father’s bidding.” (paraphrased)
The subsequent wedding ceremony is based on the exchange of vows reminiscent of the giving and reception of Torah. At a traditional Jewish wedding, the best man waits at the door of the wedding chamber, to hear from the bridegroom that the marriage has been consummated (with the breaking of the maidenhead and blood being shed). Until this point the bridegroom may insist on the bride-price being returned and the betrothal annulled. The best-man announces the completed betrothal between the two parties and the seven-day wedding festivities begin. Traditionally the bride becomes part of her husband’s family, and an extension is built in the family home to accommodate them.
On the first day of the second month of the second year from leaving Egypt (Numbers Ch 1:1), The Lord commanded Moses to carry out a census of all males. Non handicapped males over 20 years of age were to be separately listed if able to serve in the army. Precise instructions were also given of how the tribal camp was to be arranged around the Tent of Meeting (the Lord’s dwelling place), and over which order the tribes moved camp to a new location, and in which order the various tribes carried out their assignment at the sound of a trumpet blast. (Numbers Ch 2 and Ch 10). At sometime I have read that on including the pens for animals the land area necessarily required was 750 square miles, therefore the tribes had to be quickly responsive in their turn on moving camp. The Lord was concerned that the Israelites should know by units and divisions their battle formation for repelling marauding tribes, and for attacking enemy cities, for His objective was that the Israelites should invade Canaan.
With this in mind, on the 20th day, just 17 days later, the Lord held a series of trial runs. He lifted the cloud from the tabernacle causing the Israelites to break camp (Numbers Ch 10:11). The tribes formed into divisions in the order The Lord had decreed travelling (in battle formation, but slowly, owing to the accompanying families and flocks) from the Desert of Sinai until nightfall. The Israelites grumbled about the inconvenience caused by the uprooting. complaining that they were sick of manna and craved the food of Egypt. The Lord responded by consuming some of them by fire on the outskirts of the camp, naming the place in memory as Taberah. He commanded Moses to tell the Israelites to consecrate themselves for tomorrow they would eat meat, not only for one day but a whole month until they were sick of it. The following morning they broke camp but encamped later that same day, where a wind carried quail to the camp. All that night and the following day they gathered the quail, for their evening meal. With the meat between their teeth, the Lord in His anger sent a severe plague, many who had craved ‘other food’. In memory the camp where the dead were buried was named Kibroth Hattavah. The following day a bereaving community travelled to Hazeroth, where Aaron and Miriam opposed Moses not because of the discontent but because Moses had taken an unnamed Cushite wife. Some days later they broke camp, arriving at the Desert of Paran where the Lord commanded Moses to send a leader from each tribe on a 40 day exploratory expedition of Canaan (Numbers Ch 13). One would think that the everyone would be aware that The Lord demanded unquestioning obedience, and hated grumbling over His care and concern for them, but they seem to have learned nothing from their experiences.
The erection of the tabernacle, preceded the 12 leaders of the tribes, which included the two righteous men Joshua and Caleb, being sent to reconnoitre the land of Canaan. The group represented the Jew and the non-Jew, that would populate the kingdom of God (Caleb’s ancestors were the Edomites, Esau’s descendants). The group returned to their encampment bringing a selection of the fruit of Canaan. Caleb represented the non-Jew that would populate the kingdom of God (Caleb’s ancestors were the Edomites, Esau’s descendants). The ten rebellious leaders, reported of their trepidation in attacking such a fearsome and stronger looking people than their own group of tribes. The ten were immediately struck down and died of a plague, whilst the tribes were condemned to wander through the wilderness for 40 years, one year for each day that their tribal leaders had spied out the land. God punished that generation by sentencing the tribes to wander through the wilderness for 40 years. However they had already spent more than a year in the wilderness, which meant that a further 38.8 years (which amounts to 14,000 days), would pass before the tribes ate of the crops from their own planting; not that the tribes were aware if this. On Jesus healing the man infirm for 38 years of his life Jesus was obliquely revealing to the Israelites their tribal rejection of God’s command at Kadesh Barnea and His provision for the tribes and their failure to recognise Himself as the Son of that same God.
Every male over 20 years old would perish during the 40 year sentence, but their children would then enter into the Promised Land. The tribes did wander from place to place, but they went with The Lord living amongst them in His tabernacle. Almighty God had not deserted them, which must have reassured them each time they moved camp, for they were totally reliant on The Lord’s guidance (as per Exodus Ch 33:15-16). Although the tribes wandered between 40 differing places over the 40 years, the implication is that they spent a year at each encampment. The amount of vegetation and water that c6 million Hebrews, with their herds of cattle and sheep would need on a daily basis, not only to survive but to flourish, would have been phenomenal. The desert wilderness does not naturally provide long-term nourishment for its residents.
Moses had been given instruction that once the people moved into the Promised Land they were to initiate the remembrance of the five Feasts to be celebrated annually celebrated (Exodus Ch 23:14-19, Leviticus Ch 23), all of which he wrote into the Torah (the Book of the Law), which was to placed beside the Covenant Box (the ark of the covenant). The Mosaic Law consists of three categories of civic remembrance; moral, civil and ceremonial. The moral law pertains to an inward, heartfelt observance for holy living; the civil laws govern Israel’s social life (Exodus Ch 21:1-23, 33), whilst the ceremonial laws relate to Israel’s observance of worship. The Tabernacle, the High Priest, the Mercy Seat, the sacrificial system and the incense used are all pictures of spiritual realities and are a copy or shadow of the heavenly sanctuary (Hebrews Ch 8:5). Jesus Christ is portrayed as the Brazen Altar made of brass (which always speaks of judgement), which is why the Brazen Altar was situated at the entrance to the Tabernacle.
On the 15th day of Nisan annually a seven day celebration of the Festival of Unleavened Bread (Hag HaMatzah) is observed. In the year following the Exodus The Lord commanded the celebration of Passover (Numbers Ch 9;2), but this celebration was withdrawn from the tribes because of their rebellion in not entering Canaan. Traditionally Bikkurim (the Festival of Firstfruits, aka the Harvest Feast) commenced on the first Sunday following the high Sabbath day that followed Pesach, the 17th day of Nisan, when the 12 tribes as the chosen people of God, together with a number of converted Egyptian acolytes who had crossed the Red Sea. Bikkurim introduced the commencement of the 49-day ‘counting of the omer’. during which ceremony it was declared that: “Today is the first day of the omer” and so on until the last of the seven Sabbaths, at which time it was announced at sundown (6 pm) as the new day began, that “Today is the forty-ninth day of the omer, thus completing the counting”. Which began with the planting of the grains of barley on the day following the Festival of Unleavened Bread (Leviticus Ch 23:10-14). A ceremonial ‘wave offering’ (ministered by a priest) of a sheaf of barley of a specific measure of grain (weighing c43 ounces) was enacted. A burnt offering of a year-old lamb and a drink offering of wine was made this ritual completed Pesach (the Passover celebrations), and commences Shavuot (aka Atzaret, or Pentecost by Gentiles and commences the seven weeks leading to the Feast of Weeks). The first strong shoots known as the first-fruits are cut in the Spring becoming and presented to the priest, who, on the Sabbath will ‘wave’ this offering before the Lord before sacrificing a lamb. The barley is kneaded with flour and oil and taken as the bread of the Presence into the Holy Place before any bread can be consumed by the people (Leviticus Ch 23:9-14).
The day after the Sabbath following the Feast of First-fruits the wheat is planted. Seven weeks is counted before the first-fruit of the summer harvesting of the wheat is ‘waived’ at the Feast of Weeks. The farmers brought a wave offering of two loaves of leavened bread made from two-tenths of an ephah of fine flour baked with yeast. These new grain offerings were taken into the tabernacle (later the Temple) together with seven male lambs, a young bull and two rams. After inspection of the animals by a priest to ensure that they had no defects, they were slaughtered as a burnt offering and a drink offering of wine was made. Then a male goat was sacrificed as a sin offering, and two lambs, waived by a priest, were sacrificed as a fellowship offering. This ceremony seems to be of greater significance for the celebration has greater animal sacrifice and is followed by a sacred assembly (Leviticus Ch 23:15-20), all this ceremony was made as part of an everlasting ordinance This completes the ceremony of the Feast of Weeks, but this annual ceremony looks forward to the final harvesting of all believers in Christ at his Second Coming. The Spring harvest of barley (the reaping of the Jews) introduced the annual seven-week period of ripening (hearing the Gospel) and turning to Christ of the Messianics.
The Jewish Disciples of Christ (who throughout this book I will refer to as ‘Messianic Jews’ or ‘Messianics’) regard this ceremony as the completion of the salvation of all Diaspora Jews prefiguring and anticipating the reaping of the final harvesting. According to Messianics this ‘wave offerings’ represent Jesus as the first-fruit of a later Rapture of the people of God, and the dough which is kneaded into two loaves of bread and offered as a sacrifice, represent the Jewish believers, whilst the second loaf represent the Gentile converts to Christ, who will be ‘harvested’ as the summer wheat crop. The annual festivals are a prophetic illustration, foreshadowing the ushering in of the Kingdom of God, for the one new man in Christ, first the Jew and then the Gentiles. Gentiles believe that the ‘counting of the omer’ had been completed with the giving of the Ten Commandments and the giving of the Torah. The continuation of annual celebration of the Feast of Weeks being an annual time of remembrance or reflection, much as the taking of communion. The arrival of the Holy Spirit at the Pentecost that followed Christ’s death, was a promise of a future fulfilment of the wheat harvest. The fulfilling of the Feast of Weeks and the first Pentecost (Shavuot) became understandable following Christ’s death and resurrection. However Gentiles believe that the parallel 50-day period following Jesus’ resurrection, which preceding the reception of the Holy Spirit 10-days after Christ’s ascension and introduced the first Shavuot (which translates into Greek as ‘Pentecost’ and means 50-days) is a simulation.
That 3,000 rebellious Israelites were slain by the Levites (Genesis 32:28), and 3,000 were made alive (born again Acts Ch 2:31) links the two 50-day/3,000 men events together. The two events marry-up with the winter and summer harvesting, the first winter harvesting of the Jews and the second summer harvesting of the Gentiles at the Rapture of all believers. The 14,000 day period also has a greater significance, to which my attention had been drawn. 38.8 years after the spies had tasted Canaan produce in the Promised Land occupied by the Canaanites (on Iyar 28 in the year a.m 2537 or 1466 BC (see page 359). Gentiles have rounded that ‘special period’ of 38.8 years to 40 years, which numerically represents a period of probation, testing and trial. The Israelites ate the bread from the first harvesting of their own sown barley crops and then sowed the wheat, which was cropped in time to celebrate Rosh HaShanah in the year a.m 2577 (1426 BC).
The Lord instituted five feasts at Mount Sinai, but other feasts have been added since. The first extra celebration was the celebration of Purim (aka the ‘Feast of Lots’) that is held on the 13‑14th of Adar remembering that Queen Esther risked death in saving the Jews in exile in Babylon from extermination. The second celebration was the annual eight day festival of Hanukkah recalling the cleansing or the temple that had been desecrated at the insistence of the leadership of an occupying army (see page 93).
The Lord willed and welded the Federation of the 12 tribes separated into clans and families to live in the Promised Land in righteous holy relationship to each other, in order to further His objectives. Christ was to be born a Jew and would fulfil an eternal vicarious sacrifice for all of mankind that was only understood after the Messiah’s vicarious death. Ten days earlier Jesus fulfilled the first fruit of the wheat harvest (the resurrection of all the saints Jew or Gentile) at His ascension into heaven. The two annual harvestings of barley and four months later the wheat harvesting have a deeper meaning in that the atonement for sin of the two Houses of Israel will not be widely recognised until the millennial reign, when The Lord’s purposes will be disclosed by Christ in their entirety. The spiritual significance of the final summer harvest is an allusion to the final ‘ingathering of souls’ into God’s barn, when the dead in Christ are raised. At this time Jesus harvests all of His subjects into the kingdom of God, which is the Church consisting of all the believing Jews and Gentiles. The annual Jewish feasts will continue to be celebrated throughout the millennial reign of Christ. The Feast of Tabernacles will also be celebrated by Gentiles on pilgrimage (Zechariah Ch 14:16‑20). I imagine that King Jesus will re‑introduce the festivals from the fourth Temple described in Ezekiel Ch’s 40-45, see footnote 300). The non-feast festivals are ceremonial and all occur during the Hebrew month of Tishrei varyingly taking place between September/October.
The outcome is the establishment of the Church of Christ on Earth for c2,000 years, following which time Christ is to return for His bride. There are significant symbolic numerical differences in the number of fish and loaves shared as there was in the number of baskets of scraps collected from the two feedings. The order of harvesting can be confirmed through the two feedings by Jesus of the Jew first, in the feeding of the 5,000 and secondly the Gentiles through the feeding of the 4,000. Only John mentions that in the feeding of the 5,000 the loaves were made of barley, and that the participants sat on the green grass, revealing that this one-day feeding took place during the rainy season) illustrating that this was a one-off mass meeting of Jews. Only Matthew and Mark write of the second mass supernatural feeding, the essential differences in the two separate occasions are that the Gentile participants were fed during a three-day Gentile holiday period, during the dry summer months.
There is much evidence in the Book of Exodus to show that The Lord is not the gracious, all-forgiving, compassionate God that is slow to anger as Nehemiah Ch 9:17, Psalm 103:8, and Psalm 145:8 suggests. He sent fire from heaven to incinerate many of the rebellious, He sent plagues that killed many thousands (see Exodus Ch 32, whilst in Numbers Ch 16:49, 14,700 died through a plague). He also sent snakes to kill the rebellious Israelites and even ordered the slaying of 3,000 family members. He obliterated the Israelites who complained of the awful conditions they lived under, and the lack of variety in their diet over 40 years of wilderness wanderings. The curses of Deuteronomy Ch 28:15-68 were given for rebellious disobedience just before the tribes crossed the Jordan, but they knew from their earlier experiences that The Lord meant every word uttered. The punishment of Leviticus Ch 26:18, 24 and v28 emphasise that the sin of stubborn pride will be repaid seven Times over. If that is how The Lord chastised the rebellious of the ‘apple of His eye’, for not accepting His ,condition of contract’, then mankind should be eternally grateful, that c500 years later The Lord taught of a new covenant of circumcision. I am playing devil’s advocate here, for believers know that the yeast of sin is infectious and virulent and must be dealt with.
On crossing the Jordan into Israel 38 years from being commanded to eradicate and replace the Canaanites, the men numbered 601,730 (Numbers Ch 26:51). These figures over 40-years of wilderness wanderings remarkably had hardly changed. From the time of the entering into the Promised Land, the two agricultural feasts (Festival of Firstfruits and the Feast of Weeks), together with the two ceremonial feasts of the Feast of Trumpets and the Feast of Tabernacles, were to be commemorated annually as lasting ordinances The first full-cycle of the annual Feasts and sacrifices established at the construction of the tabernacle, were activated following the Israelite’s settlement into the Promised Land. (Exodus Ch 23:16). The command given to Moses was to send a leader from each of the ancient tribes into Canaan to explore and assess the abilities of the inhabitants to resist Israel’s invasion (some scholars believe this occurred between the years c1639 BC and c1466 BC).
The Lord gave promises in 2 Chronicles Ch 7:14 that ‘born again’ devotees who have lived their lives in unrighteous lands that are already condemned, have become adopted sons of God and will take part in the final Exodus (the Rapture), at the end of time, and will be welcomed into His Kingdom, the New Jerusalem, which is to be the principal city governing policy throughout the world. I believe this fact is supported through Jeremiah Ch 18:7-10 and the experience of the repentant generation of Ninevites that The Lord consistently first warned to change their unrighteous ways and then forgave. The Lord knew that a generation or so later the Ninevites would again fall into unrighteousness and gross sin, leading to their obliteration, but He gave Assyria the opportunity to change direction (and not to invade Israel, 2 Kings Ch18). The Lord punished the Ninevites on their later conduct and will sentence them on the Day of Judgement following Christ’s millennial reign. The Lord will similarly judge every nation.
I believe that the various crossbred inhabitants of Samaria represented Ephraim’s stick (Ezekiel Ch 37:16b) being the archetype of all ‘saved’ Gentiles from the nations. Ephraim, whose mother was an Egyptian, was the (spiritual) son of Israel fathered from the (spiritual) loins of Jacob (whose dying blessing was to include Jacob’s two grandsons into the 12 tribes of the House of Israel). Jew and Gentile will be eternally and inseparably joined as one, grafted into the one olive tree in the redeemed kingdom of God. Together Jew and Gentile represent the 12 brothers of Genesis Ch 49, which included the two Hebrew sons of Joseph, Manasseh and Ephraim whose names I believe to be written on two of the 12 gates of Revelation Ch 21:12, replacing the names of Simeon and Levi (whose tribal inheritance became amalgamated into the other ten tribes of Samaria, that represents the Northern Kingdom).
It can be evidenced by Jeremiah being told by The Lord to buy a plot of land in Jerusalem in the knowledge that Babylon would carry the occupants of the Promised Land into captivity (Jeremiah Ch 32:6), but that one day, during the life of the final generation on earth before the millennial reign of Christ, Israel would be returned to the Promised Land. The Lord dictated the letter written in 597 BC (contained in Jeremiah Ch 29) to the elders, priests and exiles, following the second deportation (that occurred in the 7th year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign), over the months between 599/8 BC exhorting the exiles to build houses, plant gardens, to marry and to seek to improve the prosperity of their captors, implied racial and religious tolerance on marriage. Jeremiah was not aware at the time of his purchase of land that The Lord would not allow kingship by any reigning Jewish king until Jesus ascended the throne, nor that the Ishmaelites would have uninterrupted occupancy throughout the exile. I believe that the scarlet thread of divine royalty was passed on through Zerah (transferred as per the genealogy of Jesus in Matthew Ch 1:3, as both twin’s names are mentioned, see footnote 66).
It was The Lord who removed the royal household, the unholy priesthood, the elders, scribes and the whole House of Judah from Israel, initially to Babylonia and Media and from 135 AD throughout the nations of the Earth. I recalled the passage in Zechariah Ch 13:7:
“I will strike the shepherd and the sheep will be scattered.”
Jesus was the shepherd who was struck down by The Lord. Jeremiah Ch 31:10 states:
He who scattered Israel will gather her (to the Promised Land, leased by The Lord to the Israelite nation in perpetuity) and will shepherd her.”
King Ahab had married Jezebel the daughter of the incumbent priest‑king of the Sidonians, King Ethbaal a priest of Astarte (1 Kings Ch 16:32). Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (37-93 AD), in his Book of Antiquities X.xi.I writes of King Nebuchadnezzar having besieged Tyre for 13 years, finally sacking the capital city in the same year that Solomon’s Temple was destroyed and the overthrowing of the priest-King Ethbaal. From Ezekiel Ch 28 it can be determined that King Ethbaal became the archetype of Satan (the bright morning star of Isaiah Ch 14:12-17). In the light of the revelations and prophecies received it was necessary for me to delve into Biblical and secular world history in order to explain how I have arrived at certain conclusions. The City of Tyre is the representation of Revelation Ch 17:16, the woman wholly given over to sinfulness who rides upon Satan’s back. The citizens of the City of Tyre (represent the £$capitalist citizens of the world), who were named in Ezekiel Ch 27:2 as the ‘merchants of the earth'. The sentence of The Lord over every nation was announced in the cursing of the citizens of the City of Tyre, is recognisable through the statue of King Nebuchadnezzar, that was a monolith to unredeemed power, whose armies defeated physical Tyre. But the spirit of unredeemed capitalism lives on today. The Western Church has become a second Gideon’s army (see footnote 68 for greater clarity).
The two periods of salvation history (first for the Jew and then for the Gentile, recognised by the terms BC and AD) are intrinsically linked and The Lord has decreed the time-span until final judgement. I wondered what this revelation meant with regard to the Israelite nation that had rebelled against their God and whose leaders had sought Christ’s death. I knew instinctively and unequivocally that the lie of a Jew being an incomplete Christian perpetrated by the early church fathers and condoned by Martin Luther in subsequent years supported by Protestant denominations and reform groups was a totally false premise. One future day the race of Jews will be gathered again in their Promised Land. The nations will continue to despise the Jews and attack them both verbally and physically but The Lord will gather and protect them under His wing in their own homeland, or in whichever land they have settled in.
The Lord had sanctioned the deportation of the ten tribes from Samaria because King Ahab had constructed a temple of worship to Astarte in Samaria, most probably at Bethel or possibly at Shechem, which was little more than an hour’s camel-ride distant from Jerusalem (27 miles). Daniel Ch 1:1 appears to state that following the Babylonian armies oft-times unsuccessful incursions into Egypt, the Babylonians ‘retired’ to Jerusalem. I have reached this conclusion as being the only logical explanation for King Jehoiakim deciding that he would no longer pay an annual tribute to Babylon (relying on Egypt’s ability to overcome the Babylonians). Of course this was the final straw, many previous misdemeanours both individual and as a people group had accumulated without earlier redress. The ten tribes of Israel were deported over a 65 year period between 741‑676 BC (as prophesied many years earlier in Isaiah Ch 7:8[b])
· The first deportation occurred in 741 BC under Tiglath-Pileser III (745‑727 BC) when the Israelites were deported to regions of the Assyrian Empire across the Euphrates River and absorbed into the local milieu, intermarriage and business partnerships smoothed the transition (2 Kings Ch 17:24). In ancient days the victorious tribes or nation in battle carried away the defeated peoples as slaves, together with their personal icons to their foreign gods, as part of the ‘spoils of war’, occupying the land in the place or exacting ransom money in the form of a tribute.
· The second deportation occurred in 721 BC under Sargon II (722-705 BC). Sargon was accredited with rebuilding the city of Babylon on its new location, straddling the River Euphrates.
· The third deportation in 676 BC occurred when King Esarhaddon (681-669 BC) sacked Sidon, removing the invalids and the frail Samaritans who had avoided the earlier deportations (2 Kings Ch 17:23). As with the earlier deportations the Samaritans were absorbed into Assyrian society. Quite clearly from 2 Kings Ch 17:6, and Ch 18:11 the Samaritans over a 65-year period were deported by the Assyrians in part to the cities of the Medes, as well as all the other cities on the Iranian Plateau; although many Samaritans moved on into Greece via Asia Minor. Such deportations were undertaken to eradicate any thoughts of uprising, a common practice in those times. The 65 year-period between the final destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in 70 AD and the final dispersion of the House of Judah in 135 AD was an identical period of time taken to complete the deportation of the House of Israel from Samaria, which confirms to me that the two broken and dead sticks of Ezekiel Ch 37 that represented the divided kingdom, would in the end-times be joined together and have sap running through the resulting foliage.
It is stated in 2 Kings Ch 17:27 that following the deportation of the ten tribes of the House of Israel, that The Lord had commissioned the lions to kill the Sidonian exiles (formerly of the tribe of Manasseh), who although acknowledging that God existed and the presumably nomadic tribes that populated Samaria at that time did not worship Him in His ‘special land’. The provincial authorities were commanded by their king to return one of the deported priests to instruct the people in the traditions of the ‘territorial god’ of the land.
King Sennacherib had appointed native-born Median Deoces (aka Cyaxares) to be his puppet or 'client' king. Deoces had the distinction of being the first king of a four-generation dynasty that ruled over Media for 150 years. Following King Sennacherib’s assassination; his youngest son Ashurbanipal was elevated into kingship. In 627 BC Addad Guppi succeeded his father Ashurbanipal and appointed Nabopolassar a native born Babylonian to be the Assyrian viceroy of Babylon. Later Nabopolassar declared Babylon to be an independent country (a unilateral declaration of independence UDI), becoming the first king of what became a 68 year long, four-generation dynasty, mirroring the four‑generation dynasty of the Median kings. Deoces’ son Phaortes succeeded his father in 637 BC reigning for 22 years (637-615 BC). Cyaxares (aka Xerxes) succeeded his father Phaortes and reigned for 40 years (615-575 BC). Cyaxares broke from the Assyrian imposed viceroy or 'client' king status declaring independence. The last king of the dynasty was Astyages (aka Ahasuerus), but described in the Scriptures as Darius the Mede. He died in 540 BC at 97 years of age.
It was no coincidence that the House of Judah suffered three deportations paralleling the misfortune of the House of Israel. In 606 BC Nebuchadnezzar’s army defeated the Egyptian King Neco at Carchemish and then menacingly encamped his army close to the fortified walls of Jerusalem. Nebuchadnezzar was more powerful than King David had been, but was the Gentile equivalent to the Hebrew king (in Daniel Ch 2:37 Nebuchadnezzar is named by Daniel as the ‘king of kings’). He was used by The Lord to be the rod of The Lord’s anger against Judah. Nebuchadnezzar demanded annual tributes from King Jehoiakim in return for sparing his life and making Jehoiakim the client king of Judah. Nebuchadnezzar received news of his father’s death, and immediately withdrew his army to Babylon, taking Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah and possibly others as hostages. Daniel Ch 1:1 appears to state that following the Babylonian armies oft-times unsuccessful incursions into Egypt, the Babylonians ‘retired’ to Jerusalem. I have reached this conclusion as being the only logical explanation for King Jehoiakim deciding that he would no longer pay an annual tribute to Babylon (relying on Egypt’s ability to overcome the Babylonians).
· The first deportation of 70 years of the House of Judah was prophesied in Jeremiah Ch 25:8-12, included the four highborn friends, who were given Babylonian names; Daniel was re-named Belteshazzar, Hananiah became Shadrach, Mishael became Meshach and Azariah became Abednego. For three years King Jehoiakim had pragmatically paid the demanded annual tribute (‘protection’ money) to Babylon, but as Egypt’s armies had recovered their former strength from losing the Battle of Carchemish, Jehoakim thought that Babylon’s resolve had diminished. He stubbornly ignored the many threatening overtures from Babylon, finally paying with his own life. Judah’s King Jehoiakim after three years of compliance to pay an annual tribute to Babylon unilaterally decided to cease payments. Apparently Egypt had again strengthened her fortifications and sought Judah to support a further campaign. Despite warnings of the consequences Jehoiakim refused to pay, which resulted in Jehoiakim being shackled by a raiding party of Babylonian employed mercenaries. Jehoiakim was not exiled in Babylon, he probably died through ill-treatment at the hands of his captors. Jehoakim’s son Jehoiachin reigned in his father’s stead for 100 days, when his uncle Zedekiah (renamed Mattaniah) replaced him. Jehoiachin became part of the second deportation, being released from captivity in the 37th year of his exile in 561 BC on the 25th day of the twelfth month (Adar 25, Jeremiah Ch 52:31). The anniversary of the Feast of Purim is held on the 13th and 14th of Adar, but as this was not the original event of Purim, the date of King Evil Merodach releasing Jehoiachin is (apparently) of no especial spiritual importance. Jehoiachin ate regularly as a guest at King Evil Merodach’s table until his death.
· In 599/8 BC the second deportation of 10,000 souls included Ezekiel amongst court officials, priests, the wealthy and the intelligentsia. All that remained in Judah were the poor and the illiterate (2 Kings Ch 24:14). It was not the poverty stricken that Jeremiah Ch 24 was prophesying over (as poor figs unfit for eating), but the teachers of the Law of Moses and the sages, who invented the Oral Tradition, forming a new religion that became known as Rabbinic Judaism. Every item in the Torah (the first five books of Scripture, aka the Pentateuch on translation into Greek, and in English the ‘Books of the Law’), were dictated by God to Moses. I am of the belief that the Oral Tradition and of the colophons (supposedly engraved by Adam and passed on through the earliest generations) gave manoeuvrability for the 120 sages to bring their own interpretation of God’s intentions, which included their postulations in the Avot. The Oral Tradition was certainly not part of Christ’s teaching; in fact Jesus often poured scorn on the teaching and behaviour of Israel’s leaders (Matthew Ch 23:15).
Jesus (in John Ch 10) twice refers to those who considered themselves as the good shepherds who led the flock of Judah as thieves and robbers. They became guilty of deicide in plotting to kill the Son of God, and worse their successors have denied generations of Jews the privilege of becoming followers of Jesus, even forbidding their fellow Jews from reading the New Testament, and telling the parents of those who become Messianic believers to disown their own kith and kin (Matthew Ch 23 13). This 60 year exile ended in 539 BC, with Zerubbabel being elevated as Governor of Judah and accompanying the Judeans returning to their homeland. On his arrival and imprisonment into Babylon Jehoiachin publicly announced that his name had been changed to Jeconiah by those who took him into captivity. He did this to explain that he had no authority to alleviate any human rights issues traumatising his fellow Jews. With both the priest Ezekiel and the prophet Daniel being exiled in Babylon, it is likely that the two men met on festive occasions. Even if I am reading too much into their knowing each other, it is reasonable to assume that Daniel would have been informed of The Lord’s visitation to Ezekiel on the day Ezekiel’s wife died. This date marked the starting of the second divine 70 year period of travail, nine years into King Zedekiah’s reign, the travail ending in 520 BC. 2 Kings Ch 25:1 states that in the ninth year of King Zedekiah’s reign on the 10th day of the 10th month (the 21st December 590 BC, on the anniversary of which in 1998 I received a revelatory word of knowledge concerning the events surrounding the destruction of Babylon), Nebuchadnezzar marched his armies against Jerusalem, owing to Zedekiah’s refusal to pay the annual tributes. Ezekiel Ch 24:19 records the heavenly visitation received on the same day as the death of Ezekiel’s wife, which was to mark specifically the date of the issuing of The Lord’s decree of the temple’s destruction (which occurred some four years later, in the 12th year of exile, when Ezekiel received the message that Jerusalem had fallen, Ezekiel Ch 33:21). This event was recorded in the Scriptures to inform believers of every generation that The Lord is very precise over the dating and length of His sentences of judgement.
· The third deportation occurred in 586 BC following the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple, when the remainder of the House of Judah were taken into captivity. This 70 year period of travail was referred to as the desolation of Solomon’s Temple and lasted from its destruction until the completion of Zerubbabel’s Temple in 516 BC. This period ran from the initial besieging by Nebuchadnezzar’s army and the commencement of the restoration of the temple (590-520 BC, verified by Ezekiel Ch 24:1).
The cooking-pot of Ezekiel Ch 24:1-14 illustrated the prophecy of The Lord’s judgement on the House of Judah, initially leading to Judah’s deportation and secondly to the desolation of Jerusalem’s Temple. Jeremiah was not taken into exile in Babylon but was forcibly taken to Egypt where he lived out his life. The cooking-pot of Jeremiah Ch 1:11, 13 was a vision of a cauldron tipped over, pouring its contents towards Judea, signifying the destruction of the temple and deportation of the people. I was struck by the similarity of Jeremiah’s revelations of the almond branch and the cooking-pot, to the visions and revelations that I had received, of the stump of the cedar tree, which was transformed into a cooking‑pot (see page 198). In Israel the almond tree is the first tree to burst into flower, its blossom appearing before its leaves bud, heralding the arrival of spring. I understood my vision as heralding the Great Tribulation, following which time the Messiah (the kinsman redeemer of His elect) would return to Earth.
In Daniel Ch 2 the reader is informed that in the second year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign he received disturbing dreams. At this time Daniel and his three friends were part-way through a three-year course of education specialising in the Babylonian language and literature, astrology and divination of dreams. I have wrestled over the recorded account of Daniel Ch 2 and have concluded that if Daniel had written an original account of his life and ministry, it had been considerably modified before it was included in the Scriptures. I suspect From the final presentation of the Book of Daniel that the sages were attempting to hide Daniel’s acceptance of Jeremiah’s prophecy concerning individual salvation of both Jew and Gentile. I had assumed that Daniel had interpreted the second and maybe other dreams on the same occasion and that twelve months later (Biblically recorded in this way as if to emphasise that the period was exactly one year following the only interpretation) Nebuchadnezzar was struck down, but I have become convinced that this was not the case. It was faithfully recorded that following Daniel’s interpretation of Nebuchadnezzar undeclared (or unremembered) dreams, Nebuchadnezzar prostrated himself before Daniel in wonder, declaring Daniel’s God to be the God of gods and the Lord of kings (Daniel Ch 2:47).
It is written in Daniel Ch 9:2 that having analysed Jeremiah’s scroll (which I believe to be Ch’s 29 and 30 of Jeremiah) Daniel entered into a holy fast, to seek The Lord’s will over the length of time before all of the House of Judah would be re‑gathered to Jerusalem. Daniel was rewarded for his assiduous prayers by a visitation from the angel Gabriel and was told (in verses 20-27) that all Israel would return to Jerusalem on the fulfilment of the six conditions of Daniel Ch 9:24. Babylon despite its impressiveness was destined to become a desert place as Isaiah and Jeremiah had prophesied (see footnote 117).
In Daniel Ch 9:1 and Esther Ch 1 of the NIV translation, King Cyaxeres was called Xerxes, but in the NKJ versions of those versions he is called King Ahasuerus. Nowhere in non-Biblical history is any king named as Ahasuerus, which is very confusing! It seems that the Bible has identified ‘Ahasuerus’ as Darius the Mede. Following Cyaxares’ death his son Darius reigned solely until he was deposed in 551 BC. He died whilst under house arrest in 540 BC at 97 years of age (see page 93). As a young serving officer Darius had married Vashti (whom he later divorced, Esther Ch 1:19). Vashti was the mother of Mandane, who in turn married a Persian nobleman. Their son Cyrus was the grandson of Darius the Mede. Esther through marriage to Darius became the stepmother of Mandane and the grandmother of Cyrus. The Greek historian Herodotus (484-430 BC) wrote of the extension of these royal family ties: ‘Mandane, the only child of King Darius the Mede married Cambyses a Persian nobleman who became King of Persia.’ Historians Abydenus and Bishop Eusebius (262-339 AD) both wrote in confirmation of this. If Esther had married the son of Darius I she would have been close to 100 years of age at her marriage!
Babylon, Media and Persia had been provinces of the Assyrian Empire, under the control of viceroys (aka ‘satraps’ [‘protectors of the realm’]) of the kings of Assyria. On Assyria’s vulnerability in the empire’s latter years, King Phaortes shook off the yoke of subservience to King Alyattes of Persia in a revolt that caused the Elamites and Scythians to return to their homeland, the year of which is uncertain, but appears to have been between the mid 630’s and 620’s BC. Following the death of King Phaortes in 615 BC Phaortes’ son King Cyaxeres threateningly brought his armies to the city gates and accepted the vassalage of King Alyattes of Persia. A marriage was arranged between King Alyattes’ daughter the princess Aryenis (aka Vashti) and Prince Astyages (aka Darius the Mede, a serving military officer), thus forming an alliance. Without any confirmatory evidence I believe that it was agreed that prince Astyages be made a co-regent king reigning from Suza. An alliance through marriage was similarly arranged by King Cyaxeres and King Nabopolassar of Babylon. In 614 BC Nabopolassar’s son Nebuchadnezzar, a serving military officer and King Cyaxeres’ daughter princess Amyitis married. In 613 BC both crown princes Darius and Nebuchadnezzar would have been in their 20’s and have been generals of their respective armies. They joined forces in that year with the Persian army and the armies of the three nations began demolishing the Assyrian Empire through the destruction of the Assyrian capital city of Nineveh. Realising their own vulnerability of attack from the neo Babylonians, Egypt decided to form an alliance with Assyria. The two royal princes as brothers-in-law would have developed a lasting friendship, and been welcome guests at each other’s royal palaces through that relationship. It must have been reassuring for the two leaders of the two kingdoms to know that it was unnecessary to deploy vast armies to secure their common border. Once the Assyrian campaign was under control Egypt became the next Empire for Babylonia to subordinate, which took a great deal of attention over a number of years. Jeremiah Ch 52:28 reports of two royal visits to Judah of Nebuchadnezzar. I believe that there may have been other state visits not recorded and the military would have used Judah as a suitable hospital of recovery for ‘repairs’. It would have also doubled as a barracks and field command unit for launching surprise invasions against other nations, or for repulsing attacks before any enemy could reach Babylon. Nineveh was never to rise again.
From Esther Ch 3:8 it can be discerned that Haman did not disclose to King Astyages the name of the race of people he proposed should be exterminated, which only serves to make the Book of Esther more gripping if hyperbolic! King Astyages knew Mordecai to be a Jew (Esther Ch 6:10) but he had been unaware of Esther’s relationship to Mordecai. After her marriage Esther disclosed her racial background only when the life of her kin was threatened (Esther Ch 8:6). Esther Ch 1 records that three years into his custodial rule of Babylon Darius threw a lavish party. I suggest that Nebuchadnezzar with his consort, Darius’ sister Queen Amyitis, and Darius’ father King Cyaxeres, had been invited to this 180-day long party of celebration and probably during that time they met regularly as a family together. Nebuchadnezzar and Darius had been Generals in the armies that defeated Assyria becoming firm friends and having much in common. Darius’ marriage to Esther would have been the time for a further royal family re-union. I cannot imagine that the subject of the charismatic and enigmatic figure of Daniel and his three friends who were high officials in Babylon, even though they served a ‘foreign god’, would not have been discussed. My point is that whether or not Darius was a co-regent king, prior to being appointed as sole king of Media at King Cyaxeres’ death in 575 BC, we read in Daniel Ch 6:25 that as King Darius (in Babylon) he issued a solemn decree that all people must revere the God of Daniel a Jew. If Darius had not been reigning in a Median province previously (I suggest between 598-595, coinciding with his marriage to Esther), he would not have been aware during the time he was acting as ‘deputy king’ in Babylon of the miracle performing God of the Jews. Assuming Esther to have been a child at her exile, she would have been nearing 50 years of age if married to Darius in 570 BC. Esther would hardly have been the beautiful ‘girl’ described in Esther Ch 2:7! I suggest that Esther may have been a teenager at the 599/8 BC exile, there is much from those halcyon days that can only be conjecture, unless one receives revelation.
Through a revelatory word of knowledge received on the 7th June 2007, I knew that there had been perhaps two decades between Nebuchadnezzar’s two dreams. The second revelation was that General Darius the Mede became King Astyages the co-regent king to his father King Cyaxeres. I believe he reigned as co-regent (until his father died in 575 BC) from Susa. I believe that Cyaxeres’ son King Astyages (until he started to promote a reverential fear in the God of the Jews, Daniel Ch 6:25-28) amongst the commoners was affectionately known as Darius the Mede. Quite clearly from the Book of Esther Ch 2:5-7 Esther had been part of the second deportation of Judeans carried out by Nebuchadnezzar in 598 BC. Presumably the tribes were scattered throughout the former Assyrian Empire in order to diminish their ability to revolt as tribal patriots. I believe that historians Herodotus and Siculus were correct and that the Chaldeans had been the priestly caste formed through Semiramis and Bacchus (see page 38) that had formerly been political advisors to successive kings of the Assyrian Empire, and owing to their political prowess they were incorporated into leadership in Babylonia. Daniel was such an impressive charismatic figure that Nebuchadnezzar elevated him to the highest office as PM of Babylon.
Daniel and his three friends presumably had not been summonsed to the meeting of the magicians, enchanters, sorcerers, astrologers and soothsayers that the king called to interpret his troublesome dreams. All are collectively and dismissively labelled, as ‘Chaldeans’ in the NKJ, firstly by the sages and secondly the Sanhedrin that presented the final composition of the Book of Daniel). Their protests that only the gods could know details of such dreams, resulted in Nebuchadnezzar decreeing their death for their inability to satisfy his request. Some of the wise men were killed prior to the soldiers seeking out Daniel and his three friends with the objective of killing them. Daniel must have told Arioch the officer in charge of the execution platoon that he and his friends had not been summoned to the earlier audience, and therefore knew nothing of what had taken place. Daniel’s plea for a stay of execution and an audience with the king was granted. Nebuchadnezzar agreed to Daniel having an opportunity to pray for insight from the Holy eternal Most High God, King of Heaven (Nebuchadnezzar’s words of Daniel Ch 4:34 and 37). Daniel urged his three friends to plead for the mercy of The Lord for Daniel’s enlightenment over the contents of the dreams, and through a dream Daniel was granted revelation and interpretation. In gratitude for the revelation Nebuchadnezzar placed Daniel as leader over all Babylon’s wise men.
The final composition records only the interpretation of the first dream concerning the future empires, and the appearance of the supernatural stone (which was Christ) representing the Kingdom of heaven that would destroy all traces of the future empires that would succeed the Babylonian Empire. Each Empire would in turn occupy Jerusalem before Christ’s ministry began. Nebuchadnezzar’s empire itself was the head of gold, with the final earthly (Roman) Empire that was the feet formed of iron and clay, which when struck by the supernatural stone was crushed into powder and blown away by the wind. Because I believe that Rome will feature in the end-times one-world government, I have been puzzled that no reference is recorded of the Ottoman (ram) Empire and the Mohammedans who ruled the Middle East including Judah for a greater length of time than the two Western Empires accomplished when added together. Perhaps this was deliberate because the first woe of the Gentile armies being forced to retreat from Jerusalem is to be repeated during the third woe. It is only after the final Empire is in place that the supernatural stone will become visible here on Earth.
Nebuchadnezzar acceded to Daniel’s request to reward his three friends, who were elevated to provincial administrators presumably responsible for the integration of the 10,000 Judean exiles into Babylon. Daniel’s elevation to PM would have necessitated Daniel frequently meeting with Nebuchadnezzar perhaps over two decades of working together. Certainly a number of years must have passed between Nebuchadnezzar instructing his landscape gardeners to build the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and his zoologists to construct a zoo therein, not to mention the undertaking of the construction of a 2 m high statue of himself plated in gold and secured on a 60-cubit high column, built on a base 6 cubits square which dominated the Plain of Dura. Built to dedicate his armies conquests of the neighbouring Empires; and the not to be overlooked destruction of the fortified cities of Tyre and Jerusalem (the original Septuagint records that the statue was erected in 581 BC, in the 25th year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign). At the ceremony of dedication of the statue a herald cried out that every time minstrels commenced playing their music, all citizens should kneel in worship of their king facing the general direction of the golden statue or be cast into a fiery furnace. This utterance had been plotted by the dignitaries attending, and as they had anticipated Nebuchadnezzar was highly flattered and approved the decree. Daniel was not at the dedication, for he would have protested. The objective of this Daniel Ch 3 account revealed that ‘certain Chaldeans’, who I believe to be the politicians and administrators who were resentful of Daniel being appointed as PM and director over their departments and that of the elevated status of his three Jewish friends had been given preference over many who shared the Chaldean faith of the political and administrative entities. The king’s attention was drawn to the affront of Daniel’s friends to the king’s dignity. When brought before the king over their disobedience the three friends still refused to worship him, or any other god than the Lord. Through the miraculous intervention by The Lord, King Nebuchadnezzar was reminded of the Lord’s sovereignty and of the faithfulness to the God of the Judeans. In defying Nebuchadnezzar’s command the three friends were being obedient to the Most High God. According to Daniel Ch 3:30 Nebuchadnezzar promoted the three friends to governors of the province of Babylon for their faith, thus thwarting the conspiracy!
On being struck down with lycanthropy (a condition in which the afflicted person believes himself to be a wolf). Nebuchadnezzar was caged in his own zoo for his own safety, from where his condition could be regularly monitored by his court physicians. I had also been deceived in the text by Daniel’s reported speech of Ch 5:17-28 to Belshazzar and his 1,000 guests, couched in such a way that suggested that Nebuchadnezzar was already dead at the time of the reign of his son Belshazzar, which was reinforced in Daniel Ch 5:10-13 by Queen Amyitis’ recorded words to her son. The reader is also persuaded to believe that Daniel had been replaced as PM by Belshazzar and retired into obscurity, and that somehow over 3½ years every courtier and palace official had forgotten that the charismatic (former?) PM would be able to interpret the writing on the wall (which was a form of Aramaic that was the lingua franca of the Mesopotamian lands and readily discernable by most linguists). Josephus wrote that Belshazzar was assassinated in 575 BC 408 years before the profaning of the altar (in Jerusalem). Nebuchadnezzar died in 562 BC nine years after recovering from his illness, following which his grandson Evil Merodach (Belshazzar’s son) was crowned king. Neriglissar the Assyrian brother-in-law of King Evil Merodach plotted the assassination of the third generational king and proclaimed himself as king in his stead. Josephus records a report by Berosus which said: ‘Neriglissar died in 557 BC, and his son Labashi Marduk (aka Laborosoardach), who exhibited depraved conduct succeeded him for less than a year.’ The conspirators who beat Labashi Marduk to death appointed Nabonidus to reign in his stead.
On the occasion of Nebuchadnezzar’s revised or second revelatory dream, no mention is made of Nebuchadnezzar summoning the Chaldeans for a second interpretation. The implication is that the king spoke privately with his PM (Daniel). It is very likely that the king would have sought Daniel’s valued opinions on many matters of state and would have discussed Israel’s Scriptural history and Daniel’s beliefs in a Supreme Being. In Daniel’s interpretation of a second pictorial dream the statue of the metallic man changed materially into a resplendent tree which heaven decreed to be chopped down in its full splendour. Daniel’s private consultation with the king, was not shared with others, not even with the queen. Although Nebuchadnezzar was to be punished by The Lord for his arrogant pride, the time had not yet arrived for Nebuchadnezzar empire to be superseded. Daniel suggested the king be more considerate to the oppressed and humble himself in order to avoid retribution. One year later (in 577 BC, the first year of Belshazzar’s sole rule) Nebuchadnezzar proudly and mistakenly proclaimed in Daniel Ch 4:30:
“Is this great city of Babylon constructed as my royal palace for my pleasure at my decree evidence of my mighty power signifying the glory of my majesty?”
I have concluded that Daniel lost his palace appointment upon Belshazzar assuming sole control as regent whilst his father was ill, for if Daniel had still been a palace official in charge of the wise men it would have been unnecessary for Queen Amyitis to advise her son King Belshazzar of Daniel’s supernatural qualities. That none of the court officials advised Belshazzar of Daniel’s abilities of interpretation, especially as Daniel had previously saved the lives of a previous generation of wise men (through divining Nebuchadnezzar’s dream), confirms how much they resented his intrusion into their academia. Nebuchadnezzar’s co-regent son Belshazzar (a dissolute character who mixed with like-minded men) became the sole king of the empire during his father’s illness. I suspect that Daniel’s place in Jewish history as a prophet was marginalised under orders of the sages and later the Rabbinate controlled by the Sanhedrin through maintaining that none of Daniel’s ministry had been conducted in Judah (see page 221). As with Jesus much later, the authorities despised the fact that Daniel would not comply with their dictates.
A convincing guide that the Book of Daniel was rewritten is the knowledge that Belshazzar could offer only the third highest position in his kingdom to Daniel. This offer surely transpired because Belshazzar as co‑regent behind his father held only the second highest position of authority in the land, showing that Nebuchadnezzar was still alive at the time of Belshazzar’s reign! Non‑Biblical sources also substantiate that Nebuchadnezzar was restored to sanity after his son Belshazzar’s death. Daniel Ch 5:20-21 confirms that Nebuchadnezzar was suffering part of his seven years of illness during Belshazzar’s reign and at the time of Daniel’s ‘interpretation’ of the writing on the wall. I believe this revelation confirms a later rewriting of Daniel’s book, reflecting the political motivation of the Sanhedrin. Evil Merodach reigned for three years from Babylon until his assassination in 559 BC, thereby fulfilling the prophecy of Jeremiah Ch 27:7:-
“All nations will serve Nebuchadnezzar and his son and his grandson.”
Therefore Belshazzar the son of Nabonidus who reigned as coregent of Babylon from the city of probably Opis or Sippar was NOT the Belshazzar on whom the Book of Daniel is focusing!
Nebuchadnezzar had suffered judgement for seven Babylonian years of days. Following this period of judgement (that transposed as 7x360 days=2,520 days), Nebuchadnezzar was restored (redeemed) to health and office. On his return to sanity, Nebuchadnezzar duly humbled and repentant, became a follower of The Lord. He testified publicly to his personal allegiance to the Hebrew God proclaiming The Lord’s sovereignty, whilst declaring that his own worldly kingdom was temporal and of short duration. He refuted all of his earlier boastfulness and became a pious and humble king. Nebuchadnezzar now worshipped a God of eternal dominion, declaring publicly in Daniel Ch 4:34-37:
“Now I Nebuchadnezzar praise exalt and glorify the King of heaven because everything He does is right and all His ways are just. And those who walk in pride God Almighty is able to humble.”
Without doubt Daniel would have recounted to Nebuchadnezzar Jeremiah Ch 25:8 and Ch 27:6 that Nebuchadnezzar was The Lord’s anointed servant.
In Leviticus Ch 26 verses 18, 21, 24 and 28, The Lord decreed that the corporate sin of rebellion by the Jew would be punished seven‑times over. Conferring the same number of Biblical days as an equal number of Biblical years is quite legitimate because we read in Numbers Ch 14:34:
“According to the 40 days in which you spied out the land, you shall bear your iniquity for 40 years.”
In Ezekiel Ch 4:5-6 The Lord says in metaphoric symbolism:
“I have assigned you the same number of days to lie on your left side for 390 days to bear as the number of years of the sins House of Israel,. I assign you to lie on your right side for 40 days, facing the model of the city of Jerusalem each day representing one year for the sin of the House of Judah.”
The digit '7' is regularly coded into both the Hebrew Scriptures and the Greek Septuagint. Both alphabets are numerical languages, every letter having a mathematical value. Seventy is a sacred number attributed to The Lord and seven is the number of God’s seal of sacredness. On the multiplication of these two numbers together the significance is multiplied.
I fail to understand why anyone could believe that an invading army had been encamped within a day’s march of the City of Babylon, without the Babylonian armies being prepared to repel a foreign invasion. Nebuchadnezzar’s armies had taken 19 months from first besieging Jerusalem to overrunning the city (2 Kings Ch 25:1-2). It would have taken more than one-night for Darius’ army to overrun Babylon a city with much stronger fortifications than those that protected Jerusalem! If an aggressor had been waiting to besiege, King Belshazzar would certainly not have been throwing a party for his friends, but would have been checking his perimeter fortifications to strengthen any weaknesses. On Belshazzar’s final night on earth The Lord interrupted the drunken merriment of a sacrilegious ceremony during which Belshazzar profaned the Most Holy God. Having toasted his blasphemous speech the assembled guests quivered in trepidation as a finger of a disembodied hand wrote on the wall in a supernatural, indecipherable language, the words Mene mene tekel parsin, which Daniel ‘interpreted’ as meaning that the Numberer’s days were numbered (the 'Numberer' is another name by which Satan is known’). According to the apocryphal story in the Midrash Rabbah, Belshazzar was not slain in a battle for control of his kingdom but was assassinated by two of his own palace guards, who gained entry to Belshazzar’s sleeping quarters and slew him (presumably because he was a hated unpopular king).
It was quite likely that at the time of Belshazzar’s assassination Darius was paying a royal visit, accompanied by little more than a bodyguard of troops. The words of Daniel Ch 9:1 imply that Darius was made (recognised as) and not crowned king. Darius’ armies did not occupy Babylon by force but rather he was invited, as the brother-in-law of the king of Babylon, to assume custody of the Babylonian Empire following Belshazzar’s assassination until Nebuchadnezzar’s health was restored. I suspect that Prince Evil Merodach and his mother returned to their provincial palace, until he succeeded King Nebuchadnezzar at his death in 562 BC. Queen Amyitis would have told her brother Darius of Daniel’s interpretations of her husband’s dreams and he would have been intrigued, particularly as Daniel was of the same race as Darius’s own wife Queen Esther. It is certain that Darius would have briefed Nebuchadnezzar on his return to health with all that had happened in the affairs of state during his illness. Nebuchadnezzar’s powerful testimony of the supernatural ability and glory of the Most High God, who was sovereign over the kingdoms of men, raising up kings and kingdoms to whomsoever He wishes. No doubt Amyitis and her sister-in-law Esther would have discussed with the two monarchs over several dinners the amazing events surrounding the Israelite exile at which time perhaps Daniel’s future was discussed.
The incident of the ‘wise men’ tricking Darius into issuing a short term ‘Medes and Persian’ decree probably occurred in Babylon following Daniel’s acceptance of the reappointment to the position of senior Satrap (or PM) that any subject praying to any god other than their earthly king was to be thrown to the lions (Daniel Ch 6). I have reasoned that these lions must have been caged in the zoo of Nebuchadnezzar, for Darius when in his homeland used his kingly title of King Astyages and not that of ‘Darius the Mede’. The resentful less senior satraps and administrators knew full well that Daniel would not comply with the law of the Medes and Persians and in accordance with their irrevocable decrees Daniel was thrown to the lions. Darius was desolate for he respected his incorruptible spiritual advisor but was not a strong enough leader to accept that his earlier decrees paid scant regard to his subjects’ wishes. On witnessing Daniel’s deliverance Darius issued a further decree, stating that all subjects in the kingdom must observe, fear and revere the God of Daniel, an instruction that Nebuchadnezzar had failed to commit his subjects to observe or follow.
Darius (now in his own land taking his royal title of King Astyages) had returned to Susa the new capital of Media following the death of King Cyaxerxes in 575 BC, possibly accompanied by Daniel who perhaps became the personal priest of King Darius and Jewess Queen Esther and on the occasion of family visits of the royal household of Persia, of Darius’ daughter Mandane and her son Cyrus. I am sure Daniel was glad to move away from the conspiring of the Sanhedrin who opposed his doctrine, and he more regularly now had the opportunity to speak to the Jews and Gentiles of Media and Persia.
The word Rabbi is derived from Rav which means ‘my master’ as well as teacher. With the priests no longer having to carry out temple duties during the Babylonian exile until the rebuilding of Zerubbabel’s Temple, the priesthood lost their authority as did their aristocratic land-owning relatives. It was a time to assess just how the kingdom had fallen from The Lord’s favour and divided into two kingdoms and why both kingdoms had been exiled. I am quite sure that following the defeat of Assyria, many deported Israelites of Samaria chose to return to Israel to continue the life of their forefathers, many would not have wanted to continue living in a land in which they had been enslaved. Perhaps they returned to the northern kingdom to claim the farmland and arable land of their former homes. I believe that the majority of the ten tribes constituted what became the Hebrew Diaspora at this time. The Lord’s prophet Jeremiah prophesied that the southern kingdom was soon to be exiled into Babylon, but the palace and priesthood would not believe him. During the exile the teachers of the law (the scribes) became known as sages and assumed the role of senior leaders of the displaced Judeans. Although the scribes and leaders of clans believed their race to be the chosen people, they were not of one mind over how to restore pride and patriotism to the Israelites. The priesthood were Sadducees, they did not believe in the resurrection of the dead, for they only acknowledged the Torah as having been The Lord’s instruction and these five books written by Moses have no passages concerning resurrected life on Earth. The Pharisees and scribes initiated a cult of Rabbinic Judaisers, who together with a compliant priesthood imposed a life-style that they themselves were not able to follow for they could not practice what they preached, even though they expected the devout to adhere to rules and regulations, for which Jesus scorned them (Matthew Ch 23). The Haredi Jew of today may be likened to the Pharisees of old.
The seed of Rabbinic Judaism had replaced Biblical Judaism and was reinforced through synagogue worship and instruction on the re-interpretation of the Scriptures. This advent increased the recognition of the wisdom of the scribes who became the 120 sages of the Great Synagogue. The conjecture that the Oral Tradition (the Oral Law) had been passed down to Moses at Sinai and was therefore equal in authority with the Written Law (the Torah) is not substantiated. Ezra (a priest and scribe, Ezra Ch 7:11) was appointed as the titular priestly head of the Israelites to establish Rabbinic Judaism throughout the Persian Empire (Trans‑Euphrates) Ezra’s religious headship of Jews was approved by Darius I, and throughout the Greek occupation of Judea, Ezra Ch 7:25-26). The gerousia (the ‘senate’) placed responsibility for peaceful and productive behaviour of Jews onto the shoulders of the tribal elders and the predominantly Sadducean priestly aristocracy living among their communities (1 Maccabees Ch 12:6, 2 Maccabees Ch 1:10).
The myth of the Oral Tradition being as authoritative as the Written Law (the Talmud) was perpetuated by Rabbinic Judaism. The sages maintain that Moses instituted the Sanhedrin, a theory which I assume is based on Jethro’s advice (Exodus Ch 18) suggesting that judges be appointed to handle everyday disputes. The sages believed the House of Judah was redeemed, but not the House of Israel, who had by their transgressions became Gentiles. As I understand Rabbinic beliefs the sages were uncertain if females from the House of Judah were saved, for their daily prayer is “Thank God That I was not born a women”. My comment may sound facetious, but the sages offer no explanation of how any female may be redeemed!! Ezekiel Ch 4:5-6 and Isaiah Ch 10 make it clear that the House of Israel (aka the House of Jacob) remains part of the chosen race. I believe the reason for the Sanhedrin’s intransigence over Biblical interpretation was because they wanted to preserve the fallacious belief that to become a child of God, a Gentile including the House of Israel would have to be circumcised and obey the 613 Laws of the Pharisaic Rabbinate.
Other than the hidden codes, I could not imagine better confirmation than Biblical silence, confirming that the five books of Moses had been ‘re-interpreted’ by the sages. That Jesus spent so much of the Gospel castigating rabbinic teaching and their interpretation of God’s Laws is evidence enough to reject rabbinic law. The breaking of the hidden codes reveals God’s signature throughout the Torah, where the acrostic ‘Torah’ is found repeated in each of the five books of Moses, whilst on selecting every seventh letter in the Book of Leviticus (written for the priesthood) the name Jehovah was consistently found to be repeated. Equally amazing and supportive of the belief that God inspired the writers of the 66 Bible books, and the code breakers is the remarkable work of Rabbi Nathan and Archbishop Langton.
Before the rot of worshipping false gods resulted in the Judeans being carried into exile, as a national entity they had exhibited a pride in The Lord. I imagine that the non-priestly caste put the blame for recalcitrance firmly at the door of the priestly Sadducees, who had been responsible for teaching and observing the Torah. The Sadducees did not believe in the resurrection of the dead, as Moses had not mentioned resurrection in his five books, although he had written extensively (in 38 chapters of Genesis) of redemption and covenant promises to Abraham’s descendants. It may be too simplistic, but I see the books of Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers as the meat of redemption eaten and digested between the fruitful slices of barley bread or of yeast-less matza, that may be likened to the books of Genesis and Deuteronomy; all of which is entirely Jewish and form the sandwich of covenantal blessing. Later Rabbinic Judaisers were weaned away from this sandwich by the allure of other delicacies!
Miriam Ruth Malachi in her book Treasures of Darkness writes ‘The kingdom of Judah went into exile but Jews came back’, from which I discern that belief in God was not as paramount as collectively flocking together as patriots to deter any aggressor from invading them, which their leaders believed to be inevitable. Ruth wrote further ‘that the (community) leaders birthed a self-preserving (idolatrous) religious system; in order to preserve their national identity.’ She observes that ‘the result has been that the Jews, even sectors of the contemporary Messianic body, has become inward looking and Jewish identity is exalted above pure devotion to Yeshua Himself.’ The result has been that the calling, inheritance and fruits have not ministered to the nations by Jewish Apostles, Prophets and Disciples, much beyond the end of 100 AD, as those who could testify to first-hand encounters with Jesus died martyrs deaths. The nations of the world are the poorer for this turn of events but the alienation of the Jew was decreed by The Lord to strengthen the faith of the Gentile until the times of the Gentile were fulfilled. Sometime before the Second Coming the spiritual ears, eyes, and heart of the Haredi Jew will be opened, at which time Christ (the stump or root of righteousness) will be revealed to them.
According to the Talmud the synod of the ‘Men of the Great Synagogue’ wrote the Book of Daniel from the Oral Tradition, dated from the time of the Babylonian captivity and offered to the orthodox Jew as biblical history by what became the institutionalised Sanhedrin. Many scholars believe that as many Persian and Greek vernacular words appear in the Books of Esther, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel, they were written following the Maccabean revolt of 167 BC, and the death of Judas Maccabeus, the Hasmonean Kingdom (140-37 BC) was initiated by his brother Simeon (Simon) being chosen by the priesthood and the elders of Israel to be king of Israel in 140 BC, some c400 years after the exile. The more devout believers would not accept this dynastic imposition of a kingly priest and withdrew from what was seen by them as a compromised religious society. On Israel becoming a client kingdom of Rome the unmarried ‘refuseniks’ turned their back on Temple worship and became the pious celibate Essenes, joining with the Qumran Covenanters (who lived as families) based at Qumran.
I consider that the reader has been misled by various redactors under instructions from the Sanhedrin later judiciously amending and reproducing Daniel in particular, owing to the apocalyptic nature of the book. The final agreed presentation of the Book of Daniel reflects the Sanhedrin’s objectives, politically, religiously and philosophically. Josephus wrote of the Pharisees being a philosophical sect who pledged themselves to a strict observance of Levitical purity. I think he meant Levitical subservience! The sages decreed that there should be a prohibition of prophetic books written outside the Holy Land. This statement ignores that restriction concerning the prophetic books compiled by the two Northern-born Hebrew prophets, Jonah and Nahum, who also prophesied outside the Holy Land. Jesus spoke in Matthew Ch 24:15 of Daniel being a prophet. My belief is mainly because the Book of Daniel was ‘relegated’ to the Khetuvim (the Writings) in the Tanakh (the Old Testament that encompassed the Oral Tradition. These writings and deductions are an anthology of writings compiled over 1,000 plus years, it was not supernaturally composed by the author of the 66 books of Scripture.) and not more properly included with the Prophets. The word Tanakh is an acrostic for Torah-the Law, Nevaim-the Prophets, and Khetuvim-the Writings.
The Karaite Jews (see page 169), like the Jewish disciples from the time of Christ, despised Rabbinic Judaism. During the Babylonian captivity the sages (the Tannaim), resolved to re-establish the pride in the racial identity of Jews by imposing their authoritative pronouncements of Scriptural truths of the Tanakh through inventing the Oral Tradition, with all its extra laws imposed. Daniel and Ezekiel would no doubt have argued with their contemporaries and the sages in the light of Jeremiah’s prophecy that the introduction of an Oral Tradition, was against the best interest of the Jews. What any of the priesthood of God can discern is that the Jews had the opportunity to demonstrate that The Lord was opening the way for Gentiles to form a relationship with the living God, without the need for Gentiles to become proselytes to Judaism. Moses is twice recorded in Deuteronomy Ch 31 (verses 9 and 24) of having written God’s law. Jesus quoted from each of the five books of the Torah, and attributed their writing to Moses through 165 direct quotes. Jesus did not endorse the Oral Tradition!
There are some religious sects of Jews, such as the Chasidim and the Mitnagdim, who believe in the whole of the Tanakh (written Scripture) but not the amplified rabbinic Oral Tradition. Neither do such sects believe that Jesus is the Messiah and they also reject Greek Hellenism in all its forms. The Samaritans were not involved in these arguments, similar to the Sadducees they did not accept the Oral Tradition, or even the Tanakh. It is true that the committee of sages had the advantage of having taken into account the writings of the Major Prophets (Isaiah, Amos, Hosea and Micah) who had spoken of resurrection, but the complete range of Scripture reveals that they were selective in what they adopted as doctrine. Jesus was forever taking the Pharisaic Rabbinic Judaisers to task over their interpretation of God’s Laws as had done the prophet cum priest Ezekiel in Ch 34.
Owing to intermarriage many Jews of the Diaspora may not have spoken Hebrew having never lived in Israel, although they may have been aware of Hebraic heritage and laws. A deputation of Jews living in the Greek Empire petitioned Aristeas to suggest a translation into the Greek language of the Hebrew Scriptures to King Ptolemy. As an outstanding patron of literature Egyptian King Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-246 BC) inaugurated one of the world's cultural wonders in the great Library of Alexandria.
The Gentile had only to be obedient to the Ten Commandments and the laws given in the Noahic Covenant, they were to be saved by the grace of God alone just as their Jewish brethren are (Acts Ch 15:4-21). I can imagine the non-resolved arguments between Daniel and the Tannaim (tanna translated means ‘to hand down orally’), with Daniel and Ezekiel clearly advocating that the Israelites from the former Northern Kingdom (Samaritans), and the Israelites who had entered the Diaspora, thus escaping deportation to Assyria or Babylon by emigrating, had a need based on the whole of the Tanakh, to build a relationship with their God (who was also the God of the Gentiles).
Inevitably Cyrus would have had the passages of Isaiah Ch 44:28-Ch 45:13 recounted many times to him as a child and later as part of his political/religious historical studies. Cyrus had been tutored from childhood concerning his future role as king and that the formation of his character was influenced by his Jewish grandmother Esther and Daniel. Daniel was very much a spiritual advisor to the young prince, and advised Cyrus to read the prophecies of Isaiah and Jeremiah that he would ‘one day’ rule an empire that would include Media and Babylonia. There was the proviso in those prophecies that in order to fulfil his role of The Lord’s anointed servant Cyrus would have to grant the right of return for the Israelites and to fund the cost of rebuilding Jerusalem’s Temple to its former glory. Cyrus had reservations regarding The Lord’s involvement in his life that immediately disappeared on his becoming king of Media without a battle taking place. He accepted that Daniel had not embellished Scripture just to satisfy his personal human desires and position of administrative authority. Cyrus was crowned king of Persia in 559 BC and of Media in 551 BC.
It is recorded in the Babylonian Chronicles (Chronicle 7) that Astyages of Media in 551 BC marched his armies against the armies of his grandson Cyrus of Persia. The Median army rebelled against their autocratic (non-conformist) ruler and refused to fight against (Zoroastrian) Cyrus' army handing King Darius the Mede (at that time 86 years of age) and his kingdom over to Cyrus, believing that Cyrus would prove to be a more emancipated ruler than his dictatorial grandfather had been. At this triumphant point Cyrus issued his decree of Israel’s restoration. His decree was not dependant on Babylonia in 539 BC suing for peace.
Although the Judeans were under vassalage to Babylon, Cyrus, on becoming king of Media in 551 BC, declared his vowed intentions (in accordance with Isaiah Ch’s 44:28 - Ch 45:5) of allowing the Judeans to return to Judah: to rebuild their temple, to reconstruct the city of Jerusalem and to fortify the city walls. Darius was placed under house arrest until his death in 540 BC but allowed to retain his kingly title. Media became a vassal kingdom subject to Persian rule. Cyrus chose not to invade Babylon during the lifetime of his grandfather Darius the Mede out of respect for his short but important custodial reign over Babylonia, which confirms King Cyrus to have been an emancipated, egalitarian monarch. A scroll of Cyrus’ decree announcing the freedom of the Judeans to return and rebuild the temple was found stored in the royal archives of Susa (one of the four capital cities of Persia) the city in which Daniel was buried. If the decree had been issued in Babylon the scroll would have been found in the Babylonian archives. I imagine that Daniel died before Babylonia was invaded and never returned to Jerusalem, accounting for Daniel’s burial in Susa.
It can be read in Isaiah Ch 44:28-Ch 45:2 that Cyrus was the Lord’s anointed shepherd who would decree the rebuilding of Jerusalem, and that the Lord would overcome the formidable fortification, leaving the city without protection. At the time of the subjugation of Babylonia by Cyrus' army in 539 BC, King Nabunaid (Nabonidus) was campaigning in Tema to the north of his empire (and therefore not in a position to defend his capital city). Nabonidus never attended any religious celebrations in honour of the Babylonian god Marduk (the chief deity of the territory) but rather spent considerable periods of his reign visiting every province of his empire, promoting the power of the Chaldean god Sin as superior to Marduk. This behaviour had alienated any loyalty the Persians may have fostered for their former Assyrian overlords. Belshazzar had been co-regent with his father for the whole of his father’s 17 year reign (557-539 BC). Josephus writes in Antiquities X.IX.4 that the name of Belshazzar is inscribed on the Babylonian Cylinder as the son of King Nabonidus. ‘When Cyrus became ruler of Babylon Nabonidus was banished to Carmenia, where he lived out his life in peace’. Having heard reports that the cities of both Opis and Sippar had fallen to the invading armies, Nabonidus’ son King Belshazzar, rather than suffer a defeat in battle, chose to be in Akkad on manoeuvres with his troops. Quite possibly Cyrus had sent emissaries to the two Babylonian kings, offering to spare their lives if they accepted their dethroning. No death of any king is recorded in the Babylonian Chronicles around the years of the occupation of Babylonia. Cyrus did not order the killing or maiming of either of the deposed Babylonian co‑regent kings, he only banished them from the land. King Cyrus did not impose his religion on his subjects, as was the normal practice of those times, rather he allowed every citizen the right to worship the god of their choice. Berosus, a Babylonian priest and historian wrote: The Babylonian priesthood were allowed to relocate to the latest acquisition of the empire, Asia Minor under threat of death if they attempted to return. From 546 BC Cyrus’ armies had conquered the Lydian Empire of King Croesus and occupied Sardis the principal fortress and capital city of Asia Minor (modern-time Greece and Turkey). The Babylonian priesthood who followed Marduk would have sought protection from the Persian army if they had been in any danger. They were granted approval to practice and extend their faith amongst the Greek god worshippers of Asia Minor, which proved acceptable to many of the endemic people who embraced this new faith. Cyrus was able to control the whole of Asia Minor from Sardis.
Cyrus had no need to rule Babylonia with a rod of iron, for the Babylonians welcomed him as a beneficent monarch, just as the Medes had done. In 539 BC Cyrus appointed Zerubbabel (Sheshbazzar) as governor of Judea and commissioned him to make the arrangements for an orderly return of the House of Judah from exile. Governor Zerubbabel was entrusted with the returned temple treasures together with impressive contributions of silver and gold from the Babylonian people, to defray the costs of rebuilding the destroyed temple. Until the Rehum took the treasures to Babylon the artefacts and gold had presumably been hidden within the confines of Zerubbabel’s home (Ezra Ch 1:7-11).
The return from exile by caravan train was no minor undertaking and took place in 536 BC. The Judeans needed time to honour unfulfilled contractual pledges and dispose of their homes and businesses etc, the arrangements to return from exile could well have taken three years to organise. Having entered into established Babylonian businesses on intermarriage, or into profitable joint racial businesses many Judeans would have decided to remain in Babylon. Before the caravan train departed Zerubbabel would have ensured adequate food provisions to last for the duration of the journey, giving sufficient opportunity for the returnees to plant crops in their homeland, for the reaping of perhaps the barley harvest in June and the wheat harvest in September. It was also a priority for the priests to rebuild the Altar of Sacrifice to offer thanksgiving for each harvesting. The returnees did restore the temple foundations within months of reconstructing the Altar of Sacrifice, but the returnees were more concerned with restoring their former homes and livelihoods. It had always been the intention to recommence worship of God, centred around the temple sacrifices. However the faith of the Judeans had become compromised by the imposition of the Oral Tradition that had been imposed by Rabbinic Judaism. Sir Isaac Newton believed that The Lord had inserted a cryptogram into the Scriptures, that would reveal the timing of mankind being reunited with the Messiah and the timing of the second return from exile in the Diaspora. Newton noticed that on converting the number of days each year in the civil calendar into the number of days in a Babylonian year, it was possible to ascertain at what period in world history the Jews would be free to govern themselves independently once again. Multiplying the antitypical 2,520 (years) by 360 (days) a sum of 907,200 days resulted, by dividing this sum by 365.25 (the number of days in a Gregorian year) a total of 2,483.88 years results. On adding 2,483.88 years to 536 BC a date in 1948 is arrived at, but Newton did not have the advantage of a computer to investigate his suppositions. I do not believe revelation of the Second Coming was given to anyone before the 1948 return, but increasingly as the day approaches and the labour pains of this world increase in intensity and rapidity, so The Lord is telling the elect to prepare for death, for the nations hate Christians increasingly (Matthew Ch 24:7-13). Many Judeans were living out their exile in Babylonia, whilst many others were exiled into Media, as can be read from the Book of Esther.
On the rejection of the offer of assistance in the rebuilding of the temple by their neighbours (the time-honoured enemies of Judah, who were the tribes of Moabites, Ammonites and the nomadic Arabs; 20 years later these tribes were personified in Nehemiah Ch 2:19 as Sanballat the Horonite (who may have been of the priesthood of the moon god Sin), Tobiah the Ammonite and Geshem, the leader of the wandering Arabs of the desert. The Jews were threatened with dire consequences if they continued with the rebuilding programme (Ezra Ch 4). These three Samaritan leaders were aware that their leaders a few years earlier had been frustrated in their attempt to prevent the rebuilding of the temple. The current three leaders threatened concerted action against the Judeans if they attempted to rebuild the city walls. Their threatening intimidation came to nothing due to the prayerful response of Nehemiah. 
Bible scholar and archaeologist Hugo Winckler believed that Ezra’s mission to Jerusalem commenced in 515 BC, the year after the completion of the temple’s rebuilding, during the seventh year of Darius I’s reign (not the seventh year of King Artaxerxes Longimanus’ reign, 464‑423 BC, Ezra Ch 7:8). Ezra may have been appointed earlier, possibly by Cyrus, and visiting Jewish communes throughout Trans-Euphrates before arriving in Jerusalem to bless the rebuilt temple and to give instruction to the priests and Levites (possibly during the Feast of Tabernacles, when he may have read the Books of the Laws of Moses to the assembled people, as he did at the completion of the rebuilding of the wall in 502 BC). Faulstitch is convinced that the Artaxerxes of Ezra Ch 6:14 and Ch 7:12-26 was Darius I, for the earliest of the Elephantine Letters, written by scribes from the colony of Jews living in Egypt were undated, thereby identifying that the earliest of these letters were written during the early years of the reign of Darius I in the 6th century BC. The system of double dating (recording the date twice, first using the Persian system and secondly that of the Hebrew calendar system) was introduced early into the 5th century BC, well into the reign of Darius I. A letter labelled C17 Marcheswan 19 (the 11th November), Epiphi 7, double dates the year of being written, as ‘year 37 of Artaxerxes’. This proves that this letter could not have been written during the reign of the son of Darius I. This letter also substantiates that Darius I was also known and equally referred to as Artaxerxes. King Xerxes reigned for only 21 years (486‑465 BC). Through the process of elimination the letters could not have been written during the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus (464-423 BC) who was the only Persian king to reign for a complete 40 years. The Persian kings were quite prepared to allow all subjugated people groups to worship the god of their choice and were agreeable to the construction of temples of worship to foreign gods. The leading Samaritans may have applied for permission to rebuild the Gerizim Temple in Shechem in Samaria as early as 536 BC on the refusal of the Judeans to allow any ‘impure’ neighbours (these people may have been from the breakaway Northern kingdom, or perhaps descendants of the Sidonians who had married Samaritans) to assist in the rebuilding of the Jerusalem Temple.
From 536-522 BC, during the reigns of Cambyses II (539-529 BC, who was also the son of Cyrus) and of King Hystaspes (529-522 BC) until the first year of Darius I’s reign in 522 BC, the Judeans were content to concentrate on rebuilding their homes, the city infrastructure and the surrounding agricultural settlements, restoring stability. I have often wondered why Ezra and the other leaders had not returned to Jerusalem with the main contingent of returnees, and have a suspicion it was because they were waiting for confirmation that both Daniel and Ezekiel had died and could no longer contest the legitimacy of the Oral Tradition. I have speculated further that Ezra made representations to King Darius I for himself to be elevated to Trans‑Euphrates as teacher of Rabbinic Judaism to the Jews that were scattered throughout the Persian Empire, and that the appointment was made, following the razing of the fortifications of Babylon in 520 BC, on Darius becoming aware of a plot to revolt against his Empire. Ezra Ch 7: 11-26 states that it was King Artaxerxes who gave Ezra written authority to act on his behalf to enforce Rabbinic Judaism on pain of death, banishment and confiscation of property. I agree with Winckler and Faulstitch’ summation and dating of events and personalities, and believe it was King Darius I who put the royal seal on Ezra’s letter of authority.
The Samaritans (if indeed they represent the House of Israel) had been antagonistic neighbours over many years, and during the 14 years since the Judeans had returned, the Samaritans had witnessed the improvements being made in re-establishing the Judean community. It is likely that the application of the Samaritans to rebuild the Gerezim Temple was not submitted to the appropriate authorities until the Judeans began rebuilding the Jerusalem Temple in 520 BC. As long-standing enemies the Samaritan leaders wrote a petition of complaint to Rehum the Military Commander of Trans-Euphrates, warning him of the intention of the Israelites to withhold payment of the annual tribute and their intent to drive the Persians out of Judah. Obviously the reigning authorities would not countenance tribal infighting once the Persians came to power, and protested through the reigning authorities. Rehum added his own suspicions in a ministerial letter of warning to the recently crowned King Darius I of Persia, advising that the Judeans throughout history had been a rebellious people, who would be planning insurrection from a fortified rebuilt city. The king acted on palace advice and compelled the Judeans to cease construction of the temple. Some months later (on 28th August 520 BC), the prophet Haggai rebuked Zerubbabel and Joshua the high priest for failing to rebuild the House of God, in preference to prioritising the community rebuilding programme. Haggai advised the leaders that the returnees were not prospering because The Lord was exasperated, not only with the leaders of the House of Judah but also with the priesthood, for not urging the people to rebuild the temple. Haggai in Ch 3:15-19 (paraphrased) said:
“I struck all the work of your hand with blight, mildew and hail. From this day forth I will bless you if you concentrate your efforts on rebuilding the temple.”
The priesthood and leadership repented and instructed the Judeans that the rebuilding of the temple would have to take precedence over all other priorities. The building activity was reported to Governor Tattenai of Trans-Euphrates, (probably by Shethar-Bozenai a Persian official). As a senior civil servant (and not a military man per se) Tattenai was only concerned whether planning consent had been granted and complied with. He was totally indifferent to the machinations of the Military Commander of Trans‑Euphrates! Tattenai convened a meeting in Jerusalem with Governor Zerubbabel and Joshua the high priest to discuss this impasse. The Judean leaders were emphatic that King Cyrus had decreed permission for the Judeans to rebuild the temple. Tattenai wrote a letter to King Darius I (Ezra Ch 5:8-17), asking that a thorough investigation be carried out into the authenticity of this claim. The restored temple was not as grand as its predecessor, but more importantly the Ultra Orthodox through the narrow-minded elitist government, chose not to rebuild the ‘Altar of Witness’ that had been built for Gentiles at which to gather for worship, offer sacrifice, or receive instruction from the priests, between the main hall and the outer court in front of the portico, between the two bronze pillars at the entrance of Solomon’s Temple. The pillar to the south named Jakin, and the pillar to the north named Boaz, which the Freemasons have understood as providing supernatural strength, but a power that escaped recognition by the Jews and Christians. The Jewish religious, elitist fundamentalists were totally opposed to Gentiles, but hid their hatred of the Gentile in an unhealthy form of inward-looking religious fantasy that excluded Gentiles from the presence of God.
Having been appointed as overseer throughout Trans‑Euphrates of the observance of Rabbinic tradition. Ezra departed from Babylon, together with the priests and Levites and the remainder of the leaders of the tribes of Benjamin and Judah. Ezra had been entrusted with silver and gold to finance the cost of purchasing animals for sacrifice (Ezra Ch 7:15-20). Ezra’s duty was to instruct orthodox Jews in correct conformity to Sabbath Law, sacrifices, dietary laws (Hebrew kashrut) and purification. Ezra was also to give instruction on the observation of Festivals and to advise over which breed of animals and how many of each type were to be sacrificed at festivals and on other occasions, whilst familiarising the faithful with the revealed word of The Lord through the Tanakh.
It could only have been accepted through the perceived need of what became the Sanhedrin, wishing to install Rabbinic Judaism as an alternative to Moses’ unique but specific understanding of God’s Law. Surely this racist interpretation of God’s word only arose with the advent of the synagogue system of rabbinic jurisprudence. The Law was given to distinguish the kingdom of priests, not to separate them from the faithful of the Gentile nations who have become their brothers in the family of God.
Shecaniah reported to Ezra, that many returning Judeans had been unfaithful to The Lord through marrying Chaldeans, whose tribes worshipped ancestral territorial gods (Ezra Ch 9). Ezra put the leading priests and Levites under oath to enforce divorce in such marriages. Shecaniah had been a convert to Rabbinic Judaism, such converts are invariably bigoted and opposed to their former faith. His own mother was a ‘foreigner’, and heartlessly the husbands had to divorce their wives and banish them and their children during desperately cold and wet winter months (Ezra Ch10:1-44). Those Judeans who refused to divorce were deemed to be ‘religiously unclean’ and were therefore ‘unholy’, leading to their expulsion from the ‘assembly of the exiles’ (Ezra Ch 10: 8). I am devastated that intermarriage between the races’, a custom that had been practised by both Joseph and Moses should have been rejected by Ezra. The Judeans were meant to illuminate the life of their spouses and the children of their marriages through the grace of God. Many Orthodox Judeans who had married outside the faith accepted Ezra’s decree and divorced, but many refused to accept their leader’s high‑handed decisions, choosing to return to Babylon, or move into Samaria and worship with others who had more properly understood the prophesy of Isaiah Ch 49:6 and Ch 56:7, that the Jew should be a light for the Gentiles, and that the temple was to be a house of prayer for all nations, or the prophecy of Ezekiel Ch 37;15-28, that the two people groups were to be one nation under God, sharing the same covenantal promises.
Josephus wrote that Sanballat’s daughter had married Manasseh, the son of Nehemiah the high priest. It seems certain that the priests and Levites who had intermarried and were no longer permitted to worship with the ‘pure and holy’ families in the temple; were invited to teach on the Torah at the Gerizim Temple. Following the two passages detailing the Ten Commandments (Exodus Ch 34:28, and Deuteronomy Ch 4:13), a verse has been added in the Samaritan Torah saying that The Lord commanded the Hebrews to construct an Altar of Sacrifice on Mount Gerizim, that I presume led to the initial construction of the Gerizim Temple. The Samaritan version of the Torah has reversed the names of Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim (and therefore the mountains from which the blessings and cursings of the tribes of Israel were made). Deuteronomy Ch 27:12-13 speaks of six sons (tribes) of Jacob, Reuben and Zebulun by Leah, his ‘unloved’ wife, and those by the maidservants of his wives Bilhah and Zilpah (Dan, Naphtali, Gad and Asher) casting curses on their favoured brothers, who were at the same time bestowing blessings from Mount Gerizim. The Samaritans deny the spiritual authority of the Old Testament books other than the Torah and the Book of Joshua.
I had retired to bed on the 21st December 1998 pondering over the destruction of Babylon. I had been puzzled over why King Darius had so soon into his reign ordered the destruction of Babylon, for the Babylonians had been a peaceful, obedient, productive people, substantially adding growth and stability to Persia’s economy for over 20 years of occupation. Rehum and Tattenai must have been startled when the Persian Army in 520 BC swept into Babylon totally destroying the walled city’s fortifications. The revelation was given to me during the night. On my awakening the following morning, I knew that King Darius I had sent treasury officials to investigate the whereabouts of the temple treasures entrusted to Zerubbabel and found that under Rehum’s instructions they had been placed in the city treasury of Babylon ‘for safekeeping’ against possible ransacking, of which the Persian king had not given approval. The scroll of Cyrus’ decree to rebuild the temple also itemised the 5,400 temple treasures of silver and gold entrusted to Governor Zerubbabel that had been confiscated into the Babylonian treasury. The assurance was given that the cost of the rebuilding of the temple would be paid for from the Persian treasury. King Darius I replied to Governor Tattenai’s enquiry informing him of the existence of the scroll of Cyrus, deducing that the charge of insurrection made by Rehum against the Judeans may have been contemplated by Rehum himself! The value of this accumulated treasure in the Babylonian treasury would have financed a major uprising and the fortified city of Babylon was a perfect power base from which to organise a revolution. King Darius I acted decisively, and ordered the destruction of the walls and the city.
Following the Greek Empire replacing the Persian Empire, many Israelites emigrated more widely throughout the Graeco-Roman world. Many previously observant Judeans embraced Greek philosophical humanistic Hellenism as freedom from the restrictions of Judaism allowing them self-expression without guilt. Inevitably Hellenism became very popular, particularly amongst non-practicing Jews. Many Judeans retained their ‘Jewishness’ whilst becoming less devout and less frequently offering sacrifices or making the annual pilgrimages to the Jerusalem Temple, to celebrate one or more of the annual festivals. The Greeks were tolerant of foreign religions and cults, consequently they demanded the same tolerance from foreigners. The Haredi Jews were not prepared to allow images of foreign gods to be displayed in their synagogue or in their homes. Throughout the centuries Jews have been heavily punished for their non-conformity. But The Lord said in my paraphrasing of Zechariah Ch 9:13:
“I will use all the tribes of Israel to fight against you Gentile nations.”
Panin believed that the rebuilding of the temple together with its walls and gates is implied in the Scriptures. This fact suggests that Nehemiah was involved in the development of the infrastructure of the city. Winckler dates Nehemiah’s rebuilding of the walls and city as in the 20th year of the reign of Darius I in 502 BC, which was the 49th (7²) year following Cyrus’ decree (of 551 BC), with which Jerome agreed. Nehemiah did not appear to be a follower of Rabbinic law. In recognition of his cupbearer Nehemiah’s loyal service King Darius I appointed Nehemiah as Governor of Jerusalem. Although Nehemiah’s main task was to oversee the rebuilding of the walls which took only 52 days, he remained in office for 12 years returning some years later for a second term of unspecified duration.
On the death of Alexander the Great (in 323 BC) two of his four generals founded dynasties, the Ptolemys in Egypt and the Seleucids in Syria, each contended for control of Judah for more than a century. Following the overthrowing of the Seleucids the Sanhedrin agreed that the Scriptures would be translated into Greek, for study and observation of the Jews of the Diaspora who in increasing numbers lived in Greek-speaking nations. They further agreed that Jonathan of the Kohanim (the priestly descendants of the blood-line of Aaron, via Zadok the high priest during the period of King David’s reign), was to become the next High Priest. It was due to this ecumenism that the 70 strong membership of the Sanhedrin established itself as the leaders of the people over theological, ethical, civil, and political matters; its head being the High Priest a direct descendant of Aaron. In the times of King Herod, the Sadducean priesthood, who were landowners of wealth under their rigorist leader Shammai, verbally contested to be the final arbitrators of Rabbinic (aka Orthodox) Judaism, while the Pharisees of the school of the more liberal scholar Hillel (a commoner but learned man of the people) emerged victorious. Basically the Sadducees believed that Temple worship was the main purpose of the Mosaic Law, whereas the sages stressed individual compliance in every situation of life, were all aspects of the Law, and that Temple worship was only a part of the reason for that compliance. From this time forward those Jews who accepted the definition of Law extolled by the sages and the teachers of the Law were called respectfully rabbi by a patriotic society that had accepted the interpretation of the dead letter of the Law which was finally received as Rabbinic Judaism.
· The first of the three pre-Diaspora seven year periods of tribulations started in 171 BC when Antiochus Epiphanes IV ordered the murder of Onias III the high priest, who was the last direct descendant of Aaron. Having occupied fortified Jerusalem, Antiochus forced his way into the Holy of Holies, destroying the scrolls of the Holy Scriptures. He then cooked a sow on the sacrificial Altar, sprinkling all the implements of worship, completely defiling the sanctuary. Antiochus appointed Hellenists Jason and Menelaus as high priests in his stead. Their task was to undertake the replacing of the worship of God with the sacrilege of worshipping idols of false gods through the offering of illegitimate sacrifice imposed by Antiochus, who ruled Syria during the period 175‑164 BC. Antiochus thought of himself as a manifestation of God but he accepted the Greek belief in a pantheon of gods, although he recognised that mortality was ephemeral. The priest Matitiyahu, whose full name was Yehuda ben Matthias (Judas Maccabeus) slew a Hellenist priest who was preparing to administer an illegitimate sacrifice and then slew the Syrian overseer sent to ensure that the sacrilegious ceremony was carried out. The Maccabeans were determined not to have their Mosaic sacrificial system interfered with by the Seleucids. It was illegitimate sacrifice that ignited the Maccabean revolt over the period 171‑164 BC. Matitiyahu and his five sons all gave their lives in perpetuating a religious cum patriotic revolution which resulted in the occupying army being vanquished
Following this victory the Temple was cleansed, resulting in the introduction of the annual eight day celebration of Hanukkah. Jonathan, followed by his younger brother Simon were ‘favourably reported as being considered as not only high priest but king, and briefly ruled as such. Many dedicated Jews said that they were ‘awaiting a king in David’s line’, but the Sanhedrin overruled and declared Simon as king of Judah. Over many years, the descendants of the Hasmonean Dynasty became unspeakably corrupt. In 140 BC Judah was offered as a Roman protectorate, in effect to become a buffer-zone in the event of an attack on the Roman Empire from the east. Political reformers became the parties of the Sadducees and the Pharisees, who became the government (the Sanhedrin). In overthrowing the yoke of Seleucid oppression, Judea recaptured most of the land that King David had ruled over, and Simeon’s subjects forcibly converted all of the captives from those nations to Judaism, a procedure practiced by other religions even today.
· The second seven year period of Judean tribulation commenced in 68 BC on the death of Queen Salome, who had succeeded her husband Alexander Janneus as ruler of Judah. He had ruled as priestly king from the turn of the 2nd century BC until his death in 76 BC. In the days of Queen Salome, more Pharisees and scribes who supported the royal palace were elevated to the aristocracy. Queen Salome elevated her eldest son John Hyrcanus II to serve as high priest. At his mother’s death the younger brother Aristobulus II raised an army to contest John’s claim to the throne. I received a revelatory word of knowledge that The Lord spoke (through the Scriptures) to John Hyrcanus II who believed (from the passage in 1 Kings Ch 11:31) as had Jeroboam, that he should offer no resistance to Aristobulus’ claim to the throne. John abdicated and seceded the role of king and high priest to his younger brother Aristobulus. I sense this ‘seizing’ of the throne to be an allusion to the servant Jesus returning at the Second Coming as the triumphant Messianic King wresting the thrones of power from the nations of the world.
· The third seven year period of Judean tribulation occurred some years after Jesus’ death during the period of the uprising against Roman rule (67-74 AD). It is because of those two earlier seven year periods of tribulation, brought about through Judean conflict with the Roman armies (the horns), that I believed a further ‘mirror image’ of those earlier occasions would take place, prior to the Second Coming of Christ.
General Pompey prior to his army invading Syria rested his forces in Jerusalem whilst considering the changes to this Roman protectorate. Aristobulus gave Pompey a gift of a facsimile of a grape vine carved in gold (valued at 500 talents). General Pompey responded by acknowledging Aristobulus as governor and high priest whilst refusing to grant him kingship. Aristobulus unwisely chose to infiltrate and populate a region of Syria just across the Judean border. cleansed of Syrian dissidents by the Roman army. In 64 BC, 3½ years into Aristobulus’ appointment as governor, Pompey’s army, having defeated Syria, returned to the City of Jerusalem, ruthlessly slaughtering some 12,000 ill-equipped but religiously devout Jews, including the priests on duty in the temple. Pompey then triggered the second period of the Judean tribulation by outlawing the daily sacrifice. Aristobulus II was spoken of as ‘the anointed one who will be cut off’’ (as prophesied in Daniel Ch 9:26). He was cut off from his previous high calling on being imprisoned in Rome where retaining nothing of value or esteem he died in humble circumstances. This degradation was an allusion to Christ’s vicarious sacrifice. Once again the House of Judah had become a subject people. The honeymoon period during which the Judeans had thought of themselves as allies of the Romans was over. Perhaps the Committee of the Roman Republic did not approve of Pompey’s ruthless action, which may have hastened the break-up of the republic and the rising of the triumvirate.
In 63 BC General Pompey and General Crassus colluded with Julius Caesar, to subvert the Roman Republic into becoming an empire, through forming the first Roman triumvirate. Julius was elevated to Emperor of Rome and became the supreme civic and religious ruler of the empire. Julius introduced the worship of Aeneus as the divine mother, with the corollary that he himself was the divine son. The people of Asia Minor unequivocally accepted the Emperor Julius Caesar as divine, just as Nimrod’s subjects had worshipped their own imagined earthly manifestation of divine royalty. The 70th week of years ended in 61 BC with the political re-appointment of Hyrcanus II as high priest of Judah (3½ years following Aristobulus II’s Roman imprisonment). Daily sacrifices were resumed and Rome attempted to impose upon Judea 'Emperor worship' (first instituted by Alexander the Great) through icons of Julius Caesar being prominently displayed in the temple precincts. The priesthood agreed to offer personal devotions to God and daily sacrifices for the protection and well‑being of Caesar but refused to recognise Julius as divine. This acceptable compromise lasted into the third century.
In 48 BC General Pompey took umbrage at Julius’ arrogant posturing, which was resolved at the Battle of Pharsalus when Julius Caesar’s army triumphed over Pompey’s army. Julius' victory was short lived for he was assassinated three years later in 45 BC. Julius’ successors posthumously honoured his name with the title 'Perpetual Imperator'. A second triumvirate was formulated between Mark Anthony, Lepidus, and Octavian. Mark Anthony was chosen to become Caesar but he was slain in battle by his adversary, the pretender to the throne Octavian (Augustus) who became the undisputed ruler. In 47 BC the Idumean Herod the Great was appointed as procurator of Judea by Julius Caesar but it was Octavian who bequeathed on Herod the title of king of the Jews in 40 BC. In 37 BC Herod abolished the high priestly blood-line system and made the position one of grace and favour based on who would pay the most money in order to secure the post. The cult of worshipping Rome and the Emperor became acceptable from 29 BC, by which time Augustus had circumnavigated the political procedure without infringing the Roman Constitution through securing even greater authoritative powers over his subjects.
Mary’s Immaculate Conception of the Christ and His resurrection from the dead into heaven have been denied by many liberal thinking Christians. Jesus is the only child ever born of woman whose mother’s ovary was not fertilised by a man’s sperm. Some Bishops and Bible scholars have never been persuaded of Jesus Christ’s divinity and have rejected Jesus’ claims. Tertullian wrote in Against Marcian that Jesus was born during Sentius Saturninus’ governorship of Syria (covering the period 9-6 BC). Quirinius served two terms as Governor of Jerusalem (6-4 BC and 6-9 AD) which may have added to the later confusion of dates surrounding Jesus’ birth. Clement of Alexandria dated Jesus’ birth from the Egyptian calendar as Pachom 25 in the 28th year of Augustus (Stromata I,xxi), which is Iyyar 28 in the Hebrew Calendar and the 14th May 6 BC in the Gregorian calendar (page 357). Faulstitch agrees and believes that the conjunction of the planets together with the solar eclipses over Jerusalem, combined with the Biblical and extraneous historical facts establishes his own dating of Christ’s royal birth as being correct. On Sivan 6 (Shavuot) eight days following Jesus’ birth His blood was shed for the first time on His circumcision in accordance with Hebrew practice. Faulstitch discovered that a solar eclipse (which encompassed the hours spoken of in Matthew Ch 27:45-50) had occurred over Jerusalem on Friday 5th April 30 AD, leading him to conclude that this must have been the date of Christ’s death. This contention is supported by Clement of Alexandria, who wrote that Jesus died on Nisan 15 in 30 AD (Pharmouthi 25 in the Egyptian calendar). Other scholars have said that the year of Jesus’ death may have been as late as 33 AD.
Astronomers have recently confirmed that a lunar eclipse occurred over Jerusalem on the 17th April 6 BC. This occurred on the planet Jupiter entering into the House of Aries (King Herod was represented in the astrological circle as Aries the ram). The poll tax census of 6 BC had been the motivation for Joseph taking his pregnant wife Mary to Bethlehem. In July of 5 BC a nova (an exploding star) was recorded as having exploded in the constellation of Aquilla (the Eagle). Possibly this nova was a sign to celebrate the successful escape into Egypt of Christ’s parents from the impending threat of a massacre of all babies born during the previous two years in or near to Bethlehem. Using computer science Faulstitch plotted two solar eclipses occurring over Jerusalem on the first day of the two most holy months Tishrei, the first month of the civil calendar, and Nisan, the first month of the religious calendar, encompassing a seven month period between 7 BC and 6 BC, pointing to the birth of the two cousins John and Jesus.
Faulstitch plotted the orbits of the two wandering planets, Saturn (which the Babylonian astronomers [the Magi] had designated as representing the City of Jerusalem) and Jupiter (the king of the planets, which represents royalty). Saturn and Jupiter remained uniquely in alignment within each other’s orbits for more than one year of the Zodiac (astronomical) calendar encompassing both solar eclipses. In the Spring of 6 BC following Mary’s vision of the angel Gabriel. The planet Mars (the third wandering star) came into conjunction with Saturn and Jupiter and may well have produced the effect in the sky familiarly known as the ‘bright Morning Star’. The Magi knew from the star signs that the nation of Israel had received their kinsman redeemer born to rule from Jerusalem, perhaps the Magi were able to plot the bright star’s position over Bethlehem. It was the normal tradition for priests to be married and to begin their ministry at 30 years of age, a tradition which separated Christ from His contemporaries. Jesus came to Earth to offer a new covenant of circumcision (the covenant of Jeremiah Ch 31:31) first to the Jew and then the Gentile. It has been established that 80% of the Jews of Jesus’ time lived in the Diaspora, yet Jesus was destined to serve His ministry in Israel. He could easily have ministered to the Greek Jews who did not accept the Oral Tradition or Rabbinic Judaism (see footnote 115). Obviously it was necessary for Jesus to beard the instigators of such heresy in the country in which it was being perpetuated. Interestingly in John Ch 12:20-50, Greek God-fearers (proselytes to Biblical Judaism) came seeking to meet with Christ. I have often meditated over Jesus’ saying: “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified.” It is possible to be a believer in a Unitarian god as a Jew or Gentile, but such faith does imply that an aficionado can never intimately know such a god. I believe that the non-Messianic Jew (assuming they are Orthodox Jews) worship an aloof supreme dictator who commands obedience and worship. The unredeemed of the Gentiles worship a capricious material demiurge who will accept hedonistic principles to all who will worship only him. The Church of God recognise the Holy Trinity as a relational God who is most worthy of worship, but desiring more of mankind’s trust in His love and faithfulness towards the believer. Jesus ministered almost exclusively in the region of Galilee, where He appointed his disciples, and persuaded many through His miraculous daytime catch of fish that He was the Son of God ( Luke Ch 5:1-14).
At the age of 12 Jesus’ more exact interpretation of the Mosaic Law was seen by the Temple priesthood to be uniquely understandable while expressing a greater understanding towards one’s neighbours through an all encompassing love. Jesus must have learned a great deal during the following 18 years of His life before His baptism. From which time He spoke with greater authority than the priesthood and the rabbis.
The wedding in Cana had to have been the marriage of one of Jesus’ sisters, for wedding ceremonies were traditionally celebrated in the home of the bride and continued until the following Shabbat. The newly-weds were given an annexe in the home of the bridegroom’s parents. Obviously Joseph was dead at the time of this wedding, for Mary was authorising the decisions at the wedding reception. That Jesus was spoken to by the master of the banquet who said ‘You (first person singular) have saved the best wine till now’, is confirmation that as widowed Mary’s eldest child, Jesus was fulfilling the obligation of the head of the house. Inexplicably only John of the gospel writers wrote of this wedding, although some of Jesus’ disciples attended the wedding celebrations (John Ch 2:2). The synoptic writers chose not to include the story of Jesus’ first miracle. Matthew and Luke wrote of Christ’s birth and Mark wrote of Jesus’ baptism at which they had not been present, therefore there is an unexplained reason why the gospel writers included or chose not to include various incidents that developed their own testimony appertaining to the effect of Jesus’ ministry in their personal circumstances. The synoptic Gospels all treat the episode of Jesus first teaching in Nazareth differently. Jesus’ first message to the people of Nazareth, who knew of His family background, was from the scroll of Isaiah at the commencement of His ministry. He read from Isaiah Ch 61, advising His listeners that He had come to proclaim the Year of the Lord’s favour. He stopped reading midway through verse 2, for the Day of the Lord’s vengeance is against the occupying forces of Satan, not a human occupying army.
Following the Cana wedding Jesus returned to Galilee, on His purposeful pilgrimage to the Jerusalem Temple, to take part in the Passover celebrations. In anger at the irreverence displayed at the temple, He caused havoc in the Court of the Gentiles by overturning the money-changers tables and causing the traders selling the animals of sacrifice to flee in disarray. During the eight-day celebration Jesus performed many miracles (John Ch 2:2), and Nicodemus amongst others of the Sanhedrin, the Jerusalemites and those on pilgrimage from the Diaspora were persuaded that Jesus was the awaited Messiah (John Ch 2:12-Ch 3:21).
During His final year of ministry Jesus attended the eight-day celebration of the Feast of Tabernacles. John Ch 10 reveals that Jesus Christ visited Jerusalem at Hanukkah prior to the Pesach (Passover) in which He was crucified (see page 111) not to celebrate the Festival but to bring more ongoing spiritual light than the Hanukkah menorah could supply (Luke Ch 11 33-36). The zealots and the Judaisers tried to provoke Jesus to confirm that He was the Messiah, the warrior king that the Israelites were expecting in order that they could rally behind Him, in revolting against the Roman oppressors. Jesus was warning His hearers that an adulterous generation in the years of the Great Tribulation would receive only the sign of Jonah recording His return as the victorious Son of Man, to free the people of the kingdom of God from their earthly satanic environments by Rapturing His Church. Christ’s appearance before the celebrating Hanukkah crowds in Jerusalem, was part of the fulfilment of His earthly service as a servant to mankind. The warrior king will not appear until the end of the final period of Great Tribulation.
This Hanukkah pilgrimage was less than two months prior to the offering of Himself as the final Passover Lamb. The zealots were not alone in their belief that the Messiah to come would be a man who would rally the Jews to overthrow their oppressors. John the Baptist sent a messenger from prison asking Jesus if He was the one who was to come. The Apostles also questioned Jesus if it was at this time He was going to restore the kingdom (of David).
That the story of Jesus’ anointing by his friend Mary at her home in Bethany is presented in John Ch 12 in a different context to that of Luke Ch 7 of Jesus’ anointing by the unnamed prostitute in the home of Simon the Pharisee, only confirm that the Gospel writers were emphasising different nuances of Christ’s ministry. I have long believed that Luke’s account of Simon representing the self-righteous Sanhedrin in scorning Jesus’ divinity on being invited as an honoured guest to his home, was a reflection of the humiliation and treatment of Jesus at His mock trial by the leaders, who should have granted Him the respect that His ministry deserved. I received a revelatory word of knowledge that Simon was the secret client of the prostitute, and had seen this lady let her hair down many times before. It was considered as brazen to reveal a breast, or to undo one’s tresses in the presence of anyone but one’s husband, but in her repentance of her former life, in her lover’s house, she was openly prepared to humiliate herself before the servants and other guests. She may have been aware of Simon’s plot to humiliate Jesus. Like Simon, Jesus was aware of the prostitute’s background and knew that her overtures did not contain sexual connotations. By relating a parable Jesus forced Simon to acknowledge that he who has more of which to repent should recognise just how much has been forgiven through penitence rather than through personal achievement. Traditionally Jesus should have been greeted by the host at the door and kissed on both cheeks as one of equal status. The servants and other guests should also have formed a welcoming group to greet this rabbi at the door. His hand should have been kissed by them all as a statement acknowledging Jesus’ superior position in society. Simon should have ordered a servant to wash the dust from Jesus’ feet and to anoint His head with refreshing cooling oil. It is certain that the other guests, who were probably participants in the plot were so received.
Jesus deemed it necessary to point out Simon’s ignorance of etiquette by publicly praising the prostitute who had demeaned herself by pouring her tears and her expensive nard over Jesus’ feet and then cleansing His feet with her hair continuously kissing his feet in her wish to revere Him. That Simon scornfully addressed Jesus as ‘teacher’ instead of rabbi and only reluctantly admitted to Jesus his own arrogant shortcomings through an illustrative parable (‘I suppose’, verse 43) was further evidence of the contempt the establishment exhibited towards Jesus. The planned humiliation of Jesus by Simon and his guests rebounded on them.
Jesus set His face to prepare Himself to die for the sins of the world at the following Passover. He set out with His Apostles for Jerusalem staying overnight en‑route at Ephraim but delaying the completion of His journey in order to arrive in Bethany on the fourth day of Lazarus’ entombment. The news of the raising of Lazarus and the likelihood of a repeat of the driving out of traders from the Temple decided the chief priests to bribe Judas (which is another name for Judah) with blood‑money to betray Jesus, the result of which led to the stage‑managed trial and execution.
At the Last Supper Jesus said to His disciples: “All of you drink from this cup. Its contents are My blood of the covenant I have entered into with you, which we will next drink together in My Father’s kingdom.” Through Jesus washing the feet of His disciples He was pointing to the fact that each of them through this allusion to their baptism had died to self and were returning to their place in community to testify to Christ as Messiah, prior to the summons from the Father as they prepared for the marriage ceremony. I acknowledge that this illustration is flowery and conditional but it is a further reminder that believers no longer belong to themselves; there is a divine calling on their lives.
The authority of the Sanhedrin brought Jesus before the Roman authorities mainly because High priest Caiaphas had deduced that if Jesus became widely recognised as the Jewish Messiah a revolution would most likely be fermented to overthrow the Roman overlords. Caiaphas was not being altruistic when stating that it was better that Jesus should die rather than the citizens should revolt against the oppressive Roman powers. Because the zealots were patriotic loyalists it was unlikely that they would have been part of the hireling crowd (I am certain that those who did demonstrate were paid to do so by the toadying cronies of the elite Sanhedrin, the self-seeking Sadducees and the Pharisaic teachers and scribes of the law). The clamouring crowds demanded that Barabbas be freed in place of Jesus. The zealots were not followers of Jesus although they were awaiting the arrival of a warrior leader. They were an underground patriotic militia that regularly ambushed the patrolling occupying forces of Rome before melting silently into the community. Once the occupying army’s security became less vigilant, the zealots would mount further attacks.
Jesus accused the teachers of the law and the Pharisees of being hypocrites. They were aware that it was impossible for any person to conform to such unreasonable behavioural standards, yet these men and the priesthood constituted the majority of the Sanhedrin, responsible to the senior high priesthood, who between themselves had formulated such dogmatic policies. The entrenched leaders were intent on engineering Christ’s death, concerned only to protect their outward appearance of humble pious stoic religiosity. In verses 6-8 Jesus stated that these hypocrites placed themselves in the seat of Moses with only their self‑promoting authority to uphold them. They loved to have the most important seats reserved for them at banquets and in the synagogue, and the commoners respected their every word and denial of earthly materialism, even though these hypocrites were only fellow Jews and in no way superior beings. The whole of Matthew Ch 23 was in effect rebuking the Judaisers: “You have only one master and He is your Father in heaven. You have only one teacher and that is Me,-the Christ.” There are a number of reported incidents confirming Christ’s miracles in the Gospels that substantiate Christ’s claim to be the divine Son of God. Jesus’ acceptance and approval by the simple peasant stock, who lived outside the City of Jerusalem, left the political and religious authorities seething with rage.
Jesus was rejected by the Sanhedrin and the Rabbinate (with exceptions). Jesus was prepared to offer His life as a bride‑price for His betrothal to His intended and was rejected, just as the Father had been at Sinai. The Jewish authorities still did not recognise the period of their visitation (Luke Ch 19:44). In John Ch 6:44-51 Jesus plainly told His hearers that He was the fulfilment of the manna sent from heaven, He was the bread of life. The Israelites could only have recognised this as fact if it had been revealed to them by the Father. In Luke Ch 10:22 Jesus said that unless the Father gave revelation those in authority would not recognise (they would deny) the Son of God. St Paul recognised this and wrote in Romans Ch 8:11 that the Spirit that raised Jesus from the dead is now living in the mortal body of believers. It is profound rather than complicated that God is seen as a tripartite Being. The truth of such profundity has to be accepted, it is not contestable and will prove to be undeniable.
The Lord foreknew of the rebellion against His commandments, however a ‘marriage’ had been ‘arranged’, but to occur at a later time. My interpretation of this parable is that Jesus thought of the Rabbinic Judaisers as an elite cultic priesthood, who considered themselves as equally qualified as Moses had been to lead the House of Israel (Numbers Ch 12:1 and Ch 16 substantiate my belief). The Lord was showing His chosen ones that they could not aspire in their human weakness to become a holy nation of priests. The lambs slaughtered at Passover were the first-fruits of the barley harvest that needed substitution. The lambs were replaced by the Lamb of God, who through His vicarious death became the first-fruits of the wheat harvest and the resurrection, which is why believers are buried with Christ in baptism and raised to eternal life with Him, in faith in the power and promises of God the Father to resurrect them at the appointed time (Colossians Ch 2:12). Jesus made the point in Matthew Ch 22:1-14 through the parable of the heavenly wedding feast and the invitation being extended to the poor under‑classes (the Jew and Gentile covered by Christ’s righteousness), that the traditional procedure of a Jewish courtship and marriage followed along similar lines to that which the sages said that The Lord had established at Mount Sinai. Obviously since Christ was resurrected (as the first-fruit of the resurrection), individually disciples are baptised into His death and will be raised to life as He was. The old yeast (leaven) of sin is gone, the new leaven of holiness expressed in the new Covenant replaces the old creation (2 Corinthians Ch 5:17) Christ has taken the place of the yeast in the ‘batch of dough’, and the Holy Spirit enables and corrects the disciple within what has become through purification a temple of righteousness. The true bride will individually accept Jesus as the Son of the Father (see page 69).
Christ had warned that even in Judea the Gentiles would impose their leadership qualities and authority over the Messianic assemblies, owing to the desire of all Gentiles to ‘lord it’ over the natural ‘olive tree’ Church (Matthew Ch 20:25-28). Each of the Jewish house‑church leaders throughout the Diaspora would have sought further enlightenment from the Apostles and presumably gave blanket invitations to every Apostle to testify to their particular church or house group. All church leaders and their congregants were prepared to lay down their lives for their faith. Following Christ’s death until the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple the leaders of the assemblies of Messianic Jews made pilgrimages to Jerusalem. Devout Jews on Temple pilgrimage from the Diaspora (most of whom would not have been aware of Jesus’ ministry) heard Peter’s sermon following the arrival of the Holy Spirit (Acts Ch 2) and many of them accepted Christ. On returning to their homelands the new converts formed groups in their synagogues and if the leadership of the synagogue accepted the witnessing of the ‘followers of the way’, the Messianics remained in the body preaching the Gospel of Christ and discipling new converts. If their testimony was not accepted by the leaders of their home synagogue (Rabbinic Judaisers), they would have withdrawn their support, choosing to meet with like-minded Biblical believers in their homes. Which is what we are informed of as being a felt need to meet regularly together in our homes (Acts Ch 2:46).
The first two chapters focussed on the tripartite God, the remainder of this book is primarily focusing on the Second Coming of Christ when human rule will be replaced by divine rule encouraging the wayward Christian to persevere with determination and resolve to examine the ways of God. I wrote in the earlier chapters of mankind’s self-centred, avaricious sinfulness (which is unrighteousness) and rebellion to the detriment of both himself and his neighbour. Unredeemed mankind myopically fails to recognise, accept and repent of personal unrighteousness and unholiness for which on Judgement Day all mankind will have to give an account of their actions. Christ warns his followers in Revelation Ch 18: 4-5:
“Come out of (mystery) Babylon, for her sins are piled up to Heaven.”
The remainder of this book details mankind’s ever-increasing propensity to sin.
The Lord told the patriarchs that their future prosperity did not lie in living in unholy Egypt. Gentiles are similarly told not to put their confidence in human government and equally not to put one’s faith in beating the world’s system in seeking to climb the ladder of social and material success that Christians recognise as £$Capitalism, alias mystery Babylon or Egypt. In Chapter 2 I précied my understanding of the events and characters involved in Judah’s downfall, the rebuilding of the Jerusalem Temple and the reconstruction of the city walls some 15 years later, using computer science and theomatics, as researched by others. Although this book is not primarily about Christ’s ministry on Earth, it is necessary to glorify His esteemed position. My purpose however is to reveal how the Scriptures reveal the possibility of salvation to generations of Gentiles. In Chapter 3 I will be concentrating on the legacy of the treatment that was meted out to world Jewry by their overlords of yesteryear, the Roman and Ottoman Empire and the increasing anti-Semitism experienced from that period until today.
Most Diaspora Jews were not even on pilgrimage to Jerusalem at the time of Jesus’ death. The Jews of Israel were only 20% of Jews who lived throughout the world. It is illogical to believe in a universal condemnation of Jewish society based on the response of the ‘crowds’, incited by rabble-rousing Pharisees.
Because Jesus Christ was fully human yet sinless and righteous His vicarious death on the cross atoned for the sins of all mankind of every generation. He has imparted His righteousness to those who call on His name and are obedient to Him. The good news of the gospel is that believers become clothed in Christ’s righteousness, for all other humans have been proven guilty of self‑righteous pride, which is as filth in God’s eyes and a state of rebellion. The acceptance of Jesus Christ as redeemer is an imputed gift of grace that enlightens the soul supernaturally, transferring knowledge from the mind to the heart, renewing and sanctifying the converted body into a temple in which the Holy Spirit tabernacles. In John Ch 14:21 Jesus said that He would ask the Father to send another counsellor (Greek parakletos) who is the Spirit of truth. Romans Ch 8 speaks of the counsellor being the Spirit of Christ, whilst 1 Corinthians Ch 2 speaks of the Holy Spirit being the Spirit of God, confirming that the divine Creator is a tripartite God. Our heavenly Father is a supernatural and relational ‘Being’ who is also personal, knowable, lovable, and worthy of mankind’s worship. Very often it is a divine manifestation or a miraculous healing that convinces the non-believer that Christ is alive today. Jesus Christ said that He prayed only for those that the Father had given Him and not the whole of the world’s population, Jesus says in John Ch 15:16 that You did not choose Him, but He chose you; emphasising the need of spiritual revelation to non‑believers and to those of other faiths.
It was some time after the Gentile Cornelius and his family had been baptised in the Holy Spirit, that Barnabas was sent to Antioch and instructed to persuade Paul, who was living in Tarsus, to accompany him on mission, for Paul had proclaimed the Gospel fearlessly to the Jews wherever he preached. Later Paul and Barnabas travelled to Jerusalem to thrash out with the ruling Council at Jerusalem the question of whether Gentiles had to conform to fleshly circumcision and the dietary laws in order to become Disciples of Christ (Acts Ch 15). The Council approved the evangelism of the Gentile nations and the acceptance of Gentiles into the body of the Church (Acts Ch 11:19-22). I believe that the Jerusalem Council wisely decreed that the kashrut laws had been done away with and that the circumcision of one’s heart was all that was needed, with circumcision only necessary for the Messianic believers. Further that universally only the Noahic Covenant, and the Ten Commandments needed to be obeyed by the whole body of the Church. All of mankind on conversion were able to receive the promises of the New Covenant of Jeremiah Ch 31. This passage is little different from Deuteronomy Ch 32:47, in which the people were told that the words spoken by The Lord were not idle (or empty) words but life developing and sustaining. Jesus amplified this passage by saying in an amalgam of scriptures: “My words are spirit and life and eternal, if you should hear them and not obey them, then your life is not based on firm foundations and you will be judged accordingly.” My point is that the Old Testament, should really be called ‘the more ancient and venerated of Testaments’ (and therefore should be taken at face value) and the New Testament should not be thought of by Catholic or Protestant scholars and theologians, as being better interpreted as a fulfilment of the Old Testament, the New Testament is an extension of the Old. The later ‘revelations’ supposedly contained in the Koran or the Book of Mormon have no value to Bible believing Jews and Christians. Paul’s team of evangelists ministered from Syrian Antioch and Psidian Antioch both of which towns have been absorbed into present-day Turkey.
I have often meditated over Jesus’ announcement in the John Ch 12 passage, having heard that Greek Gentiles were wishing an audience with Him said: “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified.” My instincts (or perhaps a revelation) told me that St Paul had great vision in declaring in 1 Corinthians Ch 10:32 that there are only three races of people throughout the world unredeemed Jews, Gentiles and the Church of God. It is possible to be a Jew or Gentile without being a Son of God. I believe that the non-Messianic Jew (assuming they are Orthodox Jews) worship an aloof supreme dictator who commands obedience and worship. The unredeemed of the Gentiles worship a capricious material demiurge who will accept hedonistic principles to all who will worship only him. The Church of God recognise the Holy Trinity as a relational God who is most worthy of worship, but desiring more of mankind’s trust in His love and faithfulness towards the believer.
The Sanhedrin intended to continue implementing the way of Rabbinical Judaism and were intent in advocating eternal damnation for those Jews who did not follow Rabbinic doctrines but rather chose to follow Jesus the Christ, who plainly accomplished miracles that could only be attributed to the Godhead. The Lord’s rejection of the earthly high priestly system was compounded by the high priest defrocking himself (see footnote Error! Bookmark not defined.). Until his Damascus Road experience, Saul of Tarsus had been a misguided extremist. He was the Aryan fascist, the black-shirted Nazi of his times. Saul publicly admitted that he had permission from the high priest to apprehend all at the assemblies of followers of Jesus, in order that they should be imprisoned. He assisted at the slaying of Stephen, being one of a religious police force that is today associated with Islamic nations. It might be appropriate at this point to read Appendix ‘D’. That some years later Syrian General Cestius (under orders from Roman General Titus) burned down the Temple in order to fulfil the military objective of destroying the insurrectionist guerrilla group, is proof enough that Caiaphas’ reasoning was right.
On his release from prison in Patmos St John the Apostle taught the congregations of the seven churches of Revelation Ch’s 2-3 (planted in Asia Minor mostly by Gentile converts) from the instruction given to him by Jesus. Many Gentiles were following heretical doctrines, usually promulgated by Gnostic Jews. Some Messianics were influenced by Rabbinic Judaisers from the local synagogues who did not believe in the divinity of Jesus. It should be remembered that the churches of Asia Minor went ‘underground’ c100 years after John’s death owing to intense Roman persecution. The Gospels were being widely circulated by itinerate preachers, but the New Testament had not then been formalised. The messages to the first three of the seven churches of Revelation Ch’s 2-3 urged the faithful to seek spiritual insight to solve problematic issues of doctrine within the church, and to be resolute despite the persecution from their worldly neighbours.
On his release from prison in Patmos St John the Apostle taught the congregations (planted in Asia Minor mostly by Gentile converts) from the instruction given to him by Jesus. Many Gentiles were following heretical doctrines, usually promulgated by Gnostic Jews, but some Hellenists. Some Messianics were influenced by Rabbinic Judaisers from the local synagogues who did not believe in the divinity of Jesus. It should be remembered that the churches of Asia Minor went ‘underground’ c100 years after John’s death owing to intense Roman persecution. The Gospels were being widely circulated by itinerate preachers, but the New Testament had not then been formalised. The messages to the first three churches urged the faithful to seek spiritual insight to solve problematic issues of doctrine within the church and to be resolute despite the persecution from their worldly neighbours.
The synoptic Gospels, so named because they report the same event, similarly seeming (at first sight) as ‘eye to eye’ with each other (even though their reports do differ slightly). These reports were written sometime after Christ’s death, but they are consistent. Mark’s Gospel is thought by contemporary scholarship to have been the earliest account recorded, perhaps circulated after the 70 AD revolt had been extinguished. However Mark ministered in Egypt from 46 AD (which was not part of the Roman Empire). He may have consistently and accurately testified from his faithful recollection of the events surrounding this ‘visitation from the Son of The Lord’ omitting nothing of significance. It is believed that Matthew and Luke used Mark’s material as their major source of inspiration but this cannot be confirmed. However we know there were other stories and perceptions offered by other theorists. Some scholars believe from the ‘anti‑Marcionite’ prologue that Mark completed his Gospel in Italy with the resurrection account of the destruction of the temple being added later. The Magdalen Papyrus is a fragment of Matthew’s Gospel discovered in Egypt and was thought to have been written between mid 50 and 60 AD. Joseph of Arimathea has also been credited with bringing the oral gospel message to Britain but this conjecture is unsubstantiated. There is evidence that the gospel message was brought to Britain by Lady Pomponia, the Christian wife of a Roman commander Plautius, who was posted to Britain in 43 AD as part of the second Roman invasion. No doubt Pomponia came to Britain carrying her written synopsis of the many testimonies she considered authentic. She was a Greek scholar who probably met many of Christ’s Apostles and disciples in compiling her critique.
The Marcionites and other Gnostic writers philosophised that Jesus had established a family line of succession by marrying Mary Magdalene. They believed that Jesus must have married prior to starting His ministry for traditionally all rabbis had to be married. They take their logic a step farther, if Jesus had married he would have wanted children but these are areas of speculation and contradiction. The scribes argued from Arianism that God had no begotten Son, that Jesus had only been elevated to sainthood as a man, the first of many others to be so honoured. What is certain is that the Gospels were written several years after Jesus’ words of warning concerning the details surrounding the testing times ahead. I am certain that Jesus knew from finishing his reading of Isaiah Ch 61:2(b) to the people of Nazareth that one day He would proclaim The Lord’s vengeance on the unrighteous, not prior to His being anointed into ministry, nor even before His death and resurrection, but at His Second Coming. I would argue that Jesus was not an ordinary priest serving at the Temple but the high priest in the spiritual Order of Melchizedek unrecognised by those who hated Him. As the divine Son of God He had anthropomorphised long ago as one of the three visitors who was the Trinitarian God of Genesis Ch 18. Christ also anthropomorphised as Melchizedek priest of God Most High. Having rejected Rabbinic Judaism and through the teaching of the Gnostic Jews and Roman Catholic scholars, the Jewish searcher for a meaning to life may have became jealous of the Gentile and turned to secularism through the appeal of Greek Hellenism.
No new Jewish Apostles or prophets arose to replace those who had died having faithfully served the church from its formation. The churches throughout the Roman Empire were founded not by the Apostles or by Christ’s Jewish disciples, but by devout Greek and Roman converts-many of whom had married Jewish women. All Western Church gatherings became increasingly reliant for growth in membership on the converted Gentiles who in turn became committed evangelists. At the time of the destruction of the Herodian Temple the Church consisted of perhaps c1 million Jews and c100,000 Gentiles a ratio of 10-1. The Gentile believers, some of whom were important figures of influence, and many less influential people became the spouse of a Jew, and were welcomed into the Church. Before many years passed the Gentiles outnumbered the Messianic Jews. However owing to the dietary and purification laws that most Jews observed, they would not eat with non-Jews nor take part in any non‑Jewish festivals. Like every other ‘same nation’ migrants they were more comfortable settling with others of their race into racial communities (ghettoes or mellahs), where they could maintain their ethnic practices. By choosing not to integrate, the Jews remained as foreigners because they were a people of peculiar customs in the eyes of other races. The Gentiles were offended by Jewish peculiarity which was interpreted as ‘particularism’. Gentile resentment was increased further through the circumcision of the infant Jewish males on the eighth-day of life which was thought of as barbaric.
Through the Bar Cochba Revolution the Judeans were forced into an imposed exile in 135 AD. Caesar decided that he would exercise a greater stability in the region if he renamed Judah and Samaria as provinces of Philistia. He banished all Jews from Israel. The nomadic Arabs who remained became known as ‘Palestinians’ and although mainly absentee settlers, until the Jews returned to the land in the 19th and 20th century providing employment and trading facilities for the Arabs. The Palestinian Arabs had been largely nomadic, preferring to live in thriving Arab communities rather than a practically deserted Israel. The Palestinian Arabs, supported by the Islamic nations have assumed the tenancy rights promised by The Lord to future generations of Israelites. The Messianic Jews joining the Diaspora after Christ’s death, may have been very surprised to find congregations of Gentile believers in the Diaspora, already receiving pastoral leadership from both Jew and Gentile elders.
Just after the revolt of 135 AD started Rabbi Akiba ben Joseph (40-135 AD), recognised as the father of Rabbinic Judaism, put the seal of dishonour on Jesus by declaring that Simeon ben Kosiba was the Messiah, born on the day of Herod’s Temple being destroyed. Ben Joseph gave credence to his argument by changing the letters ‘s’ and ‘i’ into ‘k’ and ‘h’, and ‘ben’ into ‘bar’ to come up with the name Simon bar Kokhba which means ‘son of the star’. The manipulation was meant to provide Messianic legitimacy for Simon bar Kokhba based on Numbers Ch 24:17. The result of this deception was that the followers of Jesus having clarified the passage in Matthew Ch 24:16 withdrew from the battlefields and fled to the mountains. The Messianics knew by faith that Jesus was the Messiah, regardless of whatever theology the Rabbis were trying to impose on them. These observant Disciples of Christ were declared to be traitors to the cause. On bar Kokhba’s death it should have been obvious to all, that the followers of Rabbinic Judaism had been tragically fooled. Many Jews through every generation in exile have been persecuted unto death. The sages and Rabbi Akiba ben Joseph will have a lot to answer for on Judgement Day.
The Lord permitted the heresy of Rabbinic Judaism to flourish with its insidious Oral Tradition, in order to unite the Israelites together as a nation following the humiliating exile in Babylon. Perhaps He allowed this perversion of His word knowing that the Israelites were to be scattered throughout many countries, very soon afterwards and for a very long time. Their intransigence binds them together. During this final generation God will remove the veil of blindness from Jewish eyes and every Jew will acknowledge Jesus Christ as the divine Son of God (Zechariah Ch 12:10-14), which I believe will supernaturally include the Rapture of every Jewish soul that lies in a state of rest.
Paul wished to travel northwards into Asia to gain access into the area of the Black Sea but was prevented from so doing by the Holy Spirit. I believe that this intervention by the Holy Spirit was for a significant acceptance of Westerners in God’s end-time purposes. Acts Ch 16:6 records that Paul moved his ministry westwards into Europe, his ambition was to carry the Gospel to the coastland of Spain (Romans Ch 15:24) and into Britain on its subjugation by the Roman Empire. The Gospel was ultimately carried into America and to the uttermost parts of the world (Australia and New Zealand), encapsulating Western Christendom. The Acts Ch 11 passage relates that the Jew and Gentile congregation of Antioch cheerfully provided financial and prayerful aid to bring comfort from the poverty among the believers in Jerusalem. It has been my investigation and meditation that has revealed to me why The Lord chose Britain to receive its commonwealth abundance in succession to Ephraim.
Other disciples did travel eastwards and evangelised the Ishmaelites and the Indo/Persians, many of whom accepted Christ. Doubting Thomas reputedly ministered in India, and others carried the message throughout the Orient. Once Islam became the majority faith of Arabs, Christian Arabs were treated as abominably as were the Jews who settled amongst them. In the following centuries anti‑Semitism and apostasy ravaged the Church which became increasingly dismayed at the varying doctrines and teachings promoted by contending streams of belief. People were killed if they did not convert to the religious persuasion of the marauding armies that defeated people groups and nations, such battles have been waged ever since. Increasingly society in the West has become secular or atheistic, in an effort to be free of ‘harassment’ from their Christian families or neighbours, but in the final analyses everyone must choose the god they will serve.
The House of Israel lost the right of independent kingship on the division of the kingdom into the northern and southern kingdoms in 930 BC (in fulfilment of Leviticus Ch 26), 2,520 years later the blessing of abundance was passed on to Great Britain, when the British Navy in 1588 AD defeated the Spanish Armada (to be pedantic, the 2,520 years period ended in 1591 AD, perhaps it took three years for the blessings to really start, with Britain becoming a fruitful vine, whose branches extend beyond national borders (Genesis Ch 49:22). The British Empire became a Commonwealth of Nations, with Britain receiving the special spiritual blessing of abundance granted earlier by The Lord, because it was from the influence of Oliver Cromwell, who in 1665 AD allowed the Jews to return to Britain. It was from this time that Christendom finally allowed the Diaspora Jew the right to settle reasonably peacefully throughout the Western nations. Interestingly the Hebrew word for covenant is ‘b’rit’ and pronounced ‘brit’ whilst the suffix ‘ish’ means ‘covenantal man’. Put together the word ‘British’ means ‘the covenant people’, and the ‘united’ Commonwealth Armies of later years implied. I believe I received a word of knowledge that the abundant blessings from The Lord passed on to the antipodeans, probably in 1901, on Australia and New Zealand, both Commonwealth members, becoming independent nations. Britain’s loss was due to ‘Milner’s Kindergarten’ (see page 162). In Genesis Ch 50:23, Joseph ‘placed the sons of Makir, the son of Manasseh, on his knee’ (adopted them). I believe that Joseph’s blessing points to the fact that The blessings of Jacob on Ephraim was not reversed but delayed for many years. In 1917 the combined force of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) of horse mounted soldiers, delivered Judah (Palestine), Syria and Lebanon from occupation by the Ottoman Empire (see footnote 233). Gentile King Nebuchadnezzar was punished for 2,520 days (on falling from grace, compare 2 Samuel Ch 11 with Daniel Ch 4), this was a carbon copy of the Israelites being punished for 2,520 years, King Nebuchadnezzar, who was equivalent in stature to the Hebrew King David, had been the ‘rod of God’s anger’ in humiliating the Hebrews through their deportation. Ezekiel Ch 37:15-28 speaks of The Lord’s promises of an everlasting covenant of peace being shared between the Judahite (the Jew), and the Ephraimite (the Gentile believer), who have entered into the kingdom of God through grace, by being grafted into the natural olive tree. In this instance The Lord dovetailed two dead pieces of wood into one living organism. The redeemed global Gentile has been amalgamated into the ten lost tribes
King Alfred (the Great, 849-99 AD) introduced the unwritten Constitution of Britain in which was enshrined the principles of government supposedly founded on God’s Law. This was long after the earlier occupation by the Roman Empire. Although many Jews went eastward in the Diaspora the majority travelled westwards across Europe into France and Britain. From 1066 AD William the Conqueror as king of Britain encouraged Jewish merchants and artisans from Europe to settle their families in Britain. Their racial customs, faith, and their failure to integrate into the community disturbed the peace of mind of Britons, Europeans and the Papacy. The Jews suffered increasing persecution, as they had under Catholicism throughout Europe, finally King Edward I ordered their expulsion in 1290 AD.
In 1492 AD on the 9th of Av Christopher Columbus, whom modern genealogists believe to have been a Jew sailed from Spain with his crews captaining several ships transporting 300,000 Jews who had been banished from Spain. The Lord directed and protected His chosen people to South America within a continent that became known as the Americas, which included Canada. Spain had earlier accepted and integrated the Jew, but in 1492 AD on behalf of the Papacy had consigned the Jew to find their way to other less hostile lands, with no homes, no jobs and no prospects.
The power of Catholicism in Europe was challenged repeatedly, but was ruthlessly suppressed over many centuries. It was finally broken through the writings of Oxford scholar John Wyclif (1329-1384, he was called the ‘morning star of the Reformation’), who totally rejected the corrupt practices and the accumulated wealth of the Papacy, particularly as imposed upon Britain. He called for the primacy of Scripture over tradition to be acknowledged. His Oxford colleagues and their successors (named the ‘Lollards’) became the preachers and the voice of the underclass of Britain. The Europeans heard of the infamy of the ‘Lollards’ In Britain an unsuccessful uprising against Catholicism was mounted driving the agitation for reform of the system underground. Their fame and doctrine became known to Bohemian born reformer Jan Hus (1373-1415 AD), who greatly influenced the ‘father of the Reformation’, Martin Luther of Germany. Hus was burned as a heretic and the discontented converts to Catholicism, the Hussites, rose up against this demonic enemy, entering a period known as the ‘Hussite wars’ in their attempt to persuade Emperor Sigismund to reject Romanism. They were finally defeated at the Battle of Lipany in 1434 AD). The battle for reform was now united. The ‘Lollards’ of Europe renamed themselves as Anabaptists, who were initially against infant baptism not Catholicism, but with the success of Martin Luther, they became committed Protestants. The Lollards/Anabaptists were hounded throughout Europe and Britain by the Papacy, and burned alive as heretics.
The Vatican’s antipathy for Britain did not start with Henry VIII establishing the Protestant Church, the papacy has opposed Britain since King John had the temerity to sign the Magna Carta on 15th June 1215 AD. Pope Innocent III said the document was abominable and illicit and he believed that in time Britain would once more come under the authority of the Roman Church. Innocent III has proved to be correct, through his successors continuously weakening the British Constitution conspiratorially through their allegiances with other powers over many centuries. The catalyst for the transfer of allegiance to the Protestant Church in Britain was Pope Paul II’s refusal to sanction Henry VIII’s plans to marry Anne Boleyn, and his deposing and excommunication of King Henry on 31st August 1535 AD; but the parting of the ways was inevitable anyway. The Archbishop of Canterbury, agreed with the theological objections of Thomas Cranmer, that it had been deemed by the Pope as necessary to obtain papal dispensation in order to marry Catherine of Aragon, the wife of Henry’s deceased brother Arthur, that had been granted in error earlier by Pope Julius II. Henry was not ‘anti Catholic’, he just wanted to have the same authority over Britons that the Pope exercised throughout the ‘Holy Roman Empire’. Cranmer had a leaning towards Lutheranism and reformed theology, although he was antagonistic towards Puritanism and the Anabaptists of Europe, both branches of Protestantism that sought for ‘continuous reformation’.
The power of the Roman Catholic Church over Britain was finally broken in 1534 AD when Henry VIII declared himself to be the head of the Church of England. Henry’s concern was that he wanted to be ruler and not subservient to the Papacy, but initially the change made no difference to the poverty stricken classes of society. The Protestant Church of England was established in 1534 AD, from which three streams developed, Separatism, Presbyterianism and Puritanism. Ecclesiastes Ch 5:12, states that a cord of three strands is not easily broken, and in this case there have been fruitful and lasting blessings. Separatism was what the Pietists prayed for, a reformation of the corrupt church and the polemic but sterile state of orthodoxy, amid the immorality and social conditions. Oversimplified, Presbyterianism initially was the form of church government based on scriptural doctrine administered by elders. Elders taught the acceptance of the teachings of Christ as the sole mediator between God the Father and mankind, directed by the Holy Spirit. The elders (Presbyters) governed jointly, and were elected by the congregation. The Puritans believed in continuous reformation and renewal, personal purity, faith above reason, and the infallibility of the Bible. They sought a separation of church from the state, and agitated for greater social reform independent of faith. The Puritan pioneers were anti-Catholic and anti the effete-elitist aristocratic royalists mainly because the privileged classes were indifferent to the conditions of life of the lower classes. The Puritans were seen as extremist agitators by the Bishops, who perceived all three streams as anti-establishment, and counter productive to their life-style and a danger to the status quo and also to the monarchy. It must be remembered that the Bishops were the high-born sons of the wealthy, who were educated at University, before joining the church and the fast track to a bishopric and a future life in a manor house to the manor born.
After Henry’s death his son Edward VI reigned until his death when his half-sister Mary Tudor (1516-58 AD) took the throne. She married the future King of Spain (Phillip II) and as a committed Catholic restored the heresy laws, which resulted in the execution of c300 senior Protestants whose wish was access to the Bible and Prayer Book for all citizens, winning her the name ‘Bloody Mary’. At Mary’s death in 1558 AD Protestant Elizabeth I (1533-1603 AD) became queen she became known as ‘good queen Bess’). Within a year she promulgated the Act of Uniformity requiring all her subjects to reject Catholicism in favour of the Church of England with herself as its head and defender of the faith as part of the Elizabethan Settlement with its 39 Articles. The Act of Uniformity was further reinforced in 1559, and all parts were adopted by the Church of England in 1571 AD. Elizabeth wanted Catholicism without a Pope, but recognised that she ruled a divided nation. Philip had proposed marriage to Elizabeth even before his sick wife had died as the way to restore Catholicism’s suffocating jurisdiction. She told the Spanish ambassador to tell the Pope that the only way a marriage could be arranged was if royal supremacy of every nation over the Pope’s authority throughout Christendom was restored. Britain was predominantly Catholic (66%), but she wanted each citizen to have personal access to the Bible and Prayer Book. The Jesuits (the Company of Jesus) was formed in 1539 AD, and played a significant part in the Counter Reformation giving their allegiance only to the Pope swearing to rid the world of Protestantism. Elizabeth’s faith and resolve and the defeat of the Catholic Spanish Armada in 1588 AD was thought of only as 16th century temporary setback.
During Elizabeth’s reign the ‘crusading reformers’ blossomed and actively made a difference to the social fabric of society; whereas early reformers had been summarily dealt with by burning as heretics by the Papacy. Elizabeth was the last of the Tudors and was succeeded by James I (1566-1625AD), a Stuart. In 1605 AD Catholic extremists through the Guy Fawkes’ gunpowder plot had attempted to assassinate King James and destroy the government, when James suppressed the Catholics. In 1611 AD he dissolved parliament until 1621 AD, and with the cooperation of the Archbishop of Canterbury, harsh penalties were imposed on non-conformists, but when attempts were made to impose Anglican liturgy on Scotland led to the Bishop’s War, Charles was forced to recall Parliament to raise revenue. Out of frustration and intimidation in 1620 AD the Puritan Pilgrim Fathers sailed to America.
On the death of James I, his son King Charles I (1600-1649 AD), became King of England, Scotland and Ireland. Charles had married the Catholic daughter of King Henry IV of France, and truculently dissolved parliament for 11 years (1629-40 AD), because Charles believed in the divine right of kings to rule and insisted his wife could practise Catholicism, whilst his government did not agree. Oliver Cromwell, a committed Puritan, entered parliament in 1628 AD, but hated the unconcern for the downtrodden in society. His abilities did not go unrecognised in his ‘Ironsides’ (Roundheads), lower class, supporters of the Parliamentary party that defeated the royalist Cavaliers at Marston Moor in the first of the English Civil Wars in 1644 AD (1640‑1660).
In 1645 AD Cromwell was made second in command with the task of forming the New Model Army, which was again victorious in defeating the Cavaliers at Naseby. In the second civil war his troops defeated the Scottish Royalists at Preston in 1648 AD, and through the expulsion of 140 members from what became known as the ‘English Long Parliament’ during ‘Pride’s purge (Col. Thomas Pride, had undertaken this assignment on the orders of the army council), Cromwell’s political influence was strengthened. The remnant, known as the Rump Parliament, voted to put the king on trial. Cromwell advised parliament that because of Charles duplicity he should be executed. On his father’s death Charles II fled to France, but in 1650 AD was invited by the Covenanters of Scotland to become their king. His attempted invasion of England was repulsed in 1651 AD by Cromwell, who ruthlessly suppressed opposition in Ireland supporting King Charles II against the Protectorate’s rule, causing Charles to flee once more into exile. As Lord Protector Cromwell had become a virtual dictator, he took his armies into war against the Catholic regimes of Holland (1652-54 AD) and against Spain in (1655-58 AD).
On October 1st 1655 AD Rabbi Menasseh ben Israel of Amsterdam, known as the ambassador of Israel to the Gentiles throughout Europe, delivered a petition to the Council of State calling for Jews to be allowed to return to Britain. Republican and anti-monarchist Puritan Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector of England (see page 154) could see at once that the financial benefits to Britain would be great, and despite the resistance of the Council of State, Cromwell persuaded the Council to allow re-admission, he verbally promised the Jews the right to establish their homes in Britain and practise their faith. Quite apart from the Jewish Messiah being shared with Gentile brethren, Jewish scientists over the centuries have invented so many products that have improved the quality of life globally. Parliament agreed to support the Jew in seeking their right to return to Palestine and reclaim this barren, virtually unoccupied land for themselves. This decree was upheld by the evangelical and non-conformist church, from which time coincidentally the British Empire began to flourish. From across Europe Jews who had been forced to accept Catholicism flooded into Britain.
At his death Cromwell was succeeded by his son, but he was ousted from power by parliament eight months later. Charles II who had issued copies of an exploratory document called the ‘Declaration of Breda’, was sent to the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the army and the fleet for approval. The manifesto offered religious toleration and an amnesty to the former enemies of the Crown, in return for a restoration of the monarchy. The Convention Parliament met for the first time on the 1st May 1660 AD, and accepted the terms of the Restoration. A further Act of Uniformity was introduced in 1662 AD. It was not until 1829 that the Catholic Emancipation Act was passed by Parliament.
After the Restoration and the fall of Oliver Cromwell’s austere and legalistic Protectorate government, many Puritan ministers serving in the Church of England lost their livelihoods despite earlier assurances of reformation. The early Puritans refused to accept Cathedral compromise with ‘Palace politics’ and expressed their criticism of the Establishment’s lack of regard for the disadvantaged, for which they paid with their lives. King Charles II allowed freedom of thought for Catholics and non‑conformists to observe their faith without fear of persecution, a relaxation in law which had earlier been withdrawn. Puritans were continually hounded from platforms and lecterns, and those that did not enter the non‑conformist church were finally ‘hounded out’ of Britain. They and their followers emigrated to New England joining those who had emigrated earlier. After 50 years of struggle they had established themselves amongst the indigenous people, the faith of them and their converts led to the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 AD.
Parliamentary legislation was passed into the Statute Books through the Licensing Act of 1662 AD, to limit the effects in His Majesty’s Protectorates at home and abroad, from heretical, seditious or schismatic opinion. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688 AD a Coronation Oath was introduced into parliamentary law, to which all citizens, regardless of station or circumstances were deemed accountable. It was seen as a just and righteous Constitution approved by the combined might of the Monarchy, Church, and State (the military arm of the nation). However the aristocrat, the diplomat and royalty consider their wealth and position, to place them above the law of God, but that is not so and there will be a day of reckoning. The tutelage of the priesthood of the Church of England was as prosaic and little different from the teachings of the Catholic Church and the Romanists. However the evangelical reformers wanted to breathe Holy Spirit understanding into the stultifying doctrines adhered to by the establishment bishops through latitudinarianism (rational reasoning), which denied the continuing power of the Holy Spirit. They were intimidated into taking oaths of supremacy and allegiance to the High Church Party, which had become a tool of the royalist parliament. The consequences are writ large in God’s Hall of Infamy, for those politicians and bishops who have not protested against the relaxation of Britain’s previously godly laws out of a personal agenda.
What has been called the ‘great British Protestant missionary movement’ came about through missionaries accompanying the British armies (through the expansion programme of the British Empire) in the 17th century. It became the proud boast that Britain ‘ruled the waves’ and that the sun never set on the expanding British Empire (although the term ‘British’ only emerged following the Act of Union with Scotland in 1707 AD). Erastian Christianity as perceived by the public became identified with ‘Colonialism’, nobility and the (aristocracy, military, intellectual or church) Establishment.
The Irish were oppressed by England and staged five rebellions, the first of which in 1798 AD probably inspired Napoleon’s joint fleet of French and Spanish navies in 1804 to oppose the British navy, but they were defeated by Lord Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar. The potato failure in 1840 led to further rebellions which were forcibly put down. Catholicism in Ireland has taken the form of nationalism in the extent of civil disobedience that still continues today. The bishops graced by appointment to the House of Lords, have hung on grimly to their perceived responsibility of keeping an uncorrupted ‘latitudinarian’ gospel, through stifling the evangelical reformers’ enthusiasm for change. It was thought at that time, that possibly one third of the Anglican clergy were devout disciples of Christ and evangelical, but because of the restrictions placed on them, the more devout resigned from the established church, in order to be true to their faith in Christ. They joined the non‑conformist church as leaders or as members of a congregation. Thank God for their endurance, which pointed our generation to the true Church. Obdurately the clergy and Parliament denied the right of the non-denominational aspirants to attend University if they refused to declare a vow of loyalty to the established church and the monarchy; this legislation was changed late into the 19th century due to public pressure. It must be obvious to anyone studying modern politics that the Church of England (Anglican) no longer represents the majority of British Christians. The population might just as well put its trust in the tooth fairy or in politicians as they formerly might have done in the Church of England!
Community and family relationships predominated during the Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century. Each family usually followed a hereditary occupation and the ill, the weak and the elderly were nursed ‘in house’. People were poor but there was much compassion by philanthropic societies and the Christian Charities. Many Christians rose to high office in government and laws were initiated to improve the standard of life, health and education of what were called the lower classes. The nation’s customs and heritage were broadly of Christian goodwill to all men. Even amongst all that pride in the inheritance bestowed on later generations, there have been evil, greedy, self-seeking ambitious men, concerned only for themselves. They have whittled away at our Christian culture. It was not difficult for ‘Milner’s Kindergarten’ to involve our nation in several wars to break up that spirit of comradeship that had prevailed so long and which was almost revered. Despite the loss of family ‘togetherness’ through wars, commuting to find employment, migration both into and out of Britain, it has been the increasing number of leaders in society who have chosen not to follow The Lord by becoming churchmen eager to change society for the better, and perhaps influence successive governments, Migrants from the Commonwealth and more latterly from other EU nations have diluted the racial and religious bloodline. Fabianism has defeated British patriotism, but I do not believe the spirit of British Protestant Christianity has been broken. Perhaps believers are being tempered in The Lords refinery to be able to endure the persecution that must surely come. I am prophesying to the Church, that it is staring into the snare of a cataclysmic abyss of a depersonalised state, controlled by an autocrat, administered by the police the military and the Civil Service.
The East-India Company (a privately owned, UK based trading company) which sought to expand its commercial markets overseas, was a faithful accomplice of the British government. In 1834 the government, realising the scale of revenue being generated through the sale of opium into China, became the commercial arm of the imperial power through assuming control of the East-India Company, whose licence to trade had expired. The opium wars were a direct result of the illegal trade generated.