The god Horus exalteth his father in every place, and he uniteth himself unto the goddess Isis and unto her sister Nephthys; and the god Thoth reciteth for him the mighty glorifyings which are within him, and which come forth from his mouth, and the heart of Horus is stronger than that of all the gods. Rise up, then, O Horus, thou son of Isis, and avenge thy father Osiris....




The illustration to the right from an obscure ancient Egyptian papyrus depicts the God Thoth shown either side of a central vertical column, at first glance the suggestion is that he is marking out or measuring certain proportions upon this column.

The context of determining measure is appropriate for the God Thoth, as amongst his many concerns were numbering and measuring, and thus it is reasonable to determine what measure is being shown, and if the length of the column is taken as from the baseline upon which Thoth stands to the upper line then the upper arms can br seen to divide the greater length by half, the most basic of subdivisions, yet furthur to this the lower hand positions show the Phi demarcation of the length of the lower half measure of the column, thus the upper arms determine a length based upon half of the greater, whilst the lower posit a subdivision within this, the spacing in accordance with Phi ratio, the simple essentials of which are explained here;




Having determined that the upper and lower hands of Thoth can be seen as indicating the Phi proportions of a given length, then greater analysis of the iconic composition shows that the Phi geometry which is intrinsically carried over into the Pentagonal is the key factor in the figurative composition elements, ie the angles of the lower arms conform to the projection of the pentagonal, the angles of the elbows conforming with key intersection points, and the shoulder and knee joints, whilst a circle describing the pentacle takes into account the curvaceous aspets of the figurative.

Thus an ideogram can be discerned as the underlying structural basis of the figurative illustration, that concerns itself with the measuring of Phi ratio, and the creation of the Pentacle, that is what Thoth has determined.

In terms of context and meaning, then this can only relate to the essence of the ratio itself, that the greater length stands in relationship as to the greater subdivision as to the lesser, as in A is to B as B is to C.

If that is put into terms of say Ra is to Osiris as Osiris is to Horus, then an explanation is forthcoming, the ratio is concerned with reproducing through potentially infinite subdivision an harmonious constant, Phi is often seen as a key numeric constant in fractals of nature.


Given then the hypothesis that Thoth is determing the proportions of the Phi ratio and associated Pentagonal geometry in a symbolic context that shall be associated with harmonious reproduction, taking this furthur then a comparative of the figurative iconic positioning with any other known examples from ancient Egypt shows that the only icon with similar figurative positioning involves the Goddess' Isis and Nephtys standing either side of the raised Djed column.


Looking then at an illustration of Isis and Nephtys standing either side of the raised Djed it can be seen how this beautifully conforms with the Phi proportional pentangular geometry, the five pointed star is directly and implicitly involved in the symbolism of the raising of Osiris, and as often seen in Egypt these decorate the borders of the drawing, and the greater understanding of the five pointed star needs to be understood.

The five pointed star motif pre-dates Dynastic Egypt, with the earliest examples from Egypt upon tomb ceilings being of polygon form as seen elsewhere in the Near East before the common linear motif became established, which is derivative of the internal angle correspondances of the polygon form, and indeed is more directly representative of the motif being the derivative of observance of five directions from a central position.

De Vogel, Goff and Van Buren tell us that the use of the pentagram dates back to Uruk IV (c.3500BCE) in ancient Mesopotamia where the general sense seems to be "heavenly body." By the cuneiform period (post 2600 BCE) the pentagram or symbol UB means "region," "heavenly quarter" or "direction". "That this symbol always has a specific unambiquous meaning continues to be an unsupported hypothesis." It is found on potsherds in the location of Uruk (near the mouth of the Gulf), and more frequently on Jemdet Nasr (3100-2900 BCE) and Proto-Elamite tablets (3000-2500 BCE). [ Examples elsewhere are infrequent.


The elements examined thus far can be seen to come together in the decorative components of the Canopic shrines, were the linear vertical is represented as the central axis of a pair of doors into the realm of the Divine, or of Osiris.


Here it is the figure of Anubis that stands either side of the vertical axis, in his role of guardian of the underworld, Osiris is placed directly below, with Isis and Nephtys standing behind him, and the deceased supplicant before.


At the end of the Middle Kingdom, a classical pattern for canopic equipment was achieved. While not all canopic installations could conform to the ideal standards, now we find an outer stone chest, associated with the stone sarcophagus and an inner wooden chest representing the coffin and divided into four sections. These four sections held four separate jars, though in some cases, the jars were omitted, replaced with painted representations of the jars, complete with texts, on the inner lid of the canopic chest. The four jars were meant to hold four major organs. These four human organs were identified with specific deities, each of whom was referred to as a genius.  They included the liver, identified with the genius Imsety, one of the four sons of Horus who could claim protection form the goddess Isis, the lungs, identified with a pair of genius, Hapy, the second son of Horus and the goddess Nephthys, the stomach, identified with Horus' third son Duamutef and the goddess Neith, and the intestines, associated with Kebehsenuef, the fourth son of Horus and Selket.



On the inner wooden chest, text would be inscribed invoking the protection of the four tutelary goddesses, Isis, Nephthys, Neith and Selket. This text would call on these goddess to wrap their protective arms around their paired genius, and would proclaim the honor of the deceased.







Osiris had four younger siblings who would also play critical roles in his story; his brother Seth and two sisters known as Isis and Nephthys. As the firstborn child and son of Geb and Nut, it therefore fell to Osiris to inherit the throne of Egypt. Seth married Nephthys and Osiris married Isis. Together, Osiris and Isis seemed to have possession of numerous powers.

At one point, Nephthys appears to have magically taken on the appearance of Isis and presented herself to Osiris as his wife. Not knowing the difference, Osiris was seduced by Nephthys and she became pregnant and gave birth to Anubis.


Later, Seth developed a vendetta against his extremely popular sibling, possibly either because Osiris had inherited the throne or because he had gotten Seth's wife pregnant. At any rate, Seth sought to kill him by luring him into a coffin and drowning him in the Nile.

Isis managed to recover her husband's body; however Seth was very stealthy and stole away with it. After cutting up the body of the Egyptian god of the underworld, Seth hid the pieces throughout the Egyptian desert.


The connection between Isis and Osiris was so strong; the Egyptian goddess proceeded to spend a number of years searching for the mutilated body parts of her husband. She finally managed to find all of the pieces, save one and is believed to have used her magical powers to restore her husband's body. Although there are different versions to this part of the story, it seems Isis became pregnant, presumably by Osiris and gave birth to a son, Horus. Osiris died once again and descended to fully assume his duties as Egyptian god of the underworld.

Some versions of the history of Osiris state that when he descended into the underworld he took over several important roles and duties as Egyptian god of the underworld from Anubis, who was believed to have been his son. Other tales contend that he rightfully obtained the important role as Egyptian god of the underworld because he was the first god to have died. However he obtained the role, it became Osiris' responsibility to judge the souls of the dead.


In the above example of a canopic shrine, again all the common elements can be seen, the doors that lead into the spiritual realm of Osiris, albeit with no figures either side in this case, Osiris positioned directly beneath with Isis and Nephtys, and on other panels Djed columns and the two Godesses' reviving the mummiform Osiris.

These elements were obviously all inter-connected, to the extent that the vertical axis of the doorway can be associate with the raised djed column, or the raised figure of Osiris himself.







Part Two-Furthur consideration of the geometry as regards architectural projections on the Giza Plateau.

Part Three-Considering the contextual implications of a subdivision of Giza into ten sectors.

Part Four-Examaning the central area of the projections around the Sphinx and associated cults.

Part Five-Determination of the central cultic role of Sokar~Osiris in terms of the Giza Necropolis.

Part Six-The Birthing of Nefertem through the Sacred the waters.

Part Seven-The Egyptian Model of the Five Celestial Divisions.

Part Eight-The Sah~Sopdet~Sopdu relationship