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5.1 General

Maps for ski orienteering are based on the specifications for foot-orienteering maps. However in order to meet the specific requirements put on the map by the nature of ski orienteering, certain deviations and additions to the foot-orienteering map specification is needed. These special rules and symbols are described in this chapter. Deviations from the specifications are permissible only with the sanction of the national Ski-O Committee. For international events, sanction must be given by the IOF Ski-O Committee. Complete foot-orienteering maps may be used in ski-o competitions at all levels, if the dark green (symbol 410) is replaced by light green (symbol 406). For international events, permission from the IOF Ski-O Committee is required.

5.2 Content

Ski orienteering is a sport in which the ski-orienteer uses the map to navigate a track and route network in order to visit a number of control points. In ski-o the competitor's skiing and navigation skills shall be tested in such way that the navigation skill becomes the decisive element. Ski orienteering takes place in the track network, and involves as a basic element complex route choice problems, including the estimating of height differences. It is obvious that the map must concentrate on clearly depicting these features. The map must also be legible when skiing at high speed. This means that the map should omit a large part of details in “free“ terrain in order to exaggerate the track network and to simplify the presentation of the shape of the ground. Only details that impact a) route choice and b) navigation and positioning, need be shown on the map. In order to accomplish fairness in route choice, additional symbols need to be introduced. These symbols describe the quality and width of the tracks.

5.3 Scale

The maps scale shall be 1:15 000 or 1:10 000. A different scale may be used, but permission shall be obtained from the IOF Ski-O Committee at IOF ski-o events and from the national Ski-O Committee for other events. The magnification in scale has made it possible to build a more dense and easily legible track network. Furthermore, the error probability has decreased, as the shapes of the junctions and the departure angles of the tracks can be drawn correctly on the map.

5.4 Contour interval

The contour interval is 5m . A different interval (2.5m or 10m ) may be used, but permission shall be obtained from the IOF Ski-O Committee at IOF ski-o events and from the national Ski-O Committee for other events.

5.5 Printing and reproduction

Ski-orienteering maps are often updated very close to a competition. The track network may be revised only a few days before an event. Therefore new printing methods, like digital offset, colour copying etc. is well suited for ski-orienteering maps. However, for IOF events such as World Championships and World Cup, spot colour offset is still the recommended method. When using alternative printing methods, it is important to make sure that the overprint effect between green and black is maintained. The rule is that when overprinting a green track on a black path, the path must be visible through the green, and not totally cleared out. When printing offset, green is the last colour ("overprint") and this effect is automatically achieved, but when using digital methods this effect must be controlled through the software. Please refer also to section 3.4 Printing, in this publication.

International Specification for Orienteering Maps produced by the International Orienteering Federation
OCAD produced by Hans Steinegger Software. © 1988-1999 Hans Steinegger. ® OCAD is a registered trademark of Hans Steinegger
This document has been written and coded by Peter Hornsby of Ashby Mapping
Apologies for any mistakes and errors; please inform details of any problems, thanks.
Produced for the Ashby Mapping internet site on
12 May 2000