H. Raymond King


Much has been said and written about "the great man" and the articles which follow encapsulate most of it. They were written at the time of his retirement in 1963. I wonder how many of us realised as he spoke to us during Assembly that he was the holder of the Croix de Guerre.


From: The Link July 1963, presumably H.A. is Horace Aubrey

H. RAYMOND KING, C.B.E., D.C.M., M.M., C.de G., M.A.(Cantab.)


THE MAN

The retirement of Mr. King at the end of the present summer term marks the end of an era which began as long ago as September, 1932, when Mr. King succeeded Dr. Waite who had himself been Headmaster of the School for thirty-two years.

It is quite remarkable that, since 1900, the School has known only two Headmasters. This unity of direction has given the School a stability and steadiness through the years which enabled it to survive the disruption of evacuation in 1939 and to accept the challenge implicit in the gradual evolution of the Grammar School into a fully Comprehensive School, which culminated in the opening of the Main School buildings in January, 1956.

For me personally the whole year, from the very first day of the Autumn Term has been tinged with sadness. There was an air of finality about the Speech Day in November, the Christmas Concert, the Play, the Eisteddfod, the Old Boys' Dinner. They were all functions over which the Headmaster had presided for the last time.

Of necessity memory must take the stage. The very first Speech Day I attended in November, 1934, provided me with one of my most vivid recollections of Mr. King when I saw him leading the official party towards the platform - a truly resplendent, dignified and patrician figure in full evening dress, academic costume and medals gleaming proudly on his chest. Even at that early moment in my career I instinctively felt that I had found a school I could serve and a Headmaster I could follow.

The unveiling of the Memorial Plaque by Lord Downing, the former Chief of Fighter Command, in November, 1947, brings back a moving and poignant memory. After the curtain covering the plaque had fallen away Mr. King read aloud, slowly but unfalteringly, the names of the fifty-five boys of the school who had given their lives in the service of humanity - names like John Shapcott, Duke-Smith, Desmond Raymond King, A. C. Felgate, C. M. Roberts, all of whom, but a few years previously, I had known so well in the class-room, the gymnasium and on the Rugby field.

In those halcyon days before the war, Mr., King had gathered around him a great team of masters - Mr. Powell, Mr. Hatfield, Mr. Ascher, Dr. Jory, Mr. Cowan, Mr. Terry, Mr. Makin, Mr. Elmes, Mr. Radford and Mr. Hodgkinson - to mention only a part - characters each one and evocative of many pleasant memories. Mr. King possessed abundantly, as did Dr. Waite, the gift of knowing, almost instinctively, how to select his colleagues, but once he had appointed his man and was sure of his competence he gave him that freedom to work in his own way by which alone a teacher can give of his best.

Whenever I hear the Headmaster reading in assembly the parable of the talents, I always feel that the man with the ten talents has a close affinity with himself, for Mr. King is a man of many parts, richly and bountifully endowed - a distinguished presence, a hardy constitution, an unrivalled eloquence, an innate sense of the occasion, a superlative courage and determination as witnessed by his brilliant record in the 1st World War, D.C.M., M.M., Croix de Guerre, decorations valiantly won in the unspeakable horrors, the mud and the carnage of the Flanders trenches. The War Office has kindly furnished me with the official citation of Mr. King's D.C.M., as published in the London Gazette on 2rid December, 1918.

"During an attack on the railway near Ghissignies on 26th October, 1918, he gallantly led his platoon under heavy machine-gun fire and occupied an enemy post. Later when the platoon on his left was subjected to very heavy enfilade machine-gun and trench mortar fire he held on to his position and covered their withdrawal. It was only due to his tenacity and courage under heavy fire that the flank platoon was successfully extricated. Throughout he set a very fine example to his men."

The only important decoration which Mr. King did not gain was the V.C., and, since the V.C. was in those days generally awarded posthumously, we are very pleased that this decoration escaped him, and that he was spared for his life-long task of being Headmaster for thirtyone years of a great school which he himself has largely created and moulded, according to his own ideas, with consummate skill and patient endeavour.

Mr. King has abundantly proved his mettle in the heat of battle but except for the interlude of the Second World War, when he was Commander of the Home Guard in the Woking area, he has become a man dedicated to the ways of peace, a firm supporter of the United Nations and the movement promoting Education in World Citizenship.

Under Mr. King's beneficent rule the Parents' Association has grown from strength to strength and become a great bulwark to school societies needing help. It must also be a source of great personal pride and satisfaction to the Headmaster that the Old Wandsworthians' Association after many vicissitudes are now firmly established in their magnificent Claygate Memorial Ground, and that in his last year as President, the Rugby Club has enjoyed its most successful season.

But above all else, Mr. King is an outstanding educationist. Even when Headmaster of the Grammar School, he recognised and fulminated against the stupidity of the tripartite system which divided pupils, like sheep and goats, into different types merely for administrative convenience. He became the foremost protagonist and champion of the comprehensive school and has done more than anyone else to establish the pattern, to spread understanding and create confidence in it. One has only to read in last term's Link the tributes paid to Mr. King and the School from distinguished visitors from almost every country in the world, to realise the esteem which the Headmaster is held. Mr. Howard is certainly inheriting a school which is well-founded and fashioned fair. When the history of education of this period is written,I am confident the name of H. Raymond King will find a prominent and honourable place.

One cannot pay tribute to Mr. King without at the same time thinking of Mrs. King who throughout the years has carried out her many duties at school functions with great efficiency, charm and dignity - presenting the prizes at Swimming Galas, starting the Cross Country, doing her party piece at Parents' Socials, adjudicating the Drama Competitions at the Eisteddfods and many others beside.

It is patently absurd to think that Mr. King will in any real sense retire. He has cultivated many wide cultural interests in educational, Rotary and international circles, and his reputation as an authoritative speaker on educational matters will certainly make increasing inroads upon his leisure hours.

We all wish Mr. and Mrs. King many years of happy retirement together, and sincerely trust that they will honour us with their presence at whatever school functions they may care to attend.

H.A.


From: The Link, July 1963

THE HEADMASTER

I first met Mr. Raymond King at Cambridge early in 1927 when he came to the University Teachers Training College to find a few young men to help him at the High School, Scarborough, of which he was the headmaster. He was then an active, goodlooking young man, keenly interested in every facet of education and one in whom all three of us appointed had great confidence.

During his four years at Scarborough, he not only introduced the Tutorial-Diligence System, as we now know it, but its natural outcome, the Parents' Association. He was also an energetic member of the local Rotary Club, the Philosophical Society, the League of Nations Union and the University Extension Society--to name a few which come to mind. Further, during his four years of office, the school numbers rose from 250 to 450, with a promising Preparatory Depart- ment in addition to larger Sixth Forms and more advanced courses. In 1930, he was appointed headmaster, and I an assistant master, of Forest Hill School, a London Grammar School housed temporarily in a large house and pleasant grounds, pending the erection of a new building. The economic depression of 1931-32 forced the L.C.C. to abandon the project after two years of strenuous activity by Mr. King and his Staff, and the boys and the masters found themselves posted to BrockIcy, St. Dunstan's and Wilson's Grammar Schools respectively. At these schools, their impact was such that they were dubbed the Forest Hill Fanatics. What Wandsworth dubbed Mr. King I do not know, as I was posted to Brockley.

When I was appointed to Wandsworth two years later, I found the Tutorial System in full swing and the School very much alive

. I shall always remember those remarkable five years at Wandsworth just before World War II. They were packed with activities of all kinds in full scale operationtthe various School and House games, the social activities, the Eisteddfod and the annual exchanges with foreign countries, chiefly Germany, Austria and Sweden, through the International Summer Schools Association, of which organisation Mr. King was a leading light. In connection with the latter, I remember the swimming, athletics and tennis matches; the handball, football and even cricket matches arranged on the School field with the visitors from abroad, all boys (and girls) of secondary school age. What an asset it was to have two large playing fields on the spot! And the exhibitions of country dancing from both sides of the Channel; including the Morris dancers with their coloured ribbons, bells and sticks--in fact, all Wandsworth boys, chosen and trained by Mr. King for each occasion. Indeed, he himself joined in the dances at times, cutting as pretty a caper as anyone!

There was no Fencing at school in those far-off days but there was plenty of Boxing--Inter House, Inter School and the London and Great Britain Championships, in which the School did very well. I don't think Mr. King really liked Boxing as a schoolboy sport, but he appreciated its value not only as a means of vigorous exercise but in character-building and provided it was well controlled and the con- testants evenly matched, he did not interfere. Since the war, young sports masters have shown little interest in Boxing, but much more in Fencing, which has superseded it--not so bloody but more bloodthirsty, perhaps, and doing very well!

During the war period, Mr. King had all the problems of evacuation to contend with and kept the nucleus of the School going at Little Firs, Woking--an old-fashioned house, by no stretch of the imagination suitable to house a school and with little in the way of creature comfort. Here, most of his spare time was devoted to local Home Guard duties, in which body of stalwarts he was a senior officer. The end of the war coincided with the year of the School's Golden Jubilee and Mr. King tackled the preparations for it with his usual zest, making 1946, the year when the celebrations were held, quite a memorable one.

In 1947, he took the war orphans of the Brixton Secondary School of Building under his wing and this developed into the Technical Branch which, although housed over a mile away in the old school in Garratt Lane, quickly became integrated into the general system, and a daily coach service enabled an interchange of academic and technical boys to specialist staff, to the educational advantage of both. In January, 1957, the new building was at last ready and both schools came together under the same roof, along with recruited potential scholars of other calibre. Since then, the School as one unit, has progressed academically, socially and in athletic activities bewilder- ingly well and has acquired a reputation second to none, not only in this country but in many others, both commonwealth and foreign. The acquiring of such an enviable reputation in the space of seven years may be regarded by some people as miraculous. Nothing of the sort: it is the outcome of foresight, thoughtful planning on sound educational lines, hard work and loyalty by the Staff, sympa- thetic support from the London County Council, the Parents' and Old Boys' Associations and, last but not least, a willing response from the boys.

Need I say more? The man at the helm has been Raymond King and he has steered the good ship Wandsworth School for thirty-one years, through fair happenings and adverse, through the storms of the war years, past the reefs of educational uncertainty, from the unsettled realm of Tripartism to the Comprehensive land of hope and equality of opportunity. He is not only a historian but he has made history. He has pioneered the Tutorial/Diligence System and the Comprehensive School, both most valuable contributions to educational practice today. He is finishing his lengthy period of office very strongly; he has certainly shown no signs of easing up yet and he has only about seven more weeks to go. This is typical of the man--he has always given of his best and it makes no difference whether the period is of seven weeks or seven years. The job is important; it should be done--and it shall be done--and done well.

I am quite sure that, although he is obliged to retire from the active direction of affairs at Wandsworth School, he will not retire from the educational arena for many years to come. May he be spared to continue with the good work for many years to come!

I cannot conclude this appreciation without paying a well-merited tribute to Mrs. King. She has always taken a keen interest in the School and she has also kept her husband remarkably fit over the years-- although she hasn't been able to fatten him up much! Now she will have the chance to see what she can do! We wish them many years of happy and useful retirement together!

J.M.

From: The Link, July 1963

THE WORLD CITIZEN

It is fitting that in his last year as headmaster the School has been inspired in many different ways to profit educationally from, as well as to make a really magnificent financial contribution to, the "Freedom from Hunger" Campaign. Mr. King's skilled presentation over the years of the case for the comprehensive school, as the only possible form of democratic school organisation which in contemporary conditions can offer educational opportunity equally and genuinely to all pupils throughout their school lives, has, in fact, been parallelled by an equally enlightened advocacy of the case for adapting education in and out of the classroom, to the need for living in harmony and in co-operation with others in the interdependent community of the modern world. Both of these enthusiasms are rooted, I feel sure, in the same fundamentally Christian, liberal and humanist concern of Mr. King, in the spirit as well as in the organisation of education, with the importance of the individual, whatever or wherever he may be in our challenging modern world. In the field of international service encouraged at Wandsworth School by its headmaster, one recalls, among a long succession of stimulating enterprises, the schemes of varied foreign travel and of international youth camping and pupil exchange, the latter developed particularly in the pre-war years; the efforts after the war in the preparation and the sorting by pupils of packs of educational materials for use in war-devastated areas; the planning of projects and exhibitions in connection with the launching of U.N.E.S.C.O.'s Charter of Human Rights; the impressive collection made for the purchase of U.N.E.S.C.O. Gift Coupons in order to help provide materials for a school in Jordan "on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho"; and the diverse contributions made to the World Campaign in aid of Refugees. We remember, too, the ways in which we have come to celebrate the variety of international days now established in the school calendar and the many other examples of international-minded endeavour, from the purchase of U.N.I.C.E.F. Christmas Cards to the welcoming of visitors from every continent} which, under Mr. King's enthusiastic leadership, we are apt to take for granted, as part of a relevant and responsible educational environment. We easily forget how much, like the tutor-set system about which I first read an account in an article by Mr. King some thirty years ago, they are the result of his own influence on enlightened educational practice.

Mr. King was typically a pioneer of, and is now a distinguished member of, the New Education Fellowship, an international body established in the 1920s with a view to helping to promote democratic and enlightened educational attitudes and practices based on sound psychological and sociological understanding. He has played a continuous and positive part in ensuring that this leavening body should continue to flourish and, especially through its investigations, its conferences, international as well as national, and its informal discussion groups, should help to clarify what sort of education, and particularly what kind of teachers, can best serve the basic needs and develop the varied interests of the young and most effectively prepare them for harmonious and creative living in the changing adult world. Not a few of us will recall reading with pleasure and profit, not only the early pioneer pamphlet on the planning of comprehensive schools prepared by Mr. King for the English N.E.F., but also the many articles, reports and reviews he has over the years contributed to the pages of its journal, "The New Era," for example, those on "Bridging the gap between adolescents and adults," and "The door of opportunity is never closed" in a special number about the comprehensive school.

It has, of course, been under the general auspices of the E.N.E.F. that Mr. King has built up, since 1955, the informal but valuable "School and Community" meetings, in which teachers from the larger schools in the Putney and Wandsworth area and representative personalities in the official, public, professional, business and cultural life of the locality have taken part. Mr. King's many services to progressive educational thinking and practice have been honoured in his having been a Chairman of the English Section of the N.E.F. and in his present office as a U.K. representative on its International Committee.

Space will allow only the most summary account of Mr. King's many other activities and interests in the wider educational field, but I must mention his several objective and authoritative contributions to the annual "Yearbook of Education," on Vocational Guidance, on the Contribution of the Comprehensive School to the Education of the Gifted Child, and on the Role of Voluntary Organisations in the Promotion of Education for International Understanding. A member of the N.U.T. as well as of the I.A.H.M., Mr. King has contributed actively to the educational work and the preparation of reports of both bodies, most notably, during the years before the 1944 Act, to one on "A Democratic Reconstruction of Education," and, more recently, to the N.U.T.'s interim but authoritative report in book form entitled "Inside the Comprehensive School." I recall also in the early 1950s his modest but enlightened and realistic contribution to a published symposium on Religion in Education.

Of all headmasters in the I.A.H.M. Mr. King has, of course, for some time been the longest-serving; he was in 1962 chosen as a representative on its Council, and among his many services has been his work in helping to administer an important War Relief Fund for Secondary School Teachers. He has also, with the example in mind of Wandsworth School as it has grown up under his influence, helped D create the developing climate of opinion among headmasters in support of serious Sixth Form General Studies and against narrow and premature specialisation. For many years Mr. King was an active member of the School Broadcasting Council and has been a pioneer in encouraging experiments in the early use of radio, television, taperecording and other audio-visual aids in school. A pioneer, too, in the establishment of a Parents Council, he was also, while it lasted, a keen supporter of the national "Home and School Council." A few years ago he helped to launch the lively educational journal "Forum," on whose Editorial Board he serves and to which he has contributed a number of notable articles, for example, on the progress of London's comprehensive schools, or on the contribution such schools can make to the education of the academically less able.

Among Mr. King's many commitments he has always had, I think, a particular affection for the Old Cambridge University Training College Association, which has in recent years, under his chairmanship of its committee, taken on a new lease of life as the Oscar Browning Society. It has, largely through Mr. King's influence and his wide circle of educational contacts, been able to attract distinguished speakers to its summer and winter meetings, in Cambridge and London, respectively. It is typical of Mr. King that every year he should, on behalf of the Society, devote much time and exercise particular care, along with a small panel of his choosing, in an assessment of the relative merits of the best of the scholarly theses submitted by the students of the Education Department for a Memorial Prize award. Many, too, have been educational researchers who have valued his support in being allowed to pursue their investigations, however modest, among the pupils of Wandsworth School.

In the developing movement in support of education for international understanding, Mr. King has always been an outstanding leader, and will continue, I am sure, to make many characteristic contributions to it during his years of retirement. He has been particularly prominent in helping to further the educational work of the onetime League of Nations Union, of U.N.E.S.C.O., of the C.E.W.C. and of the Rotary Movement. During the days when Hitler occupied much of Europe, Ministers of Education and observers from many governments and governments-in-exile were invited to a Rotary-sponsored meeting in London to make plans, as an exercise in global thinking, for the post-war development of education. Among other plans they had a vision of a world organisation for educational exchange and co-operation. The historian of the Rotary Club Movement in this country records that, with H. Raymond King and other enthusiasts, a committee developed from this meeting which worked at blueprints of an organisation which was to come into being on a scale they could not have predicted, for, when the full weight of Cabinet support was given to the committee's deliberations, the movement began which was to result in the establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation. Mr. King has, in the ensuing years, by his example at Wandsworth School and in the local U.N.A., as well as through the many committees on which he has served, done his best to see that the ideals and the activities of U.N.E.S.C.O., and of the U.N.O. and its agencies generally, have been brought to the attention particularly of young people. He has himself served the U.K. National Commission for U.N.E.S.C.O., on the educational side, as a member of a succession of important committees, including the "Methods and Materials" Committee of the original National Cooperating Body for Education, the later "Education in Schools" Committee and (as Chairman) its "Text-Book Sub-Committee," and more recently, its "Education Advisory Committee," with a particular responsibility for advising on textbook improvement and on education for international understanding in general.

Much of U.N.E.S.C.O.'s endeavours to promote better understanding between the peoples of different lands have necessarily been concerned with history textbooks and with the success or failure of history and related teaching around the world in giving fair, accurate and adequate accounts of other peoples, of other civilisations, of other races and of other religions and outlooks than one's own. I have been privileged to be associated with Mr. King for a good many years in his efforts as 'Chairman of the Text-Book Sub-Committee to see that the U.K. plays a worthy part as a member-state of U.N.E.S.C.O. in the international work in this field which has been initiated in a wide variety of ways. Under his guidance these have included, e.g., the exchange of textbooks with a number of other countries for the purpose of their mutual review; the surveying of the adequacy or otherwise of a good many of our own textbooks; the participation in a variety of bilateral, regional and international conferences for promoting the improvement of textbooks and other teaching materials; the preparation of a number of textbook exhibitions and a particular effort to help implement U.N.E.S.C.O.'s long-term project for helping the peoples of Asia and the West to understand each other better. Mr. King has devoted much of his time and energies to promoting international co-operation and consultation among teachers themselves in these and in other ways, and through his own talks, memoranda and articles done much to secure the interest of wide numbers of teachers and students in this area of work and in the acquisition of a new dimension of professional thinking.

Whether as a stimulating public speaker or as the relaxed but judicious chairman of a working group, he has made the whole field of education for international understanding veritably his own. When three years ago I was fortunate enough to be included in a group of British history teachers who had been invited to the Textbook Institute in Brunswick in order to exchange ideas with German colleagues on our common problems, Mr. King acted as leader of the delegation, impressing the Germans as we who know him would expect, with his dignity and charm, playing his part with consummate ease and sophistication, both on the more formal occasions and in the less formal discussions, and demonstrating one evening his command of German folk music. Mr. King has deserved well of his country for the distinguished way he has represented it over the years, officially and otherwise, in so many international conferences and contacts.

Closely connected with his U.N.E.S.C.O. activities has been his devoted work for the Council for Education in World Citizenship, which he personally helped to launch in 1939, and whose twenty-first birthday was appropriately celebrated by an anniversary pageant presented in 1960 at Wandsworth School. Mr. King has served the C.E.W.C. in many capacities, in its efforts as the profession's chosen instrument for developing among school pupils the study and the discussion of the problems of international peace and co-operation in the wider sense and of international affairs in general, through its annual January conferences for VI formers at Westminster and its regional and local inter-school group meetings, and through the wide variety of helpful materials it has been able to produce or distribute. Mr. King has taken the chair at many national or local C.E.W.C. meetings, large and small, for pupils or teachers, has been chairman of its Management Committee on which he has long served, and has recently been re-elected C.E.W.C. Vice-Chairman. Many of the activities, already noted, which he has inspired and which have given his school for many years such a truly international atmosphere have been in association with the wider efforts of the C.E.W.C. to develop in the young a sense of intelligent world citizenship.

Mr. King has also supported actively the efforts to promote a wider citizenship, in their particular ways, of such bodies as the Council of Christians and Jews, the Commonwealth Institute, the Royal Commonwealth Society, and, more recently, the Council for Education in the Commonwealth, of which he was a founder member. He has continued to take a leading part in the international activities of the Rotary Movement and in the educational travel awards it sponsors.

While at Wandsworth School we shall remember Mr. King for his many gifts as a headmaster and for many personal kindnesses, I am sure that in the wider world he deserves to be acclaimed, through his example and his influence, as a great democrat and a great internationalist in the service of the kind of education which is needed for effective living together in our contemporary world.

W.E.P.


THE LINK VOL. XLIX, No. 3. July, 1963

WANDSWORTH SCHOOL HEADMASTER'S NOTES

Valedictory

To my long chronicle a last chapter. For thirty-one years these "Headmaster's Notes" have recorded events, developments, and individual group achievements in the life of a School community that has never stagnated and that in recent years has expanded in remarkable variety and range.

In the thirties we pioneered a pattern of social organisation that has endured and has been adopted on the recommendation of central and local education authorities in many schools throughout the country, especially in the new comprehensive schools. In the thirties, too, Wandsworth School became the hub of the "International Summer Schools" organisation that linked the capitals of Europe - London, Berlin, Stockholm, Paris and Vienna - in a thorough going system of home to home and school to school exchanges and laid the foundations of an international reputation which the post-war years have enhanced.

Then came "the years that the locust has eaten," the six years of "evacuation" to the Woking area with all its trials and difficulties, at the end of which fewer than an hundred boys returned from exile in September 1945 to provide the nucleus of tradition and leadership for a couple of hundred young boys who had formed an emergency school in the building in Suthcrland Grove during the last two years of the war.

It was during the war years, when the School's fortunes were at their lowest ebb, that my then colleagues and I, particularly Fenn and Prior, turned our thoughts to reconstruction and began to sec a vision of the Wandsworth of today.

The spirit that informed our thinking was that of the pamphlet, "A Democratic Reconstruction of Education," published by four grammar school headmasters in 1942 as a result of three years' study and discussion of the educational system, its deficiencies and short-comings. This led to the formation of a standing Conference (C.D.R.E.) which represented all stages of education from primary school to university and made its impact upon forward-looking educational thought and the Act of 1944.

Its most striking proposal was the comprehensive organisation of secondary education. These ideas were more fully elaborated in a pamphlet I wrote for the English New Education Fellowship in 1950, entitled "The Comprehensive School."

Our first decisive step at Wandsworth towards the new pattern was our union in 1947 with the secondary technical school associated with the Brixton School of Building. This became our Technical Branch in Garratt Lane from 1947 to 1956 under Mr. Makin, who introduced our social system and prepared the school for the integration that took place in 1956.

From then on we admitted a fully comprehensive intake and expanded in a few years to 2,000 pupils.

When the School's history comes to be written, a wealth of material will be found in past numbers of the Link in which the "Headmaster's Notes" offer a useful perspective.

When in 1953 I was appointed Headmaster of the comprehensive school-to-be - it may sound strange that official policy did not regard my appointment as a foregone conclusion - I informed the Education Committee that I should be happy to devote the last 10 years of my educational work to the expansion of Wandsworth into a viable fully comprehensive school of the new pattern. Accorded full freedom by an enlightened Education Authority and without directives of any kind from a Ministry of Education or any other Authority, the Staff and I put into operation the plans which had matured from ten years or more of thought and discussion in small groups and Staff Meetings. The problems had been foreseen and the lines of development and organisation worked out, so that everything proceeded according to plan.

In the last issue of the Link general appraisals of the School by educationalists and other visitors both home and abroad showed something of the impact that Wandsworth has made upon educational reconstruction in theory and practice.

Our pattern of achievement over the whole range of secondary education vindicates the aims and aspirations that have stirred reformers during the first half of the twentieth century. But new ideas and fresh approaches are in the air. The climate of educational thought at the present time is bracing: the "winds of change" are blowingafresh, this time through the curriculum as well as through the organisation.

Moreover, in the ferment of discussion preceding the 1944 Act, we looked on educational reconstruction as an aspect of social reconstruction. The time is ripe to move more decisively towards the social vision. The newer human sciences of Psychology and Sociology are now speaking with more authority and acceptance to educators at all levels of practice in the educational system.

My job at Wandsworth is done and I hand over the tiller to Mr. Howard. But a lifetime in the service of education in a national and international as well as local setting supports my faith that the tide is flowing and that the Wandsworth that I have known so long, served so gladly, and loved so dearly will take it at the flood.

H.R.K.