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Iran: Uranium enrichment   See Tony lie
Sources: 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007
Jimmy Carter’s book and interviews: 2006, 2007.

Iran nuclear, uranium enrichment: Timeline, sources, links, video/audio

by Charles Judson Harwood Jr.

“ The French philosopher René Decartes said:—

“I think. Therefore I am.”

For the Americans, it’s:—

“I destroy. Therefore I am.””

Ali Larijani, April 17 2006

2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008



John Bolton (under secretary of state for arms control and international security (T), DoS: U.S. State Department), assertion, “Biological Weapons Convention: Remarks to the 5th Biological Weapons Convention RevCon Meeting” {copy} (Geneva November 19 2001), reported,US warning on Iraq bio-weapons” (BBC News, November 19 2001, 3:05 p.m.), Jim Fish, “This is not the first time the United States have named Iraq as a potential user of biological weapons” (BBC News, November 19 2001), video {1:34}.

Samir K. K. Al-Nima (Iraq Permanent Representative, U.N. Geneva Office, Ambassador to the Fifth Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention), reply to the U.S. Statement (Geneva November 19 2001), reported, “Fifth Review Conference of the States Parties to the Biological Weapons Convention Continues General Debate” {99kb.pdf} (UNOG press release 1, November 19 2001).

Ali Asghar Soltanieh (Iran Deputy Permanent Representative, U.N. Geneva Office, Ambassador to the Fifth Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention), “Reply of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the U.S. Statement (19 November 2001)” {8kb.pdf} (Geneva November 19 2001), reported, “Fifth Review Conference of the States Parties to the Biological Weapons Convention Continues General Debate” {99kb.pdf} (UNOG: United Nations Office Geneva, press release 1, November 19 2001).


“ John Bolton: Iraq’s biological weapons program remains a serious threat to international security.

After signing the BWC in 1972, Iraq developed, produced, and stockpiled biological warfare agents and weapons, and continued this activity even after ratifying the BWC in 1991.

Despite the obligation to fully disclose and destroy its BW program, which the UN Security Council required to conclude the Gulf War, Iraq denied having a BW program and pursued a policy of obstruction, denial and evasion to conceal its program. Only under increased pressure from UNSCOM and the looming defection of one of Iraq’s weapons directors did Baghdad admit the existence of its offensive BW program.

Baghdad unilaterally ended UNSCOM weapons inspections and monitoring in Iraq in December 1998. Even with unprecedented intrusiveness, UNSCOM, when faced with a nation dedicated to deception and concealment, unfortunately could not fully dismantle Iraq’s BW program. Its successor, UNMOVIC, is prepared to resume on-site activities in Iraq, but Saddam Hussein’s continued belligerence prevents it from so doing.

The United States strongly suspects that Iraq has taken advantage of three years of no UN inspections to improve all phases of its offensive BW program.

The existence of Iraq’s program is beyond dispute, in complete contravention of the BWC.

* * *

We are also quite concerned about Iran.

Which the United States believes probably has produced and weaponized BW agents in violation of the Convention.”



Query:Looming defection”?

So Hussein Kamal (Hussein Kamel) announced he was going to defect?

And his looming defection pressured Iraq to disclose their destroyed biological weapons program (July 1 1995)?

A month before he actually defected (August 8 1995)?

Pathetic nonsense. Nobody announces they are going to defect. Iraw disclosed their destroyed BW program before Kamal defected.

After the defection, Iraq disclosed they had produced (and destroyed) some few actual bio-weapons.

Iraq ratified the Biological Weapons Convention on June 19 1991, and did not, after that date, “develop, produce, and stockpile biological warfare agents and weapons.”

Contrary to the unequivocal assertion, of an unassailable fact, by John Bolton, a compulsive, brazen, psychopathic, liar.

Iraq destroyed its biological weapons program in the summer of 1991, before the biological weapons inspectors first arrived in Iraq. And so, Iraq no longer had a BW program for the inspectors to dismantle.

This was a violation of S/Res/687 (April 3 1991) {32kb.pdf, copy, copy, via this, this, or ODS}, which required Iraq to disclose the program and let the inspectors supervise the destruction.

Iraq did not want to admit they ever had such weapons.

They informed the inspectors, on August 2 1991, that they had conducted “biological research activities for defensive military purposes.”

In addition to other items accounted for, Iraq later declared, they had filled 157 aerial bombs (designated “R-400,” each containing 90 liters of liquid) and, in the summer of 1991, killed the biological agents with chemicals, piled them in a pit at Al-Aziziyah (Al-Azzizziyah) with explosives and diesel fuel, detonated and burned the pit, and then buried the debris. They also declared they deactivated the contents of a tank of anthrax, which had not been loaded into bombs, and dumped it at another site (Al-Hakam).

UNSCOM supervised a test excavation at Al-Aziziyah, on February 14-15 1997, recovering 3 intact R-400 bombs (photo), testing positive for botulinum toxin, and fragments of 21 others (24 total). They were frightened to excavate the whole site, fearing unexploded munitions. (source).

Iraq was busy, excavating the rest of the site (February 19 to March 16 2003), to show Hans Blix’s weapons inspectors, when George W. Bush attacked Iraq (March 20 2003).

Alarmed, presumably, that Iraq was on the verge of proving, conclusively, they had destroyed the weapons, undermining George W. Bush’s asserted pretext for war.

By the time of the attack, they had excavated 104 more bombs (128 total), 8 still intact, the rest fragments. Hans Blix’s team tested the liquid contents of 2 of the intact bombs, finding DNA fragments of the anthrax bacteria, and the chemicals used to kill them.

See, Hans Blix (Executive Chairman, UNMOVIC), Thirteenth Quarterly Report of the Executive Chairman of UNMOVIC (U.N. Doc. S/2003/580, May 30 2003) {282kb.pdf, copy, also via this, and ODS}, quoted here.




“ Samir K. K. Al-Nima (Iraq) (as reported): Speaking in a right of reply, accused the United States of using double standards in naming countries that had allegedly violated the provisions of the Convention. The United States had only mentioned Arab Muslim countries and had disregarded the violations of some other countries, namely Israel.

Mr. Al-Nima clarified that Iraq had fulfilled its obligations under Section C, Resolution 687, not to acquire weapons of mass destruction.

He also stated that Iraq had destroyed all weapons of mass destruction.

Iraq further elaborated on its compliance with UNSCOM measures. UNSCOM had withdrawn on the advice of the United States before bombing attacks on Iraq in 1998.

Iraq, therefore, denied the allegations made by the United States.”


“ Ali-Asghar Soltanieh (Iran): Mr. President.

Exercising my right of reply, according Rule 19 of the Rule and Procedures.

I would like to give the following response to the statement made by U.S. delegation in morning session:

The allegation made against my country is baseless and I hereby categorically reject it.

Islamic Republic of Iran is party to all treaties related to the weapons of mass destruction, that is, the NPT, CWC and BWC.

My country has fully cooperated with the relevant organizations namely the IAEA and the OPCW. As far as we are concerned with the BWC, my delegation has been one of the most active delegation during the past decade, specially in the Ad Hoc Group Negotiation.

Islamic Republic of Iran has voluntarily submitted detailed information on biological activities through the Confidence Building Measure (CBM).

Mr. President.

We are of the belief that these kind of allegations by one state party against other state party will cause confrontation instead of cooperation and may lead the conference to total failure.

Bearing in mind the unjustified position of the U.S. during the 24th session of the Ad Hoc Group which caused the failure of that session, one could conclude that U.S. has the intention of leading this conference to a dead lock and failure.

U.S. is not in favour of multilateralism. The unfortunate fate of the CTBT, ABM, and the Kyoto Protocol are examples of the dangerous mentality of the U.S. administration which definitely increase armament and the threat against global peace and security.

Proposals such as the NMD, and the unilateral approach as a substitute for the BWC protocol proves this school of thoughts.

In order to prove the double standard and dishonesty of the U.S. in dealing with such delicate issues, I have to draw your kind attention to the fact the Israel is fully supported by U.S., in spite of its clandestine activities, and not joining the essential treaties, namely, BWC, CWC, NPT, and ignoring totally the IAEA’s safeguards.

My country, as the main victim of the weapons of mass destruction, has serious concerns about the U.S. violation the provisions of the BWC, by transferring deadly agents to Israel, and other allies, as well as conduction of research and development, in the area of biological weapons. I refer you to the New York Times dated 5th September 2001 in this regard.

I have to remind, the U.S. delegation was the only one trying to dilute the verification provisions. U.S. has tried to have free hand, refraining from receiving any international inspectors. The U.S. congress reservation on the LWL challenge inspection, which is clear violation, proves this claim.

Mr. President.

Immediately after the U.S. statement at the 24th Session of the Ad Hoc Group, the spokesman of the White House announced, the United States has decided to reject the Protocol, since Iran is supporting it.

I wonder if U.S. will withdraw from the BWC, since Islamic Republic of Iran is strongly supporting it

Mr. President.

I express my regret that such actions and the legitimate reactions would put the spirit of cooperation in jeopardy. I therefore advise the U.S. delegation to refrain from such premature behavior accusing other member state in this family group which we are expected to strengthen our convention.

Instead, I recommend it to put pressure on non-state parties to join the Convention.

I thank you Mr. Chairman.”



2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008



NCRI: National Council of Resistance of Iran, Foreign Affairs Committee (press conference, Washington D.C., August 14 2002), reported,Iranian Resistance Exposes Mullahs’ Top Secret Nuclear Sites and Weapons of Mass Destruction Projects{14kb.pdf} (Iran Liberation, “News Bulletin of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the National Council of Resistance of Iran, Special Issue,” August 19 2002). UPI (Washington D.C., August 14 2002): “Alireza Jafarzadeh, spokesman for the National Council of Resistance of Iran, said Wednesday that two massive facilities were under construction in Iran that would be involved in the production of weapons-grade nuclear fuel. The facilities, he said, had been kept hidden from the International Atomic Energy Agency.” John J. Lumpkin, “Iran's Nuclear Weapons Program Growing At Secret Sites, Rebel Group Alleges{copy} (Associated Press, August 14 2002): “U.S. officials ... acknowledged that Iran is moving forward with its clandestine nuclear weapons program.”

Reza Aghazadeh (Iran Vice-President; President, AEOI: Atomic Energy Organization of Iran), statement (IAEA 46th General Conference, IAEA headquarters, Vienna, September 16 2002) {14kb.pdf}.

“ Iran is embarking on a long-term plan, based on the merits of energy mix, to construct nuclear power plants with a total capacity of 6000 MW {megawatts} within two decades.

Naturally, such a sizeable project entails with it an all out planning, well in advance, in various fields of nuclear technology such as fuel cycle, safety and waste management.

I take this opportunity to invite all the technologically advanced member States to participate in my country’s ambitious plan for the construction of nuclear power plants and the associated technologies such as fuel cycle, safety and waste management techniques.”

George W. Bush (U.S. President, Jan. 20 2001-2009 Jan. 20), “Statement by the President{pf} (written “signing statement,” dated White House, October 16 2002), retitled, “Statement on Signing the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002,” 38:42 WCPD 1779 {4kb.txt, 37kb.pdf, copy} {SuDoc: AE 2.109:38/42} (claiming legal authority, without consent of Congress, to order the U.S. military, CIA, paramilitary, and private contractors, “to use force to deter ... threats to U.S. interests”), concerning H.J. Res. 114 (U.S. Congress 107-2), Public Law 107-243, 116 Stat. 1498-1502 (October 16 2002) {15kb.txt, 36kb.pdf}, not mentioned inPresident Signs Iraq Resolution{pf} (White House, East Room, October 16 2002, 11:17-11:30 a.m.), video {14:28}, audio {13:32}, retitled, “Remarks on Signing the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002,” 38:42 WCPD 1777-1779 {10kb.txt, 44kb.pdf, copy} {SuDoc: AE 2.109:38/42}.

“ George W. Bush: I sought an additional resolution of support from the Congress to use force against Iraq, should force become necessary.

While I appreciate receiving that support, my request for it did not, and my signing this resolution does not, constitute any change in the long-standing positions of the executive branch on either the President’s constitutional authority to use force to deter, prevent, or respond to aggression or other threats to U.S. interests or on the constitutionality of the War Powers Resolution.”


Query:U.S. interests”?

That’s code for Israel.

And code for anything else a President’s whimsy may inspire his fancy to assert.

Contrary to this false claim, by George W. Bush, no U.S. President ever pretended legal authority, without consent of Congress (which the U.S. constitution requires), to initiate an offensive war, on these or any other grounds, except for his father, who claimed he could wage war on authority of the U.N. Security Council, without consent of Congress (attacking Iraq, in defense of Kuwait, 1991).

U.S. Presidents cannot amend the U.S. constitution, by bold claims.  CJHjr

“ The Court is not prepared to read out of the Constitution the clause granting to the Congress, and to it alone, the authority “to declare war.””

Dellums v. Bush, 752 F.Supp. 1141, 1146 (D.D.C., December 13 1990).



2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008



IAEA’s first inspection at Natanz, of the two enrichment facilities under construction there (Natanz Iran, February 21-22 2003), reported, Mohamed ElBaradei (IAEA director general), Report to the IAEA Board of Governors, Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran (IAEA Doc. GOV/2003/40, 6 June 2003, derestricted 19 June 2003) {46.5kb.pdf}, pages 1-2, ¶¶ 2-6:

“ Mohamed ElBaradei: 2. At the September 2002 regular session of the IAEA General Conference, Vice President of the Islamic Republic of Iran and President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), H.E. Mr. R. Aghazadeh, stated that Iran was “embarking on a long-term plan to construct nuclear power plants with a total capacity of 6000 MW within two decades.” He also stated that such a sizeable project entailed “an all out planning, well in advance, in various field of nuclear technology such as fuel cycle, safety and waste management.”

3. During the General Conference, the director general met with the Vice President, and asked that Iran confirm whether it was building a large underground nuclear related facility at Natanz and a heavy water production plant at Arak, as reported in the media in August 2002.

The Vice President provided some information on Iran’s intentions to develop further its nuclear fuel cycle, and agreed on a visit to the two sites later in 2002 by the director general, accompanied by safeguards experts, and to a discussion with Iranian authorities during that meeting on Iran’s nuclear development plans.

4. The visit to Iran was originally scheduled for October 2002, but finally took place from 21 to 22 February 2003. The director general was accompanied by the Deputy director general for Safeguards (DDG-SG) and the Director of the Division of Safeguards Operations (B).

5. During his visit, the director general was informed by Iran of its uranium enrichment programme, which was described as including two new facilities located at Natanz, namely a pilot fuel enrichment plant (PFEP) nearing completion of construction, and a large commercial-scale fuel enrichment plant (FEP) also under construction.

These two facilities were declared to the Agency for the first time during that visit, at which time the director general was able to visit both of them.

Iran also confirmed that the heavy water production plant  3 , referred to in paragraph 3 above, was under construction in Arak.


 3  Heavy water production facilities are not nuclear facilities under comprehensive NPT safeguards agreements, and are thus not required to be declared to the Agency thereunder.


6. During the visit, the director general was informed that Iran would accept modifications to its Subsidiary Arrangements, as requested by the Board of Governors in 1992, which would henceforth require the early provision of design information on new facilities and on modifications to existing facilities, as well as the early provision of information on new locations outside of facilities where nuclear material is customarily used (LOFs). This was confirmed to the Agency in a letter dated 26 February 2003 (see paragraph 15 below).

* * *

8. During the discussions in Iran in February between DDG-SG and the Iranian authorities, reference was made by the Agency to information in open sources on the possible conduct of enrichment activities at the workshop of the Kalaye Electric Company in Tehran.

The Iranian authorities acknowledged that the workshop had been used for the production of centrifuge components, but stated that there had been no operations in connection with its centrifuge enrichment development programme involving the use of nuclear material, either at the Kalaye Electric Company or at any other location in Iran.

According to the Iranian authorities, all testing had been carried out using simulation studies.

While a centrifuge component production facility is not a nuclear facility required to be declared to the Agency under Iran’s NPT Safeguards Agreement, Iran was requested, in light of its stated policy of transparency, to permit the Agency to visit the workshop and to take environmental samples there to assist the Agency in verifying Iran’s declaration and confirming the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities.

* * *

15. The Subsidiary Arrangements General Part in force with Iran from 1976 to 26 February 2003 included what was, until 1992, standard text which called for provision to the Agency of design information on a new facility no later than 180 days before the introduction of nuclear material into the facility, and the provision of information on a new LOF together with the report relating to the receipt of nuclear material at the LOF.

With the acceptance by Iran on 26 February 2003 of the modifications to the Subsidiary Arrangements proposed by the Agency, the Subsidiary Arrangements General Part now requires Iran to inform the Agency of new nuclear facilities and modifications to existing facilities through the provision of preliminary design information as soon as the decision to construct, to authorize construction or to modify has been taken, and to provide the Agency with further design information as it is developed.

Information is to be provided early in the project definition, preliminary design, construction and commissioning phases.”

Hence, Iran had no legal obligation, to report to the IAEA, any sooner than it did, the two centrifuge plants under construction at Natanz.

The first introduction of UF6, on June 25 2003 (a 1-centrifuge experiment), was done with IAEA consent and under IAEA safeguards, after IAEA first took extensive baseline swipes, to establish what if any nuclear material residues existed before the first experiment.  CJHjr.


Query: Hidden”?  Weapons”?

So. What of the hysterical claims, of the NCRI, a U.S.-designated terrorist organization, advocating U.S. policy, the overthrow of the Iranian government.

And what of the hysterical claims, by the unnamed U.S. officials, doubtless, the liars John Bolton & Co. (See John lie).

The three facilities they disclosed, they were not “hidden” because Iran had no legal obligation to disclose them, at that early date. These were construction projects, not operating enrichment facilities. These construction sites contained no nuclear material.

As for Arak, that plant, also under construction, is not a “nuclear facility,” hence, Iran had no obligation to report it.

Finally, there is no evidence, that any of these facilities has anything to do with nuclear weapons. In sum, the hysterical war-mongers and the lying U.S. officials, they’re batting zero.

Iran? They’re batting 1000.

Iran did not report the import, in 1990, of nuclear material for experiments. This was declared by the IAEA director-general to be a violation of a reporting provision of Iran’s Safeguards Agreement.

But the Director-General is mistaken. And being a lawyer, he should know better. It’s only a prima facie violation.

If Iran has a legal defense, for not reporting, then its failure to report is lawful. And the violation of its Safeguards Agreement is justified and lawful.

Iran has an iron-clad defense.


To the intensive, extensive, NPT treaty violations, by the United States, and its large cabal of complicit countries.

If all that material, which Iran imported in 1990, and did not report, were enriched to the maximum, in a world-class enrichment plant, it would produce “0.13 effective kilograms of uranium” (footnote 6, page 7, IAEA GOV/2003/40, linked above).

An “effective kilogram of uranium:” “In the case of uranium with an enrichment below 0.01 (1%) and above 0.005 (0.5%), its weight in kilograms multiplied by 0.0001.” IAEA INFCIRC/66/Rev.2, 16 September 1968, ¶ 72(c).

About 60 kilograms, enriched to 90%, is needed for one uranium bomb.

(The Hiroshima uranium bomb contained 64.1 kilograms of 80% enriched uranium).

If they wanted to make a bomb, they would have to repeat that import 461 more times and have a world-class enrichment plant to process it, all in secret from the IAEA.  CJHjr

John Bolton (under secretary of state for arms control and international security (T), DoS: U.S. State Department), interviewed by Kirsty Wark (BBC 2 TV, Newsnight, June 19 2003, 10:30 p.m.) {BBCcat d:andx012h}, video {6:30}, BBC transcript.


“ John Bolton: The fact is,

The Iranians are pursuing nuclear weapons.

And that makes them a danger,

To the region,

And the world as a whole.

So, today’s Chairman’s summary, at the IAEA, is an important first step, in the IAEA’s decision-making progress

But we are much more concerned, about what is actually going on, inside Iran.

Kirsty Wark: What evidence do you have,

That they are


Weapons of mass destruction?

John Bolton: The Iranians have activities throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. They have a heavy water production facility, that can only be used for a heavy water-reactor, which is a fast way to breed plutonium. They’re mining uranium. They only have one nuclear power plant. The Russians are going to supply all of the fuel, so there is no reason to be engaged in any of the rest of this activity.

Kirsty Wark: But.

What if they do sign up to the statement.

And allow the additional protocol.

What then?

If they allow that access,

What will you do?

John Bolton: I think, if they truly sign and fully implement the additional protocol, and give the IAEA inspectors complete, unimpeded access, we will simply see further proof, that,

They’re pursuing nuclear weapons.

Kirsty Wark: And then?

John Bolton: Then, I think, it would be up to the IAEA board, to refer the matter to the Security Council, and for the United States, the other nuclear weapons states, to take action.

Kirsty Wark: What kind of action?

John Bolton: I think, some of the things we are doing right now.

To deny the Iranians access, to the technology they need, throughout their nuclear fuel cycle.

And to alert people, that,

They are pursuing nuclear weapons.

Kirsty Wark: So.

Just to be quite clear about this.

No matter,

Whether or not,

The Iranians allow additional access,

And additional inspections,

As far as you are concerned,

If those inspections yield nothing,

They are still on the axis of evil.

John Bolton: The information we have, about which we have a high degree of confidence, is that,

The Iranians are pursuing nuclear weapons.

And, I might say, they are also pursuing a vigorous program in ballistic missiles, increasing the range that they have, in making themselves a broader and broader problem.

Kirsty Wark: So.

Is there a possibility, that you would take military action, in Iran, if necessary?

John Bolton: No.

The obvious intent here, is to get a peaceful solution,

To the problem.

But the problem is,

The Iranian nuclear weapons program.

Kirsty Wark: But.

Do you rule out military intervention.

John Bolton: We are nowhere close to even considering that.


All options are obviously on the table.

As the President has said repeatedly.

And there must be.

To provide a strong deterrent,

To those who might otherwise seek nuclear weapons.

Kirsty Wark: But when you use language like,

“They definitely have weapons of mass destruction”—

John Bolton: No.

I said,

They’re definitely pursuing

A nuclear weapons program.

We judge, at this point, they don’t have the weapons.


They are actively pursuing them.

Kirsty Wark: But if, in your judgement, in the United States judgement, they continue this pursuit, and show no signs of agreeing to your demands.

And if, indeed, you think they are going to still be supplied with the parts for this program.

How do you stop them?

John Bolton: Well, one thing that we have already begun, based on the President’s speech in Krakow, Poland on May 31st—

The Proliferation Security Initiative

Is to begin to interdict

Shipments of components, for a nuclear weapons program,

At sea.

In the air.

And on land.

We are working on that right now.

We had a meeting in Madrid last week with ten other countries, all of which signed up to the idea of going after weapons of mass destruction shipments in international commerce.

Kirsty Wark: You can see, how, to some people, this sounds belligerent.

It sounds as if, you are preparing the ground, for possible military intervention.

John Bolton: Well, I think—

The first thing you have to keep in mind, is that nuclear weapons are very dangerous.

And countries that possess nuclear weapons

And countries that possess ballistic missiles

Have the ability to blackmail the rest of us

And work their will

In a way, that we simply cannot find acceptable.

The choice, in this case, is for Iran.

Iran can adhere to its international treaty obligations.

And give up

The pursuit of nuclear weapons.

And then,

It would be accepted back

Into the international community.

Kirsty Wark: Is the American goal,

Regime-change in Iran?

John Bolton: The American goal — on what I work on — is the elimination of

Iran’s nuclear weapons program.

I think, the President has spoken very eloquently, to the importance of true democracy coming to Iran, of having the people there having a real chance to live in freedom.

What I’m concerned about.

And what I’m focused on.

And what the IAEA, today, took a very important step toward.

Is stopping

The Iranian nuclear weapons program.

Kirsty Wark: But if, in the end—

And it may be a very long way down the road—

Then military action was considered—

In Iraq, at the moment,

America is losing at least a soldier a day.

There’s no sign of soldiers coming home.

Is there an appetite, for continuing in Iraq.

Never mind the possibility, of starting a further military campaign, in Iran?

John Bolton: I think, in Iraq, our objective is quite clear. That is to turn responsibility for governing the country over to Iraqis as soon as possible. It was never our intention to have a long occupation. We are not an imperialist power. What we were after was the elimination of Saddam Hussein’s regime, and the elimination of Iraq’s WMD program. We are well on the way, on both of those. The burden is on us to give authority back to the Iraqi people. But we start from a very low base, decades of Ba'ath Party totalitarianism. So it’s not for want of desiring, to get authority back into the hands of the Iraqi people, that this is taking longer than we expected. But we are working as best as we can, under the circumstances.

Kirsty Wark: But, briefly,

Would there be an appetite

For further military intervention

By Americans

In another country?

John Bolton: Americans don’t have an appetite

For any military intervention.

What we seek, though, is the elimination of weapons programs, that threaten us, and our friends, and allies.

Kirsty Wark: John Bolton,

Thank you very much.”

Ahmed Chalabi, John Bolton, interviewed by John Humphrys (BBC Radio 4, Today, London, Friday June 20 2003, 6-9am at 8:44-8:55 a.m.) {BBCcat 90sx1443}, audio {11:20 (Chalabi), at 4:44 (Bolton, Iraq), 8:11 (Bolton, Iran)}.

John Bolton, interviewed by Kirsty Lang (BBC World, June 20 2003, 8:00 p.m. GMT), BBC video {7:58, reported}.

Iran’s first enrichment experiment, under IAEA safeguards (PFEP: Pilot Fuel Enrichment Plant, Natanz Iran, June 25 2003), reported, Mohamed ElBaradei (IAEA director general), Report to the IAEA Board of Governors, Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran (IAEA Doc. GOV/2003/63, 26 August 2003, derestricted 12 September 2003) {50kb.pdf}, page 7, ¶¶ 33-35:


“ Mohamed ElBaradei: 33. On 25 June 2003, Iran introduced UF6 {uranium hexafloride gas} into the first centrifuge for the purpose of single machine testing, and on 19 August 2003 began the testing of a small ten-machine cascade with UF6.

Iran continues to co-operate with the Agency in implementing safeguards measures now in place at PFEP for monitoring single machine and small cascade testing.

34. In accordance with its standard practice, the Agency took baseline environmental samples at PFEP at Natanz before nuclear material was introduced in the facility.

This baseline sampling campaign was conducted during inspections carried out between March and June 2003, and samples were taken at many locations within the facility.

While the Agency has already received the results from some of the samples (see below), which have been provided to Iran, other samples are still being analysed by a number of laboratories that participate in the Agency’s Network of Analytical Laboratories.

35. Iran has stated that it has not carried out any enrichment and that no nuclear material was introduced to the PFEP prior to the Agency’s having taken its first baseline environmental samples there.”

Jack Straw (U.K. Foreign Secretary), interviewed by John Humphrys (BBC Radio 4, Today, London, Monday June 30 2003, 6-9 at 7:49-7:57 a.m.) {BBCcat 90sx7210}, audio {8:02}, FCO transcript {pf, source}.


“ John Humphrys: The Foreign Secretary, Jack Straw, is in Iran.

I spoke to him, a few hours ago.

I asked him first,

If he thinks,

They really are

Developing nuclear weapons.

Jack Straw: The answer is,

Nobody knows

For certain.

Because the Iranians have so far refused effective, intrusive, inspections, of the kind now proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

So what we, in concert with everybody else in the international community, are proposing is, that they have to sign up to what’s called an additional protocol, which provides for these more intrusive inspections.”


Ali Akbar Salehi (Iran IAEA Ambassador), letter dated August 24 2003 to the IAEA Director-General, omitted from the IAEA website, reported, Mohamed ElBaradei (IAEA director general), Report to the IAEA Board of Governors, Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran (IAEA Doc. GOV/2003/63, 26 August 2003, derestricted 12 September 2003) {50kb.pdf}, page 3, ¶ 11:


“ Mohamed ElBaradei: 11. In a letter dated 24 August 2003, the Resident Representative of Iran to the Agency informed the director general that Iran was

“prepared to begin negotiation with the [IAEA] on the Additional Protocol

and expressed the hope that, “in this negotiation the concerns of [Iran] and the ambiguities on the Additional Protocol are removed.””

Mohamed ElBaradei (director general, IAEA), interviewed in Vienna by Tim Sebastian (BBC TV-1, BBC World, BBC News 24, HARDtalk, Friday/Monday August 29/31 2003) {BBCcat anz1758n}, video {24:14, 6.07mb.rm, source, rss, menu, search, search, search, search, rss}, reported,Mohamed ElBaradei{pf} (BBC News, August 29 2003).

“ Tim Sebastian: The facts are.

There has been a pattern.

Of deception and lying.

For years.

Hasn’t there.

From Iran.

Mohamed ElBaradei: The fact that—

They have been working on a program.

For almost 20 years.

The fact that—

They have not been under obligation.

At that time, to inform us.

But the fact also that—

They have not really been fully transparent, in telling us in advance what was going on.

So, we now need—

Tim Sebastian: That’s diplomacy for saying.

They’ve lied.


Haven’t they.

Mohamed ElBaradei: Well.


I’m not saying that.

It would have been easier for us, to complete our job, if we knew what was going on, as early as the mid-80’s, as we now know.

So we now need to go back, 20 years back.

And that’s why it takes some time.

* * *

Tim Sebastian: You went to Iran.

In February. {2003}

And you were treated with a whole list of denials.

From the Iranian authorities.

And assurances.

About peaceful uses of nuclear technology.

But for the first time.

They declared two new facilities.

Didn’t they.

Two nuclear facilities, to you.

That you had missed.

And your agency had missed—

Mohamed ElBaradei: No.

Tim Sebastian: —before.

Mohamed ElBaradei: We have not “missed.”

These are facilities still under construction.

And so they are not really operating facilities.

Tim Sebastian: But you didn’t know they were being built.

Did you.

Mohamed ElBaradei: No, we did not.


They did not have a legal obligation to tell us.

As early as that, as when they started.

Tim Sebastian: But you should have known.

Mohamed ElBaradei: We should have known.

As a matter of transparency.

{i.e., not a legal obligation.  CJHjr}.

And that’s what I told them.

It would have helped, to tell me earlier.

But now we are in full grasp of that situation.

We have sent already 5 to 10 missions already to Iran to look into that.”

Iran,Agreed Statement at the End of a Visit to the Islamic Republic of Iran by the Foreign Ministers of Britain, France and Germany” {source} (Iran, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tehran, October 21 2003).

“ 2.1. The Iranian Government has decided to engage in full co-operation with the IAEA to address and resolve through full transparency all requirements and outstanding issues of the Agency and clarify and correct any possible failures and deficiencies within the IAEA.

2.2. To promote confidence with a view to removing existing barriers for co-operation in the nuclear field:

2.2.a. Having received the necessary clarifications, the Iranian Government has decided to sign the IAEA Additional Protocol and commence ratification procedures. As a confirmation of its good intentions the Iranian Government will continue to co-operate with the Agency in accordance with the Protocol in advance of its ratification.

2.2.b. While Iran has a right within the nuclear non-proliferation regime to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes it has decided voluntarily to suspend all uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities as defined by the IAEA.”

Hans Blix, interviewed by Nidia Hagström (Head of the English Service) (photo) (Sveriges Radio, SR International, Radio Sweden, November 13 2003), audio {6:41, source}.

Iran signs the Additional Protocol (IAEA headquarters, Vienna, December 18 2003), reported,Iran Signs Additional Protocol on Nuclear Safeguards: Signing Ceremony Takes Place at IAEA” (IAEA News, December 18 2003).

“ Iran has stated that it is acting in accordance with the Protocol’s provisions, pending the Protocol’s formal entry into force.”



2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008



George W. Bush (U.S. President, Jan. 20 2001-2009 Jan. 20), “Letter From President Bush to Prime Minister Sharon{pf} (White House, April 14 2004), 40:16 WCPD 598-600 {8kb.txt, 54kb.pdf, copy}. George W. Bush, “Statement by the President{pf} (White House, April 14 2004), retitled, “Statement on the Israeli Disengagement Plan and the Middle East Peace Process,” 40:16 WCPD 596-598 {8kb.txt, 55kb.pdf, copy}. George W. Bush, “President Bush Commends Israeli Prime Minister Sharon's Plan{pf} (White House, Cross Hall, April 14 2004, 1:05-1:29 p.m.), video {23:50}, audio {23:50}, retitled, “The President’s News Conference With Prime Minister Ariel Sharon of Israel,” 40:16 WCPD 592-596 {19kb.txt, 77kb.pdf, copy} {SuDoc: AE 2.109:40/16}.

“ George W. Bush: As part of a final peace settlement, Israel must have secure and recognized borders, which should emerge from negotiations between the parties in accordance with UNSC Resolutions 242 and 338.

In light of new realities on the ground, including already existing major Israeli populations centers, it is unrealistic to expect that the outcome of final status negotiations will be a full and complete return to the armistice lines of 1949, and all previous efforts to negotiate a two-state solution have reached the same conclusion.

It is realistic to expect that any final status agreement will only be achieved on the basis of mutually agreed changes that reflect these realities.”

David Kay (senior fellow, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Washington D.C.), Mohamed Hadi Semati (political scientist, Tehran University; visiting scholar, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington D.C.), Leonard Spector (deputy director, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies, Washington D.C.), Scott Peterson (Moscow) (reporter on Iran and the Middle East, Christian Science Monitor), Tom Ashbrook (host), discussion, “Iran's Nuclear Threat” (WBUR, On Point, Boston University, Massachusetts, August 3 2004, 7:00 p.m. ET) (“Boston’s NPR news station”), audio {48:37}.

Mohamed ElBaradei (director general, IAEA), interviewed in Vienna by Tim Sebastian (BBC World, BBC News 24, HARDtalk, September 30 2004) {BBCcat anz2042b}, video {24:12, 6.05mb.rm, source, rss, menu, search, search, search, search, rss}, reported,Still time for diplomacy?” (BBC News, September 30 3004).

“ Tim Sebastian: You’re not pessimistic?

When the chief nuclear negotiator, Hassan Rowhani, says:

“Iran will not accept any obligation regarding the suspension of uranium enrichment.

This demand is not legal.

And does not put any obligation on Iran.”

And you’re saying, “That’s fine.”

Mohamed ElBaradei: No.

I’m saying this is a part of the diplomacy.

Saying it’s not—

Tim Sebastian: But he’s issued a slap in the face.

That’s not—

Mohamed ElBaradei: No.

Tim Sebastian: —“diplomacy.”

Mohamed ElBaradei: It is not—

He’s saying, it’s not a “legal obligation.”

It’s a “confidence building.”

I’m not taking quarrel with that.

It is a confidence building.

Our member states, they say:

It’s a voluntary undertaking.

It’s fine for me.

As long as they abide by their commitment.

To build confidence.

* * *

Tim Sebastian: They have played you so carefully.

Over the last couple of years.

Haven’t they.

The Iranians.

Giving you just enough cooperation, to say:

“Alright. They are cooperating.”

While omitting facts and realities.

That make that cooperation.


Mohamed ElBaradei: No.

Tim Sebastian: Absolutely worthless.

Mohamed ElBaradei: No.

Their cooperation has been very good.

We now understand fully.

The extent and nature of the program.

We have taken a lot of corrective actions.

I am fully—

Tim Sebastian: You might understand it.

But you can’t stop it.

Mohamed ElBaradei: I am—

I think I’m making it very difficult for them to go undeclared, as they have done for two decades.

And we are now—

Tim Sebastian: They’re doing it.

Under your nose, now.

They’re saying,

“Were going to go ahead and do it.”

Mohamed ElBaradei: No.

They are not “doing it under my nose.”

We are fully aware of what they are doing.

What I’m saying is,

We have a sense of urgency.


I am not jumping to conclusions.

* * *

Tim Sebastian: What are you waiting for?

For them to bring a bomb through the front door of your office?

And lay it on your table?

Mohamed ElBaradei: No.

Tim Sebastian: Is that the point when you will believe them?

Mohamed ElBaradei: No.

I am waiting for a full cooperation.

If you look at the last year and a half.

That cooperation has increased.

In nature and extent.

At the beginning

They were giving us completely false stories.


We are getting access.

To all the sites we want to go.

Including military sites.

We’re getting information.

Sometimes it is slow.

But we are getting the information.

* * *

Mohamed ElBaradei: The question of enriching uranium is not a violation of their treaty commitment.

It’s a question to build confidence.

In light of their past behavior, of undeclared programs.

* * *

Tim Sebastian: These people have acted in a way that can only be understood one way.

Which is.

That they have something serious to hide.

And you’re saying.

That you are not worried.

About the urgency.

Mohamed ElBaradei: I am worried—

Tim Sebastian: I find that hard to believe.

Mohamed ElBaradei: I’m worried about the urgency,

They have said that,

“We have gone underground.

Because we are under sanction.”

We have reported, that they have violated, in breach of their obligation, under the treaty.


I’m not saying—

Because they’ve gone underground.

To import stuff—

Like Libya did.

Like other countries did—

That, immediately,

“This is a nuclear weapons program.”

We have not seen evidence.

Of a nuclear weapon program.

In the sense, that we have not seen any material diverted toward a weapon program.

They have been told that,

“You can not use nuclear technology.”

They are saying,

“We were forced to go underground.”

I’m not taking their word for it.

What we are doing is doing a systemic, full court press, to understand the program.

Working with them, also.

To make them understand that,

“You need to build confidence.

You need to resolve this issue through diplomatic means.”

* * *

Tim Sebastian: So.

Either full cooperation.

Or partial.

Mohamed ElBaradei: I think—

Tim Sebastian: Which will you accept?

Mohamed ElBaradei: Well, I—

Tim Sebastian: Partial cooperation?

Mohamed ElBaradei: No.

I would like to ask for full cooperation.


Tim Sebastian: You’ve asked many times—

Mohamed ElBaradei: No—

Tim Sebastian: —in the past for it.

Mohamed ElBaradei: And.

They have been complying.

Tim Sebastian: Not fully.

Mohamed ElBaradei: Not—

Tim Sebastian: By your own words.

Mohamed ElBaradei: Not with regard with confidence-building.

You see.

They have been complying.

With regard to legal obligation.

That is their treaty obligation.

What the international community is asking them—

Legal obligation is not enough.


Because, as I said, their pattern of behavior in the past.

Because you have been—

You have—

Because there is really no need to accelerate your enrichment program.

Why don’t you build confidence.

By suspending, fully, enrichment-related activities.

And I am subscribing to that.

I am telling them, it is in your interests.

In the interests of the international community.

I don’t think confrontation is going to be helpful to anybody.

However, if they don’t—

If they don’t cooperate—

Tim Sebastian: More appeasement.

Mohamed ElBaradei: No.

Absolutely not—

Tim Sebastian: {Unintelligible}.

Where they could have another two years, to simply refine their techniques.

{Cross talk}

Mohamed ElBaradei: I can tell you.

We are not blue-eyed bureaucrats.

We are not giving into any policy of appeasement.

We are fully cognizant of the danger a weapon program could present to the international community.


We are not also.

Hyping facts.”

Jack Straw (U.K. Foreign Secretary), interviewed by John Humphrys (BBC Radio 4, Today, London, Thursday November 4 2004, 6-9am at 8:10-8:25 a.m.) {BBCcat 90sx6874}, audio {15:22}, copy (bb) {11:37 bb} (“Foreign Secretary Jack Straw on how George Bush's re-election to office will affect Europe”), FCO transcript {pf, source}, reported,US attack on Iran 'inconceivable' {pf} (BBC News, November 4 2004, 1:03 p.m.).

Paris Agreement, between the EU3 (U.K., France, Germany) and Iran (November 15 2004) (IAEA Doc. INFCIRC/637, 26 November 2004) {80kb.pdf}, page 3:

“ The E3/EU recognise Iran’s rights under the NPT, exercised in conformity with its obligations under the Treaty, without discrimination. ...

The suspension will be sustained while negotiations proceed on a mutually acceptable agreement on long-term arrangements.

The E3/EU recognize that this suspension is a voluntary confidence building measure and not a legal obligation.”

Javad Zarif (New York City) (Iran U.N. Ambassador, August 5 2002-2007 July 10), interviewed by Tim Sebastian (London) (BBC World, BBC News 24, HARDtalk, December 7 2004) {BBCcat anz2088f}, video {22:53}, Iran copy (larger) {22:57, source}.



2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008



Javad Zarif (Iran U.N. Ambassador, August 5 2002-2007 July 10), “US-Iran Relations: A View from Tehran,” “Discussion Forum with Iranian UN Ambassador”, introduced by Aryeh Neier (President, Open Society Institute) (American Iranian Council, OSI: Open Society Institute, 400 West 59th Street, New York City, January 14 2005, 5:00 p.m.), audio {46:28, 49mb.rm} (excludes Q&As), invitation {110kb.pdf}, reported,Iranian UN Envoy Defends Country's Nuclear Program” (OSI).

Sergei Lavrov, interviewed in Moscow by Simon Marks, “Foreign Minister Lavrov” (PBS: Public Broadcasting Service, The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, February 11 2005, 7:00 p.m. ET), audio {30:28}, video bb (excerpt) {13:21 bb}.

Sergei Lavrov (Russia Foreign Minister), interviewed by Jeremy Paxman (BBC 2 TV, Newsnight, March 2 2005, 10:30 p.m.) {BBCcat c:andm747a}, BBC video {6:17}, Russia MFA video {16:07, 3.12mb.wmv, bb 80.3mb.wmv, source}, reported,Sergei Lavrov: Exclusive interview{pf} (BBC News, March 2 2005, 5:41 p.m.).

Barbara Slavin (Senior Diplomatic Correspondent, USA Today), interviewed by Brian Lamb (C-Span founder and CEO), “Barbara Slavin(C-Span, Q&A, Sunday March 13 2005, 8/11pm/6am ET), C-Span video {56:14, 542005160, 185890-1, archive, rss}, C-Span transcript. “Barbara Slavin discusses her trips to Iran, recent developments in the country, and the future of U.S.-Iran relations.”

Iran, letter dated March 23 2005 to the EU3 (U.K., France, Germany), under the Paris Agreement, Iran’s proposed “package of objective technical guarantees,” “to preclude any proliferation concern,” omitted from the IAEA website, summarized in Iran’s letter to the IAEA of August 1 2005, page 3 (IAEA Doc. INFCIRC/648, 1 August 2005) {101kb.pdf}.

Jack Straw (U.K. Foreign Secretary), following Gary S. Samore, both interviewed by Nick Clarke (BBC Radio 4, The World at One, London, Thursday May 12 2005, 1-1:30 p.m.) {BBCcat 92sx3116}, audio {29:59, at 20:28 (Iran, 8:56), 24:39 (Straw, 4:42)}, FCO transcript {pf, source}, reported,Straw urges Iran nuclear rethink{pf} (BBC News, May 12 2005, 3:30 p.m.).

Iran, letter dated August 1 2005 to the IAEA, reporting failure of negotiations and resumption of uranium conversion, under IAEA Safeguards (Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations and other International Organizations in Vienna, IAEA Doc. INFCIRC/648, 1 August 2005) {101kb.pdf}. See also Gordon Prather, “Anti-Iranian Hysteria” (LewRockwell.com, October 10 2005).

EU3, proposal under the Paris Agreement, “Framework for a Long-Term Agreement Between the Islamic Republic of Iran and France, Germany & the United Kingdom, with the Support of the High Representative of the European Union” (August 5 2005) (IAEA Doc. INFCIRC/651, 8 August 2005) {235kb.pdf} {copy}, page 23, ¶ 34:

“ 34. As Iran will have an assured supply of fuel over the coming years, it will be able to provide the confidence needed by making a binding commitment not to pursue fuel cycle activities other than the construction and operation of light water power and research reactors.”

Dafna Linzer, “No Proof Found of Iran Arms Program: Uranium Traced to Pakistani Equipment{pf} (Washington Post, August 23 2005, page A1).

Hans Blix, interviewed by John Humphrys, following his interview with Hamid Reza Asefi (spokesman, Iran Foreign Ministry) (BBC Radio 4, Today, London, Monday September 19 2005, 6-9am at 7:34-7:40 a.m.) {BBCcat 90sx9061}, audio {5:57}. “The International Atomic Energy Agency is meeting in Vienna today. What can it do about Iran? We hear from Hans Blix, the former UN Iraq weapons inspector.”

Sergei Lavrov, speech {copy}, questions/answers (Stanford University, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, Stanford California, September 20 2005), Russia MFA video {52:06, 9.53mb.wmv, bb 197mb.wmv, source}, reported,Russian minister of foreign affairs cites partnership, shared challenges of Russia and United States in talk” (Hoover Institution, Public Affairs, September 22 2005).

John Bolton (interim U.S. U.N. Ambassador), interviewed by Gavin Esler (BBC 2 TV, Newsnight, October 14 2005, 10:30 p.m.) {BBCcat e:ands280a}, video bb {7:09 bb}, reported,Iran accused over nuclear plans” (BBC News, October 15 2005).

Javad Zarif (Iran U.N. Ambassador, August 5 2002-2007 July 10), “UN Ambassador from Iran to speak at WWS October 17” (Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Robertson Hall, Dodds Auditorium, Princeton New Jersey, October 17 2005, 4:30 p.m.), video bb {51:17 bb, source, source, source, source}, UC video (nb, bb) {51:17, 12.9mb.rm, 129.9mb.rm, source, search, rss}, UC video {rss} (UChannel: University Channel, audio/video streaming/download/broadcast archive, managed by Princeton University, WWS: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs).

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (President of Iran), speech (October 26 2005). “Wipe Israel off the map?

Sergei Lavrov, interviewed by Steve Rosenberg, “Sergei Lavrov interview{pf} (BBC News, November 9 2005).



2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008



Gregory L. Schulte (U.S. IAEA Ambassador), interviewed by Shaun Ley, “Iran” (BBC Radio 4, The World at One, January 10 2006, 1-1:30 p.m.) {BBCcat 06sx0056}, audio {5:15, 29:59 at 15:21, source}.

Jack Straw (U.K. Foreign Secretary), interviewed by James Naughtie (BBC Radio 4, Today, London, Friday January 13 2006, 6-9am at 8:10-8:23 a.m.) {BBCcat 06sx0073}, audio {13:54, at 9:02}, copy (bb) {12:59 bb}, FCO transcript {pf, source}, reported, 'Peaceful' pressure vow on Iran{pf} (BBC News, January 13 2006, 9:18 a.m.).

“ Jack Straw {2:14}: Iran is not Iraq. ...

Iran, it has not invaded any of its neighbours.

It did not launch missile attacks against any of its neighbours.

And nor

So far as the nuclear weapon programme is concerned—

Do we have categorical evidence.

That it is developing a nuclear weapon.”

Ali Asghar Soltanieh (Iran IAEA Ambassador), interviewed by Stephen Sackur (BBC World, BBC News 24, HARDtalk, January 18 2006) {BBCcat anz2393f}, video {24:15}.

Hans Blix, interviewed by Fatemeh Aman, “Iran: Blix Urges West to Offer Tehran Security Guarantees” (RFE/RL: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, January 26 2006), audio {5:06}.

U.S. Congress, Senate, S. Con. Res. 78, Senate concurrent resolution, “Condemning the Government of Iran for violating its international nuclear nonproliferation obligations and expressing support for efforts to report Iran to the United Nations Security Counsel {Council},” adopted without committee hearing, markup, floor debate, or vote, 152 Congressional Record S251-S252 {pf} (submitted) {11kb.txt, 56kb.pdf}, S253-S254 {pf} (adopted) {12kb.txt, 54kb.pdf} (January 27 2006, daily edition 152:7, U.S. Congress 109-2) {SuDoc: X/A.109/2:152/7}.

Ali Asghar Soltanieh (Iran IAEA Ambassador), interviewed by Fergus Nichol, “Iran’s Ambassador to the IAEA, Ali Asgar Soltaneih” (BBC World Service, Newshour, January 31 2006), audio {6:20}, “Iran Threatens to End UN Cooperation” (February 1 2006), audio {5:52} (same interview), a deceptive title, the topic being Iran’s additional, voluntary, cooperation with the IAEA, not its cooperation under its Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA, a legal obligation Iran continues to implement, to the IAEA’s complete satisfaction.

IAEA Board of Governors, Resolution, adopted February 4 2006, Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran (IAEA Doc. GOV/2006/14, 4 February 2006) {44kb.pdf}.

“ The Board of Governors  ...

1. Underlines that outstanding questions can best be resolved and confidence built in the exclusively peaceful nature of Iran’s programme by Iran responding positively to the calls for confidence building measures which the Board has made on Iran, and in this context deems it necessary for Iran to:

re-establish full and sustained suspension of all enrichment-related and reprocessing activities, including research and development, to be verified by the Agency;

reconsider the construction of a research reactor moderated by heavy water;

ratify promptly and implement in full the Additional Protocol;

pending ratification, continue to act in accordance with the provisions of the Additional Protocol which Iran signed on 18 December 2003;

implement transparency measures, as requested by the director general, including in GOV/2005/67, which extend beyond the formal requirements of the Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol, and include such access to individuals, documentation relating to procurement, dual use equipment, certain military-owned workshops and research and development as the Agency may request in support of its ongoing investigations;

2. Requests the director general to report to the Security Council of the United Nations that these steps are required of Iran by the Board and to report to the Security Council all IAEA reports and resolutions, as adopted, relating to this issue; ...”

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (President of Iran), interviewed by Barbara Slavin in Tehran, February 11 2006, “Iran Can Progress Despite Enemies, President Says{pf} (USA Today, February 13 2006) {copy}.

Hans Blix, interviewed by Robin Lustig, “Iran” (BBC Radio 4, The World Tonight, London, Monday February 13 2006, 10-10:45 p.m.) {BBCcat 06sx0258}, audio {5:22, 45:00, at 25:10}.

U.S. Congress, House, H. Con. Res. 341, House concurrent resolution, “Condemning the Government of Iran for violating its international nuclear nonproliferation obligations and expressing support for efforts to report Iran to the United Nations Security Council,” submitted: “Public Bills and Resolutions,” 152 Cong. Rec. H332 {pf} (February 15 2006), debate and vote, without committee hearing or markup, “Resolution of Condemnation Regarding Iran,” 152 Congressional Record H337-H351 {pf} {150kb.txt, 154kb.pdf} (February 16 2006, daily edition 152:20, U.S. Congress 109-2) {SuDoc: X/A.109/2:152/20}, House roll call vote 109-2:12 (404/4/4/20) (February 16 2006, 11:31 a.m.), 152 Cong. Rec. H350-H351.

Barbara Slavin (Senior Diplomatic Correspondent, USA Today), interviewed by Peter Slen (Executive Producer, Washington Journal), “Life in Iran” (C-Span, Washington Journal, February 21 2006, 7-10am at 8:30-9:15 a.m. ET), “discusses her recent trip to Iran,” C-Span video {39:30, 548037701, 191226-3, rss, archive, search}.

Jimmy Carter, remarks (speech, Q&As), “The Major Obstacles to Peace in the Holy Land{pf}, “Peace versus Democracy in Palestine: A Conversation with Jimmy Carter,” presiding, Thomas R. Pickering (senior vice president, international relations, The Boeing Company) (CFR: Council on Foreign Relations, New York City, March 2 2006), FNS transcript {copy} {Carter archive, CFR archive}, video {1:03:37, 108.7mb.wmv, 188.26mb.mp4}, audio {21.9mb.mp3}.

Jimmy Carter, “Colonization of Palestine Precludes Peace{pf, copy, copy, copy} (Carter Center, Atlanta, March 13 2006) (“This op-ed was published in Haaretz {Friday March 17 2006, text, pf} and at least 70 other newspapers worldwide”), reported, Chris McGreal (Jerusalem), “Israel's colonisation of Palestine blocking peace, says Jimmy Carter{pf} (The Guardian, London, Saturday March 18 2006).

Ali Larijani (Secretary, SNSC: Supreme National Security Council, Iran), interviewed in Tehran by Jon Snow (Channel 4 News, Channel 4 TV, London, Monday March 6 2006, 7:00 p.m.) video {10:36, 30mb.wmv, source}.

Jack Straw (U.K. Foreign Secretary), interviewed by John Humphrys (BBC Radio 4, Today, London, Monday March 13 2006, 6-9am at 8:10-8:22 a.m.) {BBCcat 06sx0423}, audio {13:01, at 4:25} {5465kb.mp3}, FCO transcript (none), reported,Straw urges Iran nuclear rethink{pf} (BBC News, March 13 2006).

“ Jack Straw {3:10}: We don’t know.

For certain.

That they are moving towards.

The development of a nuclear weapons system. ...

Let me say.

If Iran is—

And it’s the working assumption of everybody—

Is developing a nuclear weapons capability—

It would very seriously destabilize the Middle East, and shift the balance of power there, to a very worrying extent.”

John Bolton (interim U.S. U.N. Ambassador), interviewed by Stephen Sackur (BBC World, BBC News 24, HARDtalk, March 13 2006) {BBCcat anz2500f}, video {23:23}.

Hans Blix, interviewed by Frank Ucciardo, “Examining Iran's Nuke Program{pf} (CBS News, Up to the Minute, Thursday-Friday March 16-17 2006, 2-4:30 a.m. ET), video, Dr. Blix on Iran Nukes: Part 1 {5:39}, Dr. Blix on Iran Nukes: Part 2 {6:38}, and see, Charles Wolfson, “Iran: To Talk or Not to Talk{pf} (CBS News, Diplomatic Dispatches, Friday March 17 2006).

John J. Mearsheimer (professor of political science, co-director, Program on International Security Policy, University of Chicago), Stephen M. Walt (professor of international affairs, academic dean 2002-2006, KSG: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University), “The Israel Lobby” (London Review of Books, volume 28 number 6, dated March 23 2006), footnoted version, John J. Mearsheimer, Stephen Walt, “The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy{1411kb.pdf, copy} (Working Paper Number: RWP06-011, March 13 2006, Faculty Research Working Paper Series, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University) (“about 250,000 downloads,” as of about May 1: Walt, speaking on C-Span, June 23 2006), response to responses, John Mearsheimer, Stephen Walt, “Letters: The Israel Lobby{copy} (London Review of Books, volume 28 number 9, dated May 11 2006).

“ Mearsheimer, Walt. The United States has become the de facto enabler of Israeli expansion in the Occupied Territories, making it complicit in the crimes perpetrated against the Palestinians.”

Andrei Denisov (Russia’s U.N. Ambassador), questioned by Edith M. Lederer (Associated Press) (blog), in a media stakeout, shortly before a 3:30pm private Security Council meeting, before Security Council meeting 5403 (March 29 2006, 4:30-4:35pm) {video, 23:09, at 20:56}, excerpts quoted in Evelyn Leopold, Irwin Arieff (Reuters), “Wrapup 1—UN demands Iran stop uranium enrichment work” (Reuters, March 29 2006, 8:22pm EST), and Warren Hoge, U.N. Council Urges Iran to Halt Atom Activity” (New York Times, March 30 2006).


“ Edi Lederer {1:20}: Mr. Ambassador?

Why was it important?

To drop the reference to “threats”?

To international peace and security?

Which is actually.

What the Security Council is responsible for.

Andrei Denisov: We haven’t dropped it.

We simply—

We didn’t insert it.

And that’s a different thing.

Edi Lederer: What is the difference?

Andrei Denisov: Because, you know—

When you speak about threat

To international peace and security.

You must have strong, clear, and legally approved evidence.

We don’t have such evidence.

That is the purpose.

Why we use International Atomic Energy Agency.

As a watchdog, specially designed, to provide such qualification, such verification, such approval.

For a time being, we have suspicions.

A very strong one.

But suspicions.

On intentions.

That intentions also have some, some, some evidence.

But it is only intentions.

So, from that point of view, the road—

It is like a ladder. You know. If you want to climb up, you must step on the first step. And then the second. And not try to leap.

That is the case.”

S/PRST/2006/15 (March 29 2006) {and via resguide, journal, ods}, U.N. Security Council presidential statement, adopted, meeting 5403 (Wednesday, March 29 2006, 4:30-4:35pm), reported, SC/8679, transcript, S/PV.5403 (2 pages) {and via journal}, video, U.N. video {8:18, source}, press briefings, before the meeting (media stakeout, Security Council lobby), U.N. video: P5 (U.K., France, China, U.S., Russia) {23:09}, press briefings, after the meeting (media stakeout, Security Council lobby), U.N. video: EU3 (France, U.K., Germany) {12:23}, U.S. (John Bolton) {07:00}, reported,UN Security Council Calls on Iran to Suspend Enrichment-Related Activities{pf} (U.N. News Service, March 29 2006), and see, Louis Charbonneau (Reuters), “World Powers Meet in Berlin to Discuss Iran Crisis{pf} (Washington Post, March 30 2006).

Javad Zarif (Iran U.N. Ambassador, August 5 2002-2007 July 10), prevented by the Security Council from speaking at its meeting, his reply (U.N. press conference, March 29 2006), U.N. video {37:55, source}, copy (larger) {37:55, source}.

Sergei Lavrov (Russia Foreign Minister), press conference (German Foreign Office, Berlin, March 30 2006), Russia MFA video {23:20, 4mb.wmv, bb 109mb.wmv, Q/A at 16:52-17:41(Q) and 18:30-20:31(A), source}, transcribedPress Availability After the P5+1 Meeting,” “Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, Remarks with British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw, Chinese Deputy Foreign Minister Dai Bingguo, French Foreign Minister Philippe Douste-Blazy, German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and European Union High Representative Javier Solana” (U.S. State Department, 2006/T10-2, Berlin, March 30 2006), reportedIranian Nuclear Program Must Be Solved Via IAEA Channels – Moscow{copy} (Interfax, March 31 2006, citing a Russian Foreign Ministry statement), quoted Jeffrey Fleishman (Berlin), Alissa J. Rubin (Vienna), “Calm Is Urged in Iran Debate{copy} (Los Angeles Times, March 31 2006), accordTranscript of Remarks and a Reply to a Media Question by Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Sergey Lavrov at Press Conference of Foreign Ministers of Six States Following Consultations on Iranian Nuclear Program, Berlin, March 30, 2006” (Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 533-31-03-2006, March 31 2006).

“ Question {English} {2:49 bb}: And to Foreign Minister Lavrov, specifically.

Given that yesterday’s Security Council statement.


Apparently at your request.

Language calling Iran a threat.

To international peace and security—

Do you think, that the regime is not that sort of threat?

Or, did you have other reasons, for opposing that language?

Sergei Lavrov {English}: In principle, Russia doesn’t believe that sanctions could achieve the purposes of settlement of various issues.

We believe, that there must be a balanced approach, of the international community, to each and every conflict, based on the international law, and based on the need to make sure, that all members of the international community fulfill their commitments and obligations.

And that’s how we all try to work, in case of the nuclear program of Iran.

And the key to this, is, the work of the IAEA, which has been supported yesterday, by the Security Council, aimed at clarifying all issues related to the past Iranian nuclear program.

The IAEA has reported, that it cannot yet testify, that there is no military aspect of this program.

But, at the same time, the last report of the IAEA says, that it cannot also assert, that there is a military aspect, to the Iranian nuclear program.


Before we call any situation a threat.

We need facts.

Especially, in the region like the Middle East, where so many things are happening.

We prefer, very strongly.

To base our specific actions.

On specific facts.


In this particular case.

The facts could be provided by the IAEA.

So far, they have not been provided.”

Javad Zarif (Iran U.N. Ambassador, August 5 2002-2007 July 10), interviewed by Wolf Blitzer (CNN News, The Situation Room, Washington D.C., March 30 2006, 4-6pm, 7-8pm ET), CNN transcripts {archive}: 5:00 p.m., 7:00 p.m..

Mohamed ElBaradei (IAEA director general), interviewed by Tim Sebastian (chairman) and audience Q&As (The Doha Debates Special, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science, and Community Development, headquarters building atrium, Education City, Doha Qatar, Friday March 30 2006), DD transcript, video (bb) {45:57 bb, 11.16mb.wmv, 77.5mb.wmv} {player}, podcast video {50.49mb.mp4, rss}, video broadcast (not in the U.K.) (BBC World, Saturday/Sunday April 15/16 2007).

Jane F. Harman (Ranking Minority Member, House Permanent Select Committe on Intelligence), “Intelligence Support to the Military” (CFR: Council on Foreign Relations, panel discussion, Washington D.C., April 4 2006, FNS transcript, 12:30 p.m.).

“ Jonathan Karl (ABC News): You alluded to the fact that the administration has gone around to members of IAEA, and Security Council, with a, you know—

Classified briefing —

This is what—

The case, basically, against Iran.

The case, they have a nuclear weapons program.

Are you saying?

You don’t think?

That they’ve made the case effectively? ...

Jane F. Harman: The issue is:

How capable are they?


What are the real intentions?

Of Iran’s leaders.

And I think the jury’s out.

On both of those.

So, at any rate, I and some others — but it was my request — were briefed in a classified setting.

On the material that the U.S. is shopping around.

And all I’m saying is—

I remain skeptical.

Lots of unanswered questions and conjecture that I have ...”

Javad Zarif (Iran U.N. Ambassador, August 5 2002-2007 July 10), “We Do Not Have a Nuclear Weapons Program” (New York Times, April 6 2006) {copy, copy}.

Seymour M. Hersh, “The Iran Plans {pf, copy}: Would President Bush Go to War to Stop Tehran from Getting the Bomb?” (The New Yorker, dated Monday April 17 2006, posted Saturday April 8 2006).

Paul Krugman, “Yes He Would” (New York Times, Monday April 10 2006) {copy, copy, copy, source}: “Current polls suggest that the Democrats could take one or both houses of Congress this November, acquiring the ability to launch investigations backed by subpoena power. This could blow the lid off multiple Bush administration scandals ... an appropriately timed military strike could change the domestic political dynamics ... Given the combination of recklessness and dishonesty Mr. Bush displayed in launching the Iraq war, why should we assume that he wouldn’t do it again?”

Peter Baker, Dafna Linzer, Thomas E. Ricks, “U.S. Is Studying Military Strike Options on Iran{pf} (Washington Post, Sunday April 9 2006, page A1).

Jack Straw (U.K. Foreign Secretary), interviewed by Andrew Marr, “Foreign Affairs” (BBC 1 TV, Sunday A.M., April 9 2006, 9:00-10:00 a.m.) {BBCcat andq211x}, video bb (deleted) {1:02:23, 43:45-57:40 bb at 48:20-49:29 bb}, FCO transcript {pf, source}, BBC transcript {pf}, reported,UK Dismisses Talk of Iran Attack{pf} (BBC News, April 9 2006).

“ Andrew Marr {1:09 (bb)}:

We wouldn’t accept a pre-emptive attack?

Jack Straw: No.

And I don’t—

No, we wouldn’t.


Just so I sound clear.

And neither would—

I don’t feel—

I’m as certain as I can be.

Sitting here.

That neither would the United States.

I mean let’s—

Let’s just understand, what the evidence is.

* * *

Which adds up to high suspicion.

That Iran is developing a civil nuclear capability.

Which in turn could be used for nuclear weapons.


Let’s be clear.

There is no smoking gun.

There is no casus belli.

We can’t be certain about Iran’s intentions.

And that is, therefore, not a basis on which anybody would gain authority to go for military action.

I think—

I’ve been trying to be clear about this.

Andrew Marr: Absolutely.

And you have been.”

Seymour Hersh, interviewed by Kathleen Dunn (WPR: Wisconsin Public Radio, Ideas Network, Conversations with Kathleen Dunn, radio WHAD studios, Milwaukee Wisconsin, Wednesday April 12 2006, 9-11am, at 10:00-11:00 a.m./p.m. CT), audio {50:52, 11.88mb.rm, archive, search, search}, broadcast by 29 radio stations.

Seymour Hersh, interviewed by Bill Press (blog) (JRN, The Bill Press Show, Washington D.C., Wednesday April 12 2006, 6-9am ET), audio (3 hours) {104mb.mp3, blog, archive, search, search, search}, broadcast by 22 U.S. radio stations, and by satellite radio (Sirius Left, Sirius channel 146, schedule).

Ali Larijani (Secretary, SNSC: Supreme National Security Council, Iran), interviewed April 17 2006 in Tehran, by Amira Howeidy, “Taking Matters in Hand” (Al-Ahram Weekly, Cairo, Issue No. 791, April 20-26 2006) {pf}

“ Amira Howeidy: The Iranian Revolutionary Guard is said to be involved inside Iraq.

How far is Iran implicated in Iraq?

Ali Larijani: We don’t need to intervene in Iraq.

And if we were indeed involved,

Then rest assured,

The Americans would have publicized

Whatever evidence they have.


Why should we intervene?

Iraqi President Jalal Talabani is our friend.

Masoud Barzani is our friend [Kurdish leader].

Ayatollah Ali Al-Sistani,

Abdul-Aziz Al-Hakim,

Ibrahim Al-Jaafari,

And Moqtada Al-Sadr.

They are all our friends.”

Peter Hoekstra (Chairman), Jane F. Harman (Ranking Minority Member), House Permanent Select Committe on Intelligence, interviewed by Chris Wallace, House Intel Leaders on 'FNS' (FOX News Sunday, April 23 2006, 9:00 a.m.), FNS transcript, reported, Associated Press, “Rep. Says Iran's Nuke Capability Unknown{pf} (Washington Post, April 23 2006; 12:30 p.m.).

“ Chris Wallace: Congressman, how close is Iran to actually developing a nuclear weapon?

Or, don’t we really know?

Pete Hoekstra: I’d say—

We really don’t know. ...

Chris Wallace: But—

Chairman Hoekstra—

I mean—

Almost everyone agrees.

This is the major foreign policy issue, or challenge, facing this country today.

And you’re saying?

“We really don’t know?”

What’s going on in Tehran?

Pete Hoekstra: Hey—

Sometimes it’s better to be honest.

And to say, there’s a whole lot we don’t know about Iran.

That I wish we did know. ...

We wish we had the information.

But right now, we don’t.

Chris Wallace: Congresswoman Harman, you’ve also been quite critical.

You say, the information we have on Iran is “thin.”

You’ve said, some of it may be, in fact, Iranian disinformation.

How can we be talking about:—

What to do?

How soon to do it?

The possibility of military strikes?

If we really are that much in the dark?

Jane F. Harman: Well.

I hope the White House is listening.

To what Pete Hoekstra just said.

We don’t know.

Our intelligence is thin. ...

And my view is, at our peril, we risk any good outcome, if we don’t join with the world — especially China and Russia — and try to help the U.N., or at least the group of concerned nations.

Isolate Iran.

If we don’t have full transparency.

Into its nuclear capabilities.”

Javad Zarif (Iran U.N. Ambassador, August 5 2002-2007 July 10), interviewed by Ray Suarez, “Newsmaker: Javad Zarif (PBS: Public Broadcasting Service, NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, April 28 2006, 7:00 p.m. ET), video bb {13:35 bb}, audio {13:27}.

Javad Zarif (Iran U.N. Ambassador), interviewed by Edward Stourton (BBC Radio 4, Today, London, Saturday April 29 2006, 7-9am at 7:49-7:57 a.m.) {BBCcat 06sx0710}, audio {7:26}, reported,West Urges Tougher Line On Iran{pf} (BBC News, April 29 2006).

Hans Blix, interviewed by James Naughtie (BBC Radio 4, Today, London, Tuesday May 2 2006, 6-9am at 8:45-8:50 a.m.) {BBCcat 06sx0724}, audio {4:33}.

Javad Zarif (Iran U.N. Ambassador) (New York City, C-Span studio, Pace University), interviewed by Steve Scully (C-Span Senior Executive Producer and Political Editor) (Washington D.C.), “U.S.-Iran Relations” (C-Span, Washington Journal, May 3 2006, 7-10am at 7:43-8:30 a.m. ET), C-Span video {46:27, 160568803, 192285-2, rss, archive, search}, Iran copy (larger) {46:27, source}.

Hans Blix, interviewed by Owen Bennett-Jones, “The United Nations Security Council Is Debating What To Do About Iran” (BBC World Service, Newshour, May 3 2006), audio {3:28}.

Gregory L. Schulte (U.S. IAEA Ambassador), interviewed by Robin Lustig, “Iran” (BBC Radio 4, The World Tonight, May 4 2006, 10-10:45 p.m.) {BBCcat 06sx0741}, audio {5:25, 44:58, at 28:29, 29:07}. See also, Gregory Schulte, “Ambassador Schulte Iran Speech at IISS” (IISS: International Institute for Strategic Studies, London, May 4 2006, 2:30 p.m.).

“ Greg Schulte {2:05}: We also have clear indications, that they’re moving forward, to acquire the material, the technology, the knowhow,

To build nuclear weapons.

After all, IAEA inspectors have been to the centrifuge halls at Natanz.

They’ve seen these centrifuges spinning.

We know they are enriching uranium.

Robin Lustig: But that, in itself, doesn’t mean they are making a bomb.

You can use centrifuges, you can enrich uranium, without wanting to make a bomb.

Greg Schulte: But sensible people ask sensible questions.

And the sensible question here is,

Why would they want to enrich uranium,

For peaceful purposes,

If they don’t even have a nuclear reactor.

There’s one reactor under construction.

At Bushehr.

And that reactor is going to be fueled by the Russians.

Robin Lustig: So give me then, if you can, 3 pieces of hard evidence, that you believe point, conclusively, to the fact that Iran is developing a nuclear weapon.

Greg Schulte: I cannot offer you a smoking gun.”

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (President of Iran), interviewed by Stefan Aust, Gerhard Spörl, Dieter Bednarz, in Tehran, “‘We Are Determined’” (Spiegel, May 30 2006) {copy}.

Barbara Slavin (Senior Diplomatic Correspondent, USA Today), interviewed by Robb Harleston, “U.S. Policy Toward Iran” (C-Span, Washington Journal, June 1 2006, 7-10am at 8:35-9:15 a.m. ET), C-Span video {35:00, 171535418, 192787-4, rss, archive, search}. “On May 31, the U.S. announced a shift in policy, saying it will work with other countries to hold direct talk with Iran about Iran’s nuclear program. He announced one condition on this policy: Iran must agree to stop nuclear activities that could lead to a bomb.”

Hans Blix (Chairman, WMD Commission; Executive Chairman, UNMOVIC, March 1 2000-2003 June 30; IAEA director general, 1981-1997), replying to Richard Roth (CNN, Diplomatic License), press conference (U.N. Secretariat Building, DPI: Department of Public Information briefing room S-226, June 1 2006, 12:30 p.m.), U.N. video {36:59, at 23:34 (Q/A), 24:34 (quote), source}, C-Span video {37:03, schedule, 171537419, rss, archive, search, search}.

“ Hans Blix {0:11}: The IAEA Board of Governors has not asserted, that Iran is violating the nonproliferation treaty.”

Hans Blix, “International Law Relating to the Use of Armed Force and Weapons of Mass Destruction” {198kb.pdf, source, 59kb doc, source} (International Law Association, 72nd Biennial Conference, June 5 2006, Fairmont Royal York Hotel, Concert Hall, Toronto, 8:30-9:15 a.m.), conference brochure {1.7mb.pdf}.

Hans Blix, interviewed June 5 2006 by Allison Hanes, “U.S. Tough Talk Humiliates Muslims, Blix: Washington's Tone With Iran Fuels Their Anger” {pf} (National Post, Toronto, June 6 2006), “Former Weapons Inspector Decries U.S. Tone Against Iran{pf} (CanWest News Service, National Post, Toronto, June 6 2006).

Hans Blix,Don't Forget Those Other 27,000 Nukes{copy} (The International Herald Tribune, Paris, June 8 2006).

Hans Blix, press conference (EC: European Commission, Brussels, June 11 2006, 2:00 p.m.), video (offline), audio {18:20, 16.8mb.mp3}, audio (omits first 45 seconds) {18:39, 8.6mb.mp3, source, source}, following a meeting with Javier Solana (Secretary-General, EU: European Union).

John J. Mearsheimer (Chicago), Stephen M. Walt (Cambridge Massachusetts), interviewed by Brian Lamb (C-Span founder and CEO), “Lobbying for Israel” (C-Span, Washington Journal, Washington D.C., June 23 2006, 7-10am at 9-10:00 a.m. ET), C-Span video {1:00:30, 186238805, 193069-3, rss, archive, search}, their first TV appearance, since publishing their paper, on March 23 2006.

Sergei Lavrov (Russia Foreign Minister), interviewed in Moscow by Stephen Sackur (BBC World, BBC News 24, HARDtalk, July 4 2006) {BBCcat anz2508j}, BBC video {23:29} Russia MFA video {4.29mb.wmv, 114mb.wmv, source}.


U.N. Security Council, Resolution 1696 (July 31 2006), U.N. Doc. S/Res/1696 {32kb.pdf, also via this, this, this, or ODS}, adopted at, U.N. Security Council Meeting 5500 (Wednesday July 31 2006, 10:20-11:25 a.m., SC/8792), transcript, U.N. Doc. S/PV.5500 (12 pages) {73kb.pdf, also via this, this, or ODS}, U.N. video {1:18:17, source, source} (includes two subsequent short meetings, on Lebanon and Congo), C-Span video {1:24:30, schedule, 196757121, rss, archive, search} (includes some subsequent media stakeouts), Javad Zarif (Iran U.N. Ambassador), statement at the meeting, {61kb.pdf, source}, U.N. video {28:48, 1:18:17, at 37:48, source, source}, Iran copy (larger) {28:48, 153mb.flv, source}, press briefings, after the meeting (media stakeout, Security Council lobby), U.N. video: U.S. (John Bolton) {9:12}, EU3 (Germany, U.K., France: Thomas Matussek, Emyr Jones Parry, Jean-Marc de La Sabliere) {18:32}, Qatar (Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser) {15:06}, Russia (Vitaly Churkin) {13:21}, reported,UN Security Council Demands That Iran Suspend Nuclear Activities{pf} (U.N. News, July 31 2006), UN Issues Iran Nuclear Deadline{pf} (BBC News, July 31 2006, 16:27 GMT).

Tony Blair (U.K. Prime Minister), “A Renaissance in Foreign Policy” (a/k/a “Future Foreign Policy”) {73kb.pdf}, luncheon event (speech, questions/answers), “Crisis in the Middle East: Britain’s Prime Minister Discusses the Turmoil Overseas” (Los Angeles World Affairs Council, Westin Bonaventure Hotel, 404 South Figueroa Street, Los Angeles California, August 1 2006), LAWAC video {1:11:50, event ends at 58:30, 157mb.wmv}, broadcast, BBC video bb {39:16 bb} (omits Q&As) (BBC News, August 1 2006), “An Alliance of Moderation” (MPR: Minnesota Public Radio, Midday, August 2 2006, 12:06 p.m.), audio {54:00} (omits preliminary remarks and final Q&A), “An Alliance of Moderation” (APM: American Public Media, Word for Word, August 4 2006), audio {53:00, source} (omits preliminary remarks, includes all Q&As), reported,Blair Warns of 'Arc of Extremism' {pf} (BBC News, August 2 2003), prepared text, “Speech to the Los Angeles World Affairs Council{copy} (10 Downing Street), copy, “In full: Tony Blair Speech {pf} (BBC News, August 2 2006).

See Tony lie

“ Tony Blair: Iran’s President has called for Israel to be “wiped off the map,” and he’s trying to acquire a nuclear weapon.”


“ Jack Straw {3:10}. We don’t know for certain that they are moving towards the development of a nuclear weapons system.”

Jack Straw (U.K. Foreign Secretary), March 13 2006

“ Jack Straw: We can’t be certain about Iran’s intentions.”

Jack Straw (U.K. Foreign Secretary), April 9 2006

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (President of Iran), interviewed August 8 2006 in Tehran by Mike Wallace, “Iranian Leader Opens Up: Ahmadinejad Speaks Candidly With Mike Wallace About Israel, Nukes, Bush” {pf} (CBS News, 60 Minutes, August 13 2006, 7:00 p.m. ET), CBS edited broadcast video, in 5 parts {23:13}: 1. “Ahmadinejad's Message For Bush” {5:15}, 2. “Can Iran & U.S. Renew Ties?” {3:43}, 3. “Iran's President on Nukes & Israel” {8:01}, 4. “Iran's Leader Backs Hezbollah” {3:23}, 5. “Iran's President on Bush, Nukes” {2:51}, CBS edited broadcast audio {23:26}: part-1 {13:26, 12.3mb.mp3}, part-2 {9:54, 9.07mb.mp3}, CBS complete interview (menu) {1:04:28}: part-1 {21:16}, part-2 {19:45}, part-3 {23:27}, previewed, David Bauder (Associated Press), “CBS' Wallace Interviews Iran President{pf, copy} (Washington Post, August 9 2006), background, “Wallace's Reporter's Notebook: Mike Wallace talks about his exclusive interview with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad” (CBS News, August 10 2006), CBS video {6:01}. Iran copy (larger) {23:22, source} (the edited broadcast video). “C-SPAN to air Mike Wallace's 60 Minutes interview with Iranian President Ahmadinejad in its entirety, Monday August 14, at 8 p.m. ET.” (C-Span, press release, August 11 2006): “According to CBS News, the request to air the entire interview on C-SPAN came directly from President Ahmadinejad. The 60 Minutes interview airs on Sunday at 7 p.m. ET on CBS. CBS News granted C-SPAN permission to air the 60 Minutes segment, which will air at 8:00 p.m. Monday, immediately followed by Wallace's approximately 90-minute interview taped in Tehran earlier this week. C-SPAN will follow the presentation with an open-phone segment to solicit viewers’ reaction. The program will also be simulcast on C-SPAN Radio.” “President Ahmadinejad Interview(C-Span, August 14 2006, 8:00-9:45 p.m.) C-Span video {1:28:00}, C-Span video copy of the CBS edited broadcast video {24:00, 17.83mb.wmv}, complete interview (with subsequent telephone comments from C-Span viewers) {1:20:18, 59.32mb.wmv}.

Hans Blix, William Hague (Shadow Foreign Secretary, U.K. Conservative Party), interviewed by John Humphrys (BBC Radio 4, Today, London, Tuesday August 22 2006, 6-9am at 7:34-7:40 a.m.) {BBCcat 06sx1396}, audio {6:24}. “We speak to the former weapons inspector Hans Blix and Shadow Foreign Secretary William Hague about how to deal with Iran’s Nuclear programme.”

Hans Blix, interviewed by Marco Werman, “Iran Nuclear Interview” (PRI: Public Radio International, The World, August 22 2006, 3:00 p.m. ET), audio {4:25}.

Gregory L. Schulte (U.S. IAEA Ambassador), Ali Asgar Soltanieh (Iran IAEA Ambassador), following Mark Fitzpatrick (formerly U.S. State Department, Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nonproliferation, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation) (NP/RA), interviewed by Brian Hanrahan, “Iran” (BBC Radio 4, The World at One, September 1 2006, 1-1:30 p.m.) {BBCcat 06sx1463}, audio {9:49, 29:59 at 19:53}.

Barbara Slavin (Senior Diplomatic Correspondent, USA Today), interviewed by Brian Lamb (C-Span founder and CEO), “Iran's Nuclear Program” (C-Span, Washington Journal, September 1 2006, 7-10am at 9-10:00 a.m. ET), C-Span video {59:35, 548251451, 193961-3, rss, archive, search}. “Barbara Slavin (Woodrow Wilson Center, Public Policy Scholar) talks about the world’s reaction to Iran’s continuation of its nuclear program despite a U.N. deadline yesterday to suspend it and possible sanctions against Iran. Barbara Slavin is currently on leave from her position as USA Today’s Senior Diplomatic Correspondent to write a book on U.S.-Iran Relations.”

Ali Asghar Soltanieh (Iran IAEA Ambassador), interviewed by Stephen Sackur (BBC World, BBC News 24, HARDtalk, September 7 2006), video {23:35}.

Mohamed ElBaradei (director general, IAEA), “director general Briefs IAEA Board on Iran Nuclear Safeguards{copy} (IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, September 11 2006), earlier, statement to the press, video {3:58, 10.8mb.wmv}, transcript.

ElBaradei’s lament

That Iran did what it promised to do.

Stop the extra.


Cooperation with the IAEA.

Which Iran had implemented for 3 years.

(Additional Protocol plus additional cooperation).

On the day the IAEA Board decided.

To refer Iran to the U.N. Security Council.

February 4 2006.

Iran informed the IAEA.

That it would promptly reinstate all of this extra cooperation.

On the day the U.N. Security Council sends the file back to the IAEA, rescinds its resolution (S/Res/1696), and terminates its agenda item on this topic.


Iran continues to implement.

All its legal obligations.

Under its NPT Safeguards Agreement.  CJHjr


Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (President of Iran), interviewed September 16 2006 in Havana, by Scott MacLeod (Cairo bureau chief), “A Date With a Dangerous Mind{pf, copy} (Time, September 25 2006, posted September 18 2006).

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (President of Iran), interviewed by Brian Williams (blog) (anchor,managing editor), “Ahmadinejad on the Record: Iranian leader discusses the Pope's remarks, Iran's nuclear program” {pf} (NBC Nightly News, New York City, September 19 2006, 6:30 p.m. ET), MSNBC transcript {pf}, MSNBC video excerpts: 1. “Interview with President Ahmadinejad{3:57}, 2. “Iran's president on the Holocaust{3:55}, 3. “Ahmadinejad: Democracy through war impossible{9:30}, in context, entire half-hour news broadcast (excluding adverts, except for other NBC shows), podcast audio {22:01, 5.04mb.mp3 rss}, background, Brian Williams, interviewed by Norah O'Donnell (NBC News, September 20 2006), MSNBC video, “Brian Williams on Ahmadinejad Interview{8:22}, Brian Williams, “The man in the tan jacket” (NBC News, blog, The Daily Nightly, September 19 2007, 4:56 p.m. ET).

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (President of Iran), speech {26kb.pdf} (U.N. General Assembly, 61st session, New York City, September 19 2006, about 7:30-8:00 p.m.), transcript, U.N. Doc. A/61/PV.11 (51 pages, at 36-40) {261kb.pdf, also via this, this, or ODS} (U.N. General Assembly, 61st session, 11th plenary meeting, Tuesday afternoon, 3:15-9:20 p.m., September 19 2006, GA/10500), U.N. video {32:17, source}, C-Span video {32:17, 31.20mb.rm, schedule, 548510939, rss, archive, search}, reported,Security Council is Unjust and Manipulated by Some States, Iranian Leader Tells UN Debate{pf} (U.N. News, September 19 2006).

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (President of Iran), interviewed September 20 2006, about 8:00 p.m., in New York City, by Anderson Cooper, “Ahmadinejad: Why is U.S. so pro-Israel?” (CNN News, Anderson Cooper 360 Degrees, September 20 2006, 10:00 p.m. ET), CNN video {14:28}, CNN transcript {archive}.

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (President of Iran), press conference (U.N. Correspondents Association, U.N. Conference Room 4, New York City, September 21 2006, 11:00 a.m.), U.N. video {1:01:50, source}, C-Span video {59:34, schedule, 548530047, 194392-1, rss, archive, search}, CQ transcript, reported,Press Conference by President of Iran” (U.N. News summary, September 21 2006).

“ Masood Haider (President, U.N. Correspondents Association; UN correspondent for The Dawn):

There are concerns, as you know, about Iran’s nuclear power program.

And Western powers believe that you are at the threshold of creating a bomb.

Which you have denied, time and again.

And in the fact that you are talking about justice and fairness to everybody.

What is it that you can do?

At one point in time.

To assure the international community.

Completely and totally.

That this will not be the case.

That you will not make a nuclear bomb.

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (through a U.N. translator): ...

The IAEA has published many reports.

Numerous reports.

Saying, that they do not see any violation of the treaty requirements of NPT by the Iranian government. ...

I am at a loss, in understanding what else we need to do, to provide guarantees.

I have said to the dear gentleman here.

That there is no provision in the NPT.

That says.

That we do not have the right—

That, perhaps it says—

That we need the vote.

Or the confidence.

Of the U.S. government.

To have peaceful nuclear technology.

There is no such provision. ...

Should Iran shut down every technological development?

In the biological field?

And the medical field?

And the chemical field?

Because, in any of these fields, there’s a possibility of dual usage.

Possibly a chemical bomb.

So when we speak of justice.

We mean that everyone is equal.

When we act within the framework of international law.

And we follow the provisions of the NPT. ...

It’s very important to make these nuclear facilities program a transparent one ...

There’s no need to hide such development. ...

We’ve actually given information to the IAEA.

We’ve invited international world community to visit our facilities.

Now, we are told, by some, that,

“You have to gain our trust and confidence.”

But we don’t have any criteria developed.

For confidence-building, as such.

It may take a hundred years.

Or more.

For you to gain confidence, in what we do.

What are we supposed to do?

Given the context.

That in the past 27 years.

You’ve demonstrated so much hostility.

Towards our nation. ...

Our logic is quite clear and simple.

I think everybody understands, what we’re saying.

We say, that nuclear fuel cycle for peaceful purposes—

Granted, if it’s a good thing.

It should be good.

For everyone.

And if it’s a bad act.

It should be bad.

For everyone.

It should be banned.

For everyone.”

Ray Takeyh (senior fellow for middle eastern studies, CFR: Council on Foreign Relations, Washington D.C.), interviewed by Pedro Echevarria, “U.S. Policy Towards Iran” (C-Span, Washington Journal, September 23 2006, 7-10am at 7:22-8:03 a.m. ET), C-Span video {41:07, 548559771, 194023-2, rss, archive, search}.

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (President of Iran), interviewed in New York City, by Lally Weymouth, “The Last Word: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad: 'Defending Our Honor'” {pf} (Newsweek, New York City, October 2 2006, posted September 24 2006), background, Lally Weymouth, interviewed by David Alpern, Ginger Otis, “Talking with Ahmadinejad” (Newsweek on Air, September 23 2006), audio {8:56}.

Sergei Ivanov (Russia Defense Minister), interviewed by Achilleas Patsoukas, “‘The Iraq Scenario Does Not Apply to Iran’” (Kathimerini, Athens, September 25 2006), first published September 23 2006 (Greek language edition), split over several pages, comments about Iran on this page: “Help Will Be Sent To Lebanon, But Separately From The UN”:

“ Achilleas Patsoukas: Do you share the USA’s concerns?

Regarding Teheran’s nuclear program?

Or do you suspect they are based on questionable evidence?

Such as that which led to the invasion of Iraq.

In 2003.

Sergei Ivanov: Following Iran’s response to the Group of Six proposals,

And the report by the director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),

Regarding the implementation of Resolution 1696 of the UN Security Council,

The situation regarding Iran’s nuclear program.

Has become more tense.

At the same time.

Although Iran has not fulfilled the resolution’s basic principle.

That is, to stop all uranium enrichment activity.

There has been no clear indication.

Of the existence of any.

Military nuclear program in that country.

For that reason.

At a Security Council debate.

On the possibility of imposing sanctions.

On Tehran.

Russia will insist.

On the presentation.

Of specific and incontrovertible.


To indicate that Iran is trying to make nuclear weapons.

As well as tangible evidence.

That it is supporting international terrorism.

It would be unacceptable.

To repeat the Iraq scenario.

Where sanctions were imposed.

Despite a lack of evidence.

That was officially acceptable.

I believe that the problem of Iran’s nuclear program can only be resolved through political and diplomatic channels, mainly through closer cooperation between Teheran and the IAEA.”

Hans Blix,World Security and Weapons of Mass Destruction” (Yale University, Center for the Study of Globalization, Luce Hall auditorium, New Haven Connecticut, September 25 2006, 4:30 p.m.), video {1:11:41, source}, poster {328kb.pdf}, reported, Elizabeth Dickinson, “Blix, After the WMD Fiasco: ‘Think’ (4 photos) (New Haven Independent, September 26 2006), Kimberly Chow, “Blix Describes Iraq Weapons Investigation{pf} (Yale Daily News, September 26 2006), {Lexis} (none): FNS transcript (none), FDCH/CQ transcript (none).

Sergei Lavrov (Russia Foreign Minister), “Russia and the United States: Between the Past and the Future” (Los Angeles World Affairs Council, Beverly Hills Hotel, 9641 Sunset Boulevard, Beverly Hills California, September 25 2006, 7:30 p.m.), Russia MFA video {27:06, 5.02mb.wmv, bb 30.7mb.wmv, source}.

“ Sergei Lavrov: Nobody wants to see Iran possessing a nuclear bomb.

But, at the same time, it is extremely dangerous to get involved in futile confrontation.

I want to stress this point:

We shall not support ultimatums.

That would lead to a dead-end.

Create a new crisis.

In the already seriously destabilized region.

And undermine the authority.

Of the UN Security Council.

Should this body, with its crucial role in maintaining international security, decide to pursue an unrealistic policy.

It is engagement.

Rather than isolation.

Of “problem” states.

That would lead to a resolution.

We believe that leadership in a modern world can only be collective, with full involvement of all major states of the world.

We are ready to take part in this global concert.”

Hans Blix (Chairman, WMD Commission; Executive Chairman, UNMOVIC, March 1 2000-2003 June 30; IAEA director general, 1981-1997), testimony, Weapons of Mass Destruction: Current Nuclear Proliferation Challenges (U.S. Congress 109-2, House Committee on Government Reform, Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats and International Relations, Hearing, September 26 2006, 2:00 p.m.), statements: Christopher H. Shays (Chairman) {120kb.pdf}, Dennis J. Kucinich (Ranking Minority Member), briefing documents (September 21 2006): briefing memorandum {1.28mb.pdf}, attachments 1-3 {1.79mb.pdf}, attachments 4-5 {947kb.pdf}, attachment 6 {1.63mb.pdf}, attachments 7-8 {10kb.pdf}, witness, panel-1: Hans Blix, prepared statement (not posted by the committee, I wonder why, and what it says), attachment {33kb.pdf}, witnesses, panel-2: William H. Tobey (Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Proliferation, NNSA: National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy) {46kb.pdf}, Andrew K. Semmel (Deputy Assistant Secretary, International Security and Nonproliferation (ISN), U.S. Department of State) {37kb.pdf}, Jack David (Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction and Negotiations Policy, U.S. Department of Defense) {32kb.pdf}, Gene Aloise (Director, Natural Resources and Environment, GAO: Government Accountability Office) {1.68mb.pdf}, witnesses, panel-3: Thomas Graham Jr. (Chairman, Bipartisan Security Group, Global Security Institute) {629kb.pdf}, Baker Spring (F.M. Kirby Research Fellow for National Security Policy, Heritage Foundation) {43kb.pdf}, Jonathan Granoff (President, GSI: Global Security Institute) {1.60mb.pdf}, Henry D. Sokolski (NPEC: Nonproliferation Policy Education Center) {54kb.pdf}, Frank von Hippel (Co-Chairman, International Panel on Fissile Materials) {373kb.pdf}. C-Span video: None. Committee video/audio: None. Transcripts {Lexis}: FNS transcript, CQ transcript.

Hans Blix (Chairman, WMD Commission), “Revive Disarmament” {92kb.pdf, source} (Article VI Forum, Middle Powers Initiative, Canada Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Cadieux Auditorium, Pearson Building, 125 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, September 27 2006, 5:00-7:00 p.m.) {source, source, source}, photo: Hans Blix, interviewed September 27 2006 by Lee Berthiaume, “Give Iran Incentives to Stop Enrichment: Blix{77kb.pdf} (Embassy, Ottawa, October 4 2006), Hans Blix, press conference (Ottawa, September 27 2006), reported, Mike Blanchfield, “Blix gets last laugh over Iraq{pf, copy} (Ottawa Citizen, CanWest News Service, October 1 2006).

Debate, motion, “We must tolerate a nuclear Iran(IQ2 U.S.: Intelligence Squared U.S., venue, Asia Society and Museum, 725 Park Avenue at 70th Street, New York City, Wednesday September 27 2006, 6:45-8:30 p.m.), moderator, Robert Siegel (host, All Things Considered, NPR: National Public Radio, evening news), speaking for the motion, George Perkovich, Karim Sadjadpour, Sanam Vakil, speaking against the motion, Patrick Clawson, Reuel Marc Gerecht, William Kristol, audio (Radio WNYC, Intelligence², New York City) (“The U.S. forum for live debate: Oxford-style debates on the hot-button concerns of the day”), edited broadcast audio, “Debating a Nuclear Iran” (NPR: National Public Radio, Intelligence Squared U.S., Posted, Tuesday October 3 2006), not broadcast by NPR (per an email exchange) (which broadcasts directly, overseas, and by satellite), but available from NPR for broadcast by any of its affiliated 800 U.S. radio stations {110kb.pdf, source}, broadcast October 6 2006, 2:00 p.m., by the producer of the program (Radio WNYC), on AM 820, edited broadcast audio {52:59, 24.1mb.mp3, source}, IQ2 U.S. transcript {263kb.pdf, source}.

Hans Blix (Ottawa), interviewed by Beverly Thomson (Toronto), “Blix Doubtful Western Threats Will Sway Iran{pf} (CTV, Canada AM, September 28 2006, 7:30-10am at 7:13-7:18 a.m. ET) (“the country’s most-watched morning show”), video (nb, bb) {5:10}.

Hans Blix,A Path to Global Disarmament{pf} (YaleGlobal Online, October 5 2006).

Hans Blix, interviewed October 15 2006 in New York City by Nathan Gardels (Editor-in-Chief, NPQ), “US Should Set Example for North Korea and Ratify Nuclear Test Ban” (Huffington Post, October 16 2006).

Hans Blix (Chairman, WMD Commission), “Revive Disarmament” {82kb.pdf, source} (14th Meeting, First Committee, 61st session, U.N. General Assembly, New York City, October 16 2006, 10:00 a.m., GA/DIS/3328), transcript, U.N. Doc. A/C.1/61/PV.14 {also via this or ODS} (all First Committee documents: A/C.1/61/), reported,Nuclear weapon States must cut arsenals, US and Russia should lead: UN Assembly told{pf} (U.N. News, October 17 2006).

Scott Ritter, interviewed by Leonard Lopate, “Big Threat, Or Big Hype?: Scott Ritter on the Nuclear Threat in Iran” (Radio WNYC, The Leonard Lopate Show, New York City, Monday October 16 2006, 12:00 p.m. ET) (“the most-listened to commercial or non-commercial radio station in Manhattan ... reaches more than one million unique listeners each week, the largest audience of any public radio station in the United States”), and by satellite radio (XMPR: XM Public Radio, XM channel 133, October 16, 4:00 p.m. ET), audio {32:28, 13.0mb.mp3, rss}.

Scott Ritter, interviewed by Amy Goodman (host), “Scott Ritter on Target Iran: The Truth About the White House’s Plans for Regime Change” (Democracy Now! The War and Peace Report, New York City, Monday October 16 2006), video {19:30}, audio {19:25}, entire hour show (video/audio) {59:03}, audio {27.04mb.mp3}, DemNow transcript {pf}, broadcast by 197 U.S. TV stations and cable channels, 231 U.S. radio stations, 23 Canadian radio stations, by Free Speech TV in North America (schedule) (8:00-9:00 a.m., 12:00-1:00 p.m., 7:00-8:00 p.m., 12:00-1:00 a.m. ET), via the Dish Network satellite, and 170 public access TV cable channels (included in the 231, above), reaching 25 million U.S. homes, by Link TV in North America (schedule) (11:00-12:00 noon, 6:00-7:00 p.m. ET) via satellites (DirecTV and Dish Network), by WRN: World Radio Network in parts of Europe, Africa, Asia (schedule) (4:00-5:00 p.m. GMT), via 10 satellites (audio channel on TV tuners and feeds to cable radio) and via satellite radio (WRN, WorldSpace channel 305) (Afristar-1 east beam, parts of western Africa and Europe, footprint), by radio stations in the CBAA network: Community Broadcasting Association of Australia.

C-Span Book TV Oct. 29 2006 Nov. 5 2006

Scott Ritter, interviewed by Seymour Hersh, “Forum: Target Iran” (sponsors: The Nation Institute, New York Society for Ethical Culture, Public Concern Foundation, Democrats.com, venue: NYSEC Concert Hall, 2 West 64th Street at Central Park West, New York City, Monday October 16 2006, 7:00 p.m. ET), audio {1:27:52, 15.0mb.mp3, source, 20.69mb.mp3, source, source} (New York Sound Posse) {podcasts rss, alerts rss}, video broadcast, “Forum: Target Iran: The Truth About the White House's Plans for Regime Change, author: Scott Ritter” (C-Span, Book TV, Sunday October 29 2006, 11:30am/pm ET, rebroadcast, Sunday November 5 2006, 5:30am ET), C-Span video 195135-1 (flash) {1:27:00} (“In Target Iran former UN weapons inspector Scott Ritter warns that the next phase in the war on terror could be with Iran”), by cable, by satellites (north America), C-Span video copy {1:28:55}: part-1 (interview) NYSEC (youtube {50:21, 118.8mb.flv, source, ritter, hersh}, part-2 (audience Q&As) NYSEC (youtube {38:34, 91.0mb.flv}, google {1:23:00, 192.1mb.flv}, reported, Gordon Prather, “Who's Targeting Iran – and Why?{pf} (AntiWar.com, November 4 2006), video/audio rebroadcast, introduced by Amy Goodman (host), “Target Iran: Former UN Weapons Inspector Scott Ritter and Investigative Journalist Seymour Hersh on White House Plans for Regime Change” (Democracy Now! The War and Peace Report, New York City, Thursday December 21 2006) (interview, omits Q&As), video {50:05}, audio {50:05}, entire hour show (video/audio) {59:03}, audio {27.04mb.mp3}, DemNow transcript {pf, copy, copy}.

Hans Blix (New York City, C-Span studio, Pace University), interviewed by Pedro Echevarria (Washington D.C.), “Nuclear Disarmament” (C-Span, Washington Journal, October 17 2006, 7-10am at 9:30-10:01 a.m. ET), C-Span video {30:33, 197520409, 194537-7, rss, archive, search}. “Discusses the current state of nuclear disarmament efforts, especially concerning Iran and North Korea.”

Hans Blix, interviewed by Azariah Kiros, “Blix Warns of Korean "Powder Keg" (Sveriges Radio, SR International, Radio Sweden, October 18 2006), segment audio {5:37, source}, program audio {28:45}.

Javad Zarif (Iran U.N. Ambassador), “Zarif: United Nations unfairly pressuring Iran” (CNN, Commentary, October 20 2006) {pf}.

Sergei Lavrov, “Transcript of Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Lavrov's Interview with Kuwait News Agency (KUNA)” (Moscow, October 20 2006), reported, Adib Al-sayed (Moscow), “Russia-Kuwait relations: firm, historic, robust — Lavrov” (KUNA: Kuwait News Agency, October 21 2006).

“ Question: The international community has still not produced evidences that Iran is working on the creation of nuclear weapons.

How conducive will the imposition of international sanctions be to achieving a solution of this problem?

Sergei Lavrov: You are absolutely right.

There are no evidences that Iran is developing a military nuclear program.

There are suspicions and questions which have not received an answer so far.

They are due to the fact that for a long time, about 20 years, Iran was carrying out a nuclear program without reporting about all its elements to IAEA.

Since then, when all this came to light, the IAEA has embarked on constructive work in Iran.

An unprecedented number of inspections have been conducted, including those at short notice.

So far IAEA has no grounds to assert that the Iranian nuclear program has a military component.

On the other hand, IAEA still has several serious questions that the Agency formulated on the results of its inspections and to which the Iranian negotiators promised to give answers.

We are urging our Iranian colleagues to provide those answers as soon as possible, especially as with regard to many of these questions the Iranians were expressing readiness to give detailed explanations.

But all this does not mean that it is possible to speak of there being a threat to peace and security.

And it is only such a threat that can warrant the use of sanctions.

So we continue to believe that it is necessary to rely solely upon the professional assessments of IAEA and fully support the leadership and inspectors of IAEA in the line which they are pursuing.

That’s the exact aim of the UN Security Council resolution that was adopted in July this year.

Measures of influence can well be discussed.

They may be most diverse.

But we firmly adhere to the only true understanding which has been reached both in the UN Security Council and in the Six that any measures of influence should encourage conditions for talks.

We won’t be able to support — and will oppose — any attempts to use the Security Council to punish Iran.

Or use Iran’s program in order to promote the ideas of regime change there.

But the problem of a threat of proliferation of nuclear weapons in the world as a whole is very serious.

Therefore we feel that the Iranian side must at last respond to the constructive proposals that have been submitted and fully cooperate with the IAEA to close all the existing issues.”

Hans Blix, interviewed by Richard Crowley (RTÉ News: Radio Telefís Éireann, One to One, October 22 2006, 12:15, 11:25 p.m.), video {40:02}.

C-Span Book TV, After Words, Oct. 28-29 2006

Ray Takeyh (senior fellow for middle eastern studies, CFR: Council on Foreign Relations, Washington D.C.), interviewed by Robert Litwak (director, international security studies, Wilson Center: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington D.C.), “After Words with Ray Takeyh(C-Span, Book TV (wiki), After Words (wiki), Washington D.C., Saturday/Sunday October 28-29 2006, 9pm, 6pm, 9pm ET), C-Span video 195088-1 (flash), AW-7628 (real player) {55:24, .ram, 53.6mb.rm, search}, audio {55:25, 12.69mb.mp3, rss pods}, by cable, by satellites (north America). “Ray Takeyh discussed his book Hidden Iran: Paradox and Power in the Islamic Republic, published by Times Books.”

Mohamed ElBaradei, “A Conversation with the director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)” (Yale University, Center for the Study of Globalization, Luce Hall auditorium, New Haven Connecticut, October 31 2006, 4:00 p.m.), video (none), poster {92kb.pdf}, reported, Av Harris (Reuters), “U.N. watchdog accuses N. Korea of nuclear 'blackmail' (Malaysia Star, October 31 2006), Thomas Kaplan, “ElBaradei wants nuke ban{pf} (Yale Daily News, November 1 2006) (“a question and answer session at Luce Hall, which drew a standing-room-only crowd”), transcripts {Lexis} (none), FNS transcript (none), FDCH/CQ transcript (none). Mohamed ElBaradei, interviewed November 1 2006 by Jonathan Schell (Senior Research Scholar, Yale Center for the Study of Globalization), “An Interview With Mohamed ElBaradei,” video {26:49, source}.

Jimmy Carter (U.S. President, Jan. 20 1977-1981 Jan. 20), Palestine Peace Not Apartheid (Simon & Schuster, New York City, published Wednesday November 15 2006), excerpt: Chapter 17. Summary, table of contents, audio excerpt {6:57, 7.96mb.mp3 rss, source}, appendices (links to Wikipedia articles).

Seymour M. Hersh, “The Next Act {pf, copy, copy}: Is a damaged Administration less likely to attack Iran, or more?” (The New Yorker, dated Monday November 27 2006, posted November 20 2006).

Seymour Hersh, interviewed by Kathleen Dunn (WPR: Wisconsin Public Radio, Ideas Network, Conversations with Kathleen Dunn, radio WHAD studios, Milwaukee Wisconsin, Wednesday November 22 2006, 9-11am, at 9:00-10:00 a.m. CT), audio {51:02, 11.93mb.rm, archive, search, search}, broadcast by 29 radio stations.

Hans Blix (Executive Chairman, UNMOVIC, March 1 2000-2003 June 30), Jeremy Greenstock (U.K. U.N. Ambassador, 1998-2003, Deputy Head, Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq, Sept. 2003-2004 March 27), Bridget Kendall (BBC Diplomatic Correspondent) (Chair), panel, “Truth, Lies and WMD” (2:00-3:15 p.m.), conference, “Debating the Evidence: Freedom of Information?” (Cambridge University, CRASSH, Churchill College, Wolfson Hall, Storey’s Way, Cambridge England, November 24 2006).

Jimmy Carter (studio), interviewed by Robin Roberts (ABC News, Good Morning America, New York City, Monday November 27 2006, 7-9am ET), FNS transcript {Carter archive, GMA archive}, ABC video “Middle East Peace Possible?{6:15, 18.1mb.flv} (“Former President Jimmy Carter urges Israel to re-open peace talks”), reported,Carter Weighs In on Crucial Mideast Talks {pf}: Former President Says U.S. Should Withdraw From Iraq, Talk to Iran and Syria” (ABC News, November 27 2006).

“ Jimmy Carter: You can’t find peace, unless you address the existing issues, honestly, and frankly. ...

There’s no doubt, now, that a minority of Israelis are perpetrating apartheid on the people in Palestine. The Palestinian people.

It’s not based on race, as I make very clear in my book. It’s not a racist inclination.

It’s a desire for land.

A desire for Palestinian land. ...

This occupation, and confiscation, and colonization of land, in the West Bank, is the prime cause of the continuation of violence in the Middle East.

And, what is being done to the Palestinians, under Israeli domination, is really atrocious.

It’s a terrible affliction, on these people.”

Jimmy Carter spoke about his book in many interviews, at book signing events, in newspaper op-eds, in formal remarks, at media stakeouts, at a town hall meeting. The details of these are lengthy, together with the news reports about them, and I’ve moved them, to separate webpages, with links to video/audio/print files: “Tough Love: Jimmy Carter, Palestine Peace Not Apartheid,” 2006, 2007 (video/audio/print, interviews, speeches, Q&As, news, views).

A list: The Forward (New York City, interview), The Courier-Journal (Louisville Kentucky, interview), Good Morning America (above) (ABC TV, New York City), Fresh Air (Radio WHYY/NPR, Philadelphia), The Current (CBC Radio One, Toronto), Larry King Live (CNN TV/Radio, Washington D.C.), The Early Show (CBS TV, New York City), The New Yorker (New York City, interview), The Diane Rehm Show (Radio WAMU/NPR, Washington D.C.), The Situation Room (CNN TV/Radio, Washington D.C.), Hardball (MSNBC TV, Washington D.C.), The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer (PBS TV, Washington D.C.), Borders Books (Baileys Crossroads, Vienna Virginia, speech/Q&As, broadcast by Democracy Now! The War and Peace Report, TV/Radio, New York City), The Washington Post (interview), Austin American-Statesman (interview), The Steve Cochran Show (Radio WGN, Chicago), Worldview (Radio WBEZ, Chicago), Friday Night with John Callaway (WTTW-TV, Chicago), The Al Franken Show (Air America Radio, Minneapolis Minnesota), The Young Turks (Air America Radio, Los Angeles), The WOR Morning Show (Radio WOR, New York City), Charlie Brennan Show (Radio KMOX, St. Louis), KPOJ Mornings (Radio KPOJ, Portland Oregon), Anderson Cooper 360 Degrees (CNN TV/Radio, New York City), Charlie Rose (WNET/PBS TV, New York City), Special Programming (CNN Radio, podcast interview, Washington D.C.), Atlanta Journal-Constitution (interview), Meet the Press (NBC/MSNBC TV, C-Span Radio, Washington D.C.), In Depth (C-Span, Book TV, Atlanta), The Emory Wheel (interview), Books-A-Million bookstore (Lawrenceville Georgia), Los Angeles Times (op-ed), Atlanta Press Club (speech/Q&As), The National (CBC TV, Toronto), San Francisco Chronicle (podcast interview), Weekday (Radio KUOW, Seattle), The Tonight Show with Jay Leno (NBC TV, Burbank), Tavis Smiley (KCET/PBS TV, Los Angeles), The Tavis Smiley Show (PRI radio, Los Angeles), Vroman’s Bookstore (Pasadena, media stakeout), The Leonard Lopate Show (Radio WNYC, New York City), Riz Khan (Al Jazeera, English TV, London), AirTalk (Radio KPCC, Pasadena), To the Point (Radio KCRW, Santa Monica), The Independent (Colorado Springs), San Francisco Chronicle, and other newspapers (interview), Caplis & Silverman Show (Radio KHOW, Denver), Changing Hands Bookstore (Tempe Arizona, media stakeout), American Morning (CNN TV/Radio, New York City), Austin's Morning News (Radio KLBJ, Austin Texas), The Seattle Times (interview), Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (interview), Tattered Cover Bookstore (Denver, media stakeout), Book People bookstore (Austin, media stakeout), “A letter to Jewish citizens of America” (Carter Center, Atlanta), Newsweek (New York City, interview), Royim Olam, IBA News (Israel Broadcasting Authority TV, Jerusalem), The Boston Globe (op-ed), Al Jazeera Arabic TV (Doha), Amazon.com (interview), The Washington Post (op-ed), University of Georgia (town hall meeting, broadcast by C-Span TV/Radio), Brandeis University (speech/Q&As, broadcast by New England Cable News, C-Span Book TV, American Public Media Word for Word), Morning Edition (NPR radio, Washington D.C.), Breakfast (ABC Radio National, Australia), The Today Show (NBC TV, New York City), Emory University (speech/Q&As), conversation with Madeleine Albright (Carter Center, Atlanta), This Week (ABC TV, Washington D.C.), George Washington University (Washington D.C., speech/Q&As), National Press Club (Washington D.C., speech, press conference), CBS News Weekend Roundup (CBS Radio, interview), University of Iowa (Iowa City, speech/Q&As), Georgia State University (Atlanta, speech/Q&As), University of California, Berkeley (speech/Q&As), University of California, Irvine (speech/Q&As), People's Daily (Beijing, interview), Arkansas Democrat-Gazette (Little Rock, interview), Today (BBC Radio 4, London), NBC The Today Show (New York City), and others I haven’t yet posted.

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (President of Iran), interviewed December 13 2006 in Tehran, by Scott MacLeod (Cairo bureau chief) (blog), “Ahmadinejad's Ambitions{pf} {Iran’s text} (Time, Monday December 18 2006, posted Thursday December 14 2006).

“ Scott MacLeod: You’ve just held a conference questioning the Holocaust.

Why not hold a peace conference instead?

You could invite the Israelis and Palestinians to talk about peace, instead of what happened 60 years ago.

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad: As a matter of fact this conference was in line of peace.

Because for the past 60 years, the Palestinian people have been suppressed, using the Holocaust as the pretext.

If the issue of the Holocaust became clear, the issue would be solved.

Scott MacLeod: How?

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad: When the issue becomes clear, and understood, that the Holocaust does not have any relationship with the Palestinian people, then we will have two proposals for the Western and European countries.

The first solution is, that in the same way that you mounted this regime in the past, you can remove it yourself.

You know well that the Holocaust has nothing to do with the Palestinian people. That was just a pretext to create this regime. And it was not a good excuse.

Just cease to support it.

Don’t use your people’s money to assist this violent regime.

This is the best solution.

If they do not accept the first solution, then they should allow the nation of Palestine to make their decision about its own fate. Anyone who is a Palestinian citizen, whether they are Christian, Jewish, or Muslim, should decide together, in a very free referendum.

There is no need for war.

There is no need for threats, or an atomic bomb, either.

Scott MacLeod: Israel isn’t going to accept any of this.

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad: If the American and British governments do not support and help them — and they stop using their power and influence — they will accept.

Scott MacLeod: Without a war?

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad: Yes.

Why not?

Everyone knows that the Zionist regime is a tool in the hands of the United States and British governments.”

Hans Blix (Stockholm), interviewed by Greer Fay Cashman (Jerusalem), “Exclusive Interview with Ex-U.N. Chief Weapons Inspector Hans Blix” (TML: The Media Line, Jerusalem, December 19 2006), audio {13.5mb.mp3, 14:33}, TML transcript (excerpts), “Ex-Chief Weapons Inspector Tackles Iran, Israel{pf} (December 21 2006).

S/Res/1737 (December 23 2006) {also via sres, resguide, journal, ods}, U.N. Security Council resolution, adopted, meeting 5612 (Saturday, December 23 2006, 11:25-12:41pm), transcript, S/PV.5612 (13 pages) {also via journal}, reported, SC/8928), U.N. video {1:18:40, source, source}, press briefings (media stakeout, Security Council lobby), U.N. video, before the meeting, U.K. (Emyr Jones Parry) {0:24}, after the meeting: EU3 (U.K., France, Germany: Emyr Jones Parry, Jean-Marc de La Sabliere, Thomas Matussek) {7:31}, Qatar (Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser) {7:17}, U.S. (Alejandro D. Wolff) {3:30}, Russia (Vitaly Churkin) {14:30}, reported,Security Council imposes sanctions on Iran over uranium enrichment{pf} (U.N. News, December 23 2006), “UN passes Iran nuclear sanctions{pf} (BBC News, December 23 2006), Jill McGivering (reporting), BBC video (bb) {2:37 bb, source}, statements at the meeting, Emyr Jones Parry (U.K. U.N. Ambassador), BBC video (bb) {4:36 bb}, Alejandro Wolff (Acting U.S. U.N. Ambassador) {text, copy}, BBC video (bb) {5:48 bb}, Vitaly Churkin (Russia U.N. Ambassador) {text, copy}, BBC video (bb) {3:28 bb}, Javad Zarif (Iran U.N. Ambassador) {78kb.pdf, source}, U.N. video {29:22, 1:18:40, at 44:43, source, source}, Iran copy {28:45, 54.7kb.rm, source}.



2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008



Reuel Marc Gerecht (CIA Officer, 1985-1994, Middle East Specialist, Directorate of [Covert] Operations; Department of State, 1985-1994, Political and Consular Officer; AEI: American Enterprise Institute; PNAC: Project for the New American Century), Malcolm Rifkind (U.K. Defence Secretary, 1992-1995; U.K. Foreign Secretary, 1995-1997), Jeremy Greenstock (U.K. U.N. Ambassador, 1998-2003, Deputy Head, Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq, Sept. 2003-2004 March 27), Stephen Wall (former adviser to Tony Blair on Europe), interviewed by Nick Robinson (BBC political editor), “Iranian options” (his blog), Iran (the undocumented topic) (BBC Radio 4, Decision Time, January 3/6 2007, 8:00/10:15 p.m.) {BBCcat 07vn0105}, audio {43:59} (BBC will delete this audio, when it broadcasts its next program on Wednesday at 8:00 p.m., January 10 2006), reported, Bob Roberts, “Exclusive: Iran War "In 2 Years" {pf, copy} (Mirror, London, January 4 2007).

John Bolton (Washington D.C.) (senior fellow, AEI: American Enterprise Institute), interviewed by Jon Snow (London) (Channel 4 News, Channel 4 TV, London, January 11 2007, 7:00 p.m.), video {7:37, 21.53mb.wmv, source}.

Channel 4 News, “Inside Iran's nuclear site” (Channel 4 TV, London, Saturday February 3 2007, 6:00 p.m.) (“invited by the Iranian government to visit the uranium conversion site just south of Isfahan”), video {3:50, 11.06mb.wmv}.

Javad Zarif (Iran U.N. Ambassador), “How Not to Inflame Iraq{pf} {71kb.pdf} (New York Times, February 8 2006).

Javad Zarif, interviewed by Robert Siegel, introduced by Michele Norris, “Iranian Ambassador Criticizes U.S. Strategy,” audio (ditto) {10:00}, followed by, George Perkovich (Vice President for Studies–Global Security and Economic Development, CEIP: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace), interviewed by Robert Siegel, “Talking with Iran in the 21st Century,” audio (ditto) {2:23} (NPR: National Public Radio, All Things Considered, Washington D.C., February 9 2007, 4-6pm, at 5:06-5:09 p.m. ET) (hour-2, segment-a, first item) {112kb.pdf} (2-hour program audio segments), NPR’s evening news, “reaches an audience of approximately 12 million listeners each weekday,” the second most listened to radio news program in the United States, after NPR’s Morning Edition, broadcast at different local times by more than 560 U.S. radio stations (289 listed here), of the 800 NPR affiliates {110kb.pdf, source}, by NPR itself, NPR Worldwide (schedule), via satellites (audio channel on TV tuners and feeds to cable radio and some broadcast radio) and satellite radio (NPR, WorldSpace channel 301) (Afristar-1 east beam, parts of western Africa and Europe, footprint), by AFN Radio: American Forces Network, both radio broadcasts (schedule) and base cable radio (schedule).

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (President of Iran), interviewed in Tehran by Diane Sawyer (ABC News, Good Morning America, New York City, Monday February 12 2007, 7:00-9:00 a.m. ET), ABC video {8:44, 25.44mb.flv}, reported,Iranian President Ducks Charges That Iran Is Arming Iraqi Insurgents{pf} (ABC News, February 12 2007).

Karen Kwiatkowski (Woodstock Virginia) (USAF 1983-2003, DoD NESA: Near East and South Asia directorate, May 2002-2003 February), interviewed by Scott Horton (Austin Texas) (blog) (Antiwar Radio, Wednesday February 12 2007), audio {30:13, 6.92mb.mp3 rss, source, source, archive} (Iraq/Iran). “Retired Air Force Lt. Col. Karen Kwiatkowski Ph.D. tells how she witnessed Douglas Feith and his WINEP/JINSA/AEI buddies deliberately lie the people of this country into war in Iraq.”

Javad Zarif (Iran U.N. Ambassador), Michael Hirsh (Newsweek), David Sanger (The New York Times), Ray Takeyh (CFR: Council on Foreign Relations), interviewed by Charlie Rose (WNET/PBS TV, Charlie Rose, episode 13032, New York City, February 23 2007) (“the most watched PBS station in the country”), video “A conversation with Iran's ambassador to the United Nations Javad Zarif” (Google, larger) {56:40, 163.30mb.flv, .flv.mp4, Zarif 29:36 at 25:38, menu, rss, rss, search, search, search, search}, distributed by PBS: Public Broadcasting Service, the largest U.S. TV network, with 349 U.S. TV stations (336 listed here), and via satellites in the western hemisphere (PBS national feed to Dish Network, DirecTV, AMC-3, AMC-4).

Gordon Prather, interviewed by Scott Horton (Austin) (blog) (Antiwar Radio, Wednesday February 14 2007), audio {39:03, 8.94mb.mp3 rss, source, source, archive} (nKorea and Iran).

Mohamed ElBaradei (director general, IAEA), interviewed by Daniel Dombey (Financial Times, London, February 19 2007), FT transcript {pf, IAEA copy}.

Hans Blix,Will The U.S. Attack Iran?{pf, copy, copy} (The International Herald Tribune, Paris, February 19 2007).

GOV/2007/8 (22 February 2007) {64kb.pdf, iaea}, S/2007/100, February 22 2007) {also via journal, sc.notes, ods, iaea, iaea}, Mohamed ElBaradei (director general, IAEA), report to the U.N. Security Council, Implementation of the safeguards agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolution 1737 (2006) in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Seymour M. Hersh, “The Redirection{pf} (The New Yorker, issue dated Monday March 5 2007, posted February 25 2007) {copy}, comment, Tom Engelhardt, “The Seymour Hersh Mystery: A Journalist Writing Bloody Murder ... And No One Notices” {pf, copy} (Tom Dispatch, March 13 2007).

Seymour Hersh (Cairo), interviewed by Wolf Blitzer (Washington D.C.), “Interview With Seymour Hersh” (CNN News, Late Edition, Washington D.C., Sunday February 25 2007, 11am-1pm, at 12:02 p.m. ET), CNN transcript {archive}, CNN video (excerpt), {4:06, 11.82mb.wmv rss, search} (“CNN’s Wolf Blitzer talks with New Yorker magazine author Seymour Hersh about possible conflict (February 26)”), video (3 excerpts) {3:26}, {8.36mb.flv, search, search, search}, CNN podcast video (entire 2 hour show, excluding adverts) {269.57mb.wmv rss, menu}, audio broadcast, by C-Span Radio (Radio WCSP-FM, Washington D.C., 3-4:30 p.m. ET), simulcast by satellite radio in North America (C-Span Radio, XM channel 132), video rebroadcast, the next day (CNN News, The Situation Room, Washington D.C., Monday February 26 2007, 4-6pm, 7-8pm ET), CNN transcripts {archive}, 5:00 p.m., 7:00 p.m., audio simulcast (all CNN programs), by satellite radio (CNN, Sirius channel 132, XM channel 122, CNNi program on WorldSpace channel 300).

Hans Blix, interviewed by Niall Stanage, “Blix Blasts Bush's Policy in Iran{pf} (The New York Observer, February 26 2007), comment, Niall Stanage, “Don't misunderestimate them{pf} (The Guardian, “Comment in Free,” London, February 26 2007). “Comment is free is a major expansion of Guardian comment and analysis on the web. It is a collective group blog, bringing together regular columnists from the Guardian and Observer newspapers with other writers and commentators representing a wide range of experience and interests. The aim is to host an open-ended space for debate, dispute, argument and agreement and to invite users to comment on everything they read.”

Hans Blix, “Breakfast Briefing on Iran Crisis for Media Only”, “Hans Blix Assesses Strategic Options in Crisis With Iran” (The Century Foundation, Millennium U.N. Plaza Hotel, U Thant Room, 1 U.N. Plaza, 44th Street at First Avenue, New York City, February 26 2007, 8:15-9:15 a.m), reported, AP: The Associated Press, “Former U.N. weapons chief says U.S., Europe and Security Council are "humiliating" Iran{pf} (The International Herald Tribune, Paris, February 26 2007).

Hans Blix, Javad Zarif (Iran U.N., Ambassador), Richard Haass (President, CFR: Council on Foreign Relations), Jayantha Dhanapala, Sergio de Queiroz Duarte (Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Review Conferences, 1995, 2005), James Leach (Member, U.S. House of Representatives, 1973-2007), Michael Krepon (Co-founder, President Emeritus, Henry L. Stimson Center), Sergey Batsanov (former Russian Ambassador to the Conference on Disarmament), Paolo Cotta-Ramusino (Secretary-General, Pugwash Conferences on Science), Joseph Cirincione (Senior Vice President, CAP: Center for American Progress), conference, “Weapons Threats and International Security: Rebuilding an Unraveled Consensus{pf} (audio links) (The Century Foundation, Millennium U.N. Plaza Hotel, 1 U.N. Plaza, 44th Street at First Avenue, New York City, February 26 2007, 9:30-5:00 p.m. ET), announcement, lunch panel (1:30-3:00 p.m.), Richard C. Leone, presiding (President, The Century Foundation), Richard Haass (President, CFR: Council on Foreign Relations), Javad Zarif (Iran U.N., Ambassador), Carla Anne Robbins, moderator (deputy editorial page editor, The New York Times), “Point/Counterpoint: A Nuclear-Weapons Free Iran,” audio {52:47, 6.89mb.mov, source}.

Current and Future Worldwide Threats to the National Security of the United States (U.S. Congress 110-1, Senate Armed Services Committee, Hearing, February 27 2007, 9:30 a.m.), Carl Levin (Chairman) {pf}, John Warner (Ranking Minority Member), witnesses: John Michael McConnell (Director of National Intelligence) {103kb.pdf, copy}, Michael D. Maples (Director, Defense Intelligence Agency) {166kb.pdf}, Thomas Fingar (Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Analysis, and Chairman, National Intelligence Council), C-Span video {3:05:56, 9:30 a.m., 550955713, 196853-1, rss, archive, search}, DNI transcript {128kb.pdf, source}.

Carl Levin joins the criminal enterprise

“ Carl Levin: Turning to Iran’s nuclear program, we need to know the intelligence community’s current ... assessment of the circumstances under which Iran might give up its weapons program”

Seymour Hersh, interviewed by Terry Gross, “Seymour Hersh on U.S. Policy Toward Iran” (Radio WHYY, Fresh Air, Philadelphia, Tuesday February 27 2007, 3:00 p.m. ET), audio {28:09, entire hour 20.73mb.mp3 rss, news rss}, broadcast by more than 400 U.S. radio stations (205 listed here) of the 800 {110kb.pdf, source} affiliated to NPR: National Public Radio, and by NPR itself, by satellite radio in North America (Sirius channels NPR Now 134, NPR Talk 135), by NPR Worldwide (schedule), via satellites (audio channel on TV tuners and feeds to cable radio and some broadcast radio) and satellite radio (NPR, WorldSpace channel 301) (Afristar-1 east beam, parts of western Africa and Europe, footprint), by AFN Radio: American Forces Network (base cable radio schedule).

Seymour Hersh (studio), interviewed by Chris Matthews (MSNBC, Hardball, Washington D.C., Tuesday February 27 2007, 5:00/7:00 p.m., at 5:27-5:33 p.m. ET), video {5:37}, “How close are we to war with Iran?” (faulty player-video link) {10:44, 12.65mb.wmv, 11.41mb.flv, source, source, search}, podcast audio highlights (Richard Holbrooke interview) {8:48 2.02mb.mp3 rss}, transcript {pf}, by cable (“to 78 million households”) and satellites (western hemisphere), by Orbit News on satellites (Europe, Middle East, channel 27, Tuesday, 10:00 p.m. GMT (live), Wednesday, 7:00 a.m., 4:00 p.m.), by AFN TV: American Forces Network (schedule, next day, AFN News, 10:00 a.m. GMT).

Seymour Hersh (Washington D.C.), interviewed by Gillian Findley, introduced by Barbara Budd (CBC Radio One, As It Happens, Toronto, Tuesday February 27 2006, 6:30-8:00pm, at about 6:45 p.m. ET), audio {30:29, 3.80mb.rm, Hersh 8:52 at 12:04, archive, archive, logs, search, search, search}, “The Best of As It Happens Podcast” (March 2 2007) {13.4mb.mp3, 29:22, Hersh 8:52 at 12:14, rss menu menu}, broadcast throughout Canada, by 98 U.S. radio stations, and by satellite radio in North America (CBC Radio One, Sirius channel 137).

Karen Kwiatkowski, interviewed by James Harris, Joshua Scheer, “Pentagon Whistle-Blower on the Coming War With Iran{pf} (transcript) (Truthdig, Santa Monica California, Tuesday February 27 2007), audio {32:41, 29.93mb.mp3}.

Seymour Hersh (Washington D.C.), interviewed by Charles Goyette, “Why Is the US Backing Sunni Jihadists? An interview with Seymour Hersh” (Radio KFNX, The Charles Goyette Show, Phoenix Arizona, Wednesday February 28 2007, 6-9am PT) (“KFNX news talk radio 1100”), audio {20:01, 4.59mb.mp3, ditto, rss, rss}, transcript {pf} (Antiwar Radio archive).

Seymour Hersh (Washington D.C.), interviewed by Christopher Lydon, “Making the Rounds with Seymour Hersh” (Radio WGBH, Open Source, Boston, February 28 2007, 7:00-8:00 p.m. ET), audio {51:55, 24kb.mp3, archive, rss, menu, rss, rss, rss rss}, broadcast by 33 U.S. radio stations (via PRI: Public Radio International, Open Source from PRI) (July 4 2005-2007 June 30) and by satellite radio (XMPR: XM Public Radio, XM channel 133, March 1, 3:00-4:00 a.m. ET).

Seymour Hersh (Washington D.C.), interviewed by Amy Goodman, “Investigative Reporter Seymour Hersh: US Indirectly Funding Al-Qaeda Linked Sunni Groups in Move to Counter Iran” (Democracy Now! The War and Peace Report, New York City, Wednesday February 28 2007), video {34:20}, audio {34:21}, entire hour show (video/audio) {59:04}, audio {27.04mb.mp3}, DemNow transcript {pf}, broadcast by 197 U.S. TV stations and cable channels, 231 U.S. radio stations, 23 Canadian radio stations, by Free Speech TV in North America (schedule) (8:00-9:00 a.m., 12:00-1:00 p.m., 7:00-8:00 p.m., 12:00-1:00 a.m. ET), via the Dish Network satellite, and 170 public access TV cable channels (included in the 231, above), reaching 25 million U.S. homes, by Link TV in North America (schedule) (11:00-12:00 noon, 6:00-7:00 p.m. ET) via satellites (DirecTV and Dish Network), by WRN: World Radio Network in parts of Europe, Africa, Asia (schedule) (4:00-5:00 p.m. GMT), via 10 satellites (audio channel on TV tuners and feeds to cable radio) and via satellite radio (WRN, WorldSpace channel 305) (Afristar-1 east beam, parts of western Africa and Europe, footprint), by radio stations in the CBAA network: Community Broadcasting Association of Australia.

Glenn Kessler, “New Doubts On Nuclear Efforts by North Korea: U.S. Less Certain of Uranium Program” {pf} (The Washington Post, Thursday March 1 2007), David E. Sanger, William J. Broad, “U.S. Concedes Uncertainty on North Korean Uranium Effort{pf} (The New York Times, March 1 2007).

“ The Washington Post: The administration’s stance today stands in sharp contrast to the certainty expressed by top officials in 2002, when the administration accused Pyongyang of running a secret uranium program — and demanded it be dismantled at once.

President Bush told a news conference that November: “We discovered that, contrary to an agreement they had with the United States, they’re enriching uranium, with a desire of developing a weapon.””

Seymour Hersh (Washington D.C.), interviewed by Jerome McDonnell (Chicago) (Radio WBEZ, Worldview, CPR: Chicago Public Radio, broadcast Thursday March 1 2007, 12:00/9:00 p.m. CT), audio {16:27, 7.54mb.mp3 rss, archive, rss}. Subsequently, WBEZ Worldview began broadcasting also via satellite radio (XMPR: XM Public Radio, XM channel 133, schedule), from March 7 2007 {21kb.pdf}.

Seymour Hersh (Washington D.C.), interviewed by Andrea Sanke (Paris) (France 24, Talk, The France 24 Interview, Paris, Friday March 2 2007, 10:40 p.m. CET, 9:40 p.m. GMT), video {13:26, 37.75mb.wmv}.

Seymour Hersh (Washington D.C.), interviewed by Bill Maher (Los Angeles) (HBO: Home Box Office, Real Time with Bill Maher, eipsode 93, CBS Studio Center, Studio City, Los Angeles, Friday, March 2 2007, 11:00 p.m. ET), video {8:13, 15.27mb.wmv, source}, video {8:13, 4.78mb.wmv}, video {8:13, 5.95mb.mov}, video {8:07, 4.78mb.wmv}, youtube video (larger) {8:11, 19.6mb.flv, flv, source}, HBO transcript {81kb.pdf}.

Seymour Hersh (Iran), David Albright (North Korea), Andrew Cockburn (Donald Rumsfeld), interviewed by Ian Masters (Pacifica, Radio KPFK, Background Briefing, Los Angeles, Sunday March 4 2007, 11am-1pm PT, first hour), broadcast audio (both hours, 5-6 week archive), archived audio (bb) {52:38, Hersh at 0:00-24:50, 9.04mb.mp3, 30.12mb.mp3, rss, archive} (110,000 watts FM, the most powerful radio transmitter on Mount Wilson, “a superpower site, with typical coverage footprints of 5,000 square miles”), see, Sean Mitchell, “Radio: At KPFK, Ian Masters amps up the debate{pf} (Los Angeles Times, calendarlive.com, Sunday May 13 2007).

Scott Ritter (studio), interviewed by Laura Knoy, “Target Iran” (NHPR: New Hampshire Public Radio, The Exchange, Concord New Hampshire, Wednesday March 7 2007, 9-10am ET), audio {51:51, 8.90mb.mp3, rss menu, rss menu, search}, broadcast by 11 radio stations.

Hans Blix, a diligent thinker and talker, I list his remarks, on the Iraq wmd war timeline, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, but he speaks about Iran, too. CJHjr

Hans Blix, interviewed in Brussels by Anna Botting, “Blix: US Held 'Witch Hunt' (Sky News, “Inside Iraq,” London, Sunday March 11 2007), video {5:26, 11.69mb.wmv}, Sky transcript, “'It Has Been A Tragedy',” reported, AP: Associated Press, “Blix: Britain Embellished Iraq Dossiers” (The Guardian, London, Monday March 12 2007), “U.N. inspector to speak at BSU{pf} (Idaho Statesman, Monday March 12 2007).

S/Res/1747 (March 24 2007) {also via sres, resguide, journal, ods}, U.N. Security Council resolution, adopted, meeting 5647 (Saturday, March 24 2007, 3:16-5:15pm), transcript, S/PV.5647 {also via journal}, reported, SC/8980, draft resolution, S/2007/170, U.N. video {1:58:39, source, source}, press briefings before the meeting (media stakeout, Security Council lobby), U.N. video, Qatar {3:00} (Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser), Indonesia {2:32} (Rezlan Ishar Jenie), statements at the meeting (all speakers are U.N. ambassadors, except for Iran’s foreign minister), U.N. video, introduction {3:39} (Dumisani S. Kumalo, South Africa, president of the council for March), Qatar {3:48} (Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser), Congo {3:25} (Pascal Gayama), Indonesia {5:02} (Rezlan Ishar Jenie), South Africa {7:12} (Dumisani S. Kumalo), vote {1:10} (15/0/0), U.K. {9:27} (Emyr Jones Parry), France {8:19} (Jean-Marc de La Sabliere), U.S. {12:27} (Alejandro Wolff, acting ambassador), Russia {4:30} (Vitaly Churkin), China {6:14} (Wang Guangya), Panama {1:56} (Ricardo Alberto Arias), Slovakia {3:45} (Dušan Matulay), Belgium {2:32} (Johan C. Verbeke), Ghana {1:17} (Nana Effah-Apenteng), Iran {41:57} (Manoucher Mottaki, Iran Foreign Minister), press briefings after the meeting (media stakeout, Security Council lobby), U.N. video, U.S. {4:35} (Alejandro D. Wolff), EU3 {7:50} (U.K., France, Germany: Emyr Jones Parry, Jean-Marc de La Sabliere, Thomas Matussek), Russia {12:17} (Vitaly Churkin), South Africa {9:35} (Dumisani S. Kumalo), reported,Security Council tightens sanctions against Iran over uranium enrichment{pf} (U.N. News, March 24 2007), Jane O'Brien (BBC News, UN headquarters), “UN ratchets up pressure on Iran{pf} (BBC News, March 24 2007), “UN backs fresh sanctions on Iran{pf} (BBC News, March 25 2007), Laura Trevelyan (reporting), “UN backs fresh Iran sanctions,” BBC video (bb) {2:37 bb, BBC player}.

Seymour Hersh, interviewed by Matt Taibbi, “Cheney's Nemesis{pf, copy} (Rolling Stone, New York City, posted April 2 2007).

Hans Blix, remarks, chaired by Dominique David (IFRI executive director), “Time for a Revival of Disarmament” (IFRI: Institut Français des Relations Internationales, 27 rue de la Procession, Paris Cedex 15, speaker series, Monday April 2 2007, 6:00-7:30 p.m. CEST).

Seymour Hersh, interviewed by Thom Hartmann (blog) (Air America Radio, The Thom Hartmann Program, from the studios of CCC, Radio KPOJ, Portland Oregon, Tuesday April 3 2007, noon-3pm ET), podcast audio {10:44, 9.83mb.mp3, archive, archive, rss menu}, broadcast by 67 U.S. radio stations, and by satellite radio (Sirius Left, Sirius channel 146, schedule), see also, Thom Hartmann, interviewed by Mark Karlin {pf} (editor), “Thom Hartmann—Air America's Renaissance Man Talk Show Host” (BuzzFlash, Chicago, May 25 2007).

Hans Blix, interviewed by Andrea Sanke at IFRI: Institut Français des Relations Internationales (France 24, Talk, The France 24 Interview, Paris, Tuesday April 3 2007, 10:40 p.m. CEST, 8:40 p.m. GMT), video {12:49, 36.02mb.wmv, archive}.

The question nobody asks Hans Blix

(He shouldn’t wait to be asked)

“ Question: You have said your opinion, that Iran should give up the business of uranium enrichment (the “fuel cycle”).

But, so far, Iran does not share your view.

And they point to a long history, of U.S. efforts, to deny them fuel, and power plants, efforts many countries enforced.


Are IAEA inspections fit for their purpose?

1. At declared facilities, can IAEA inspectors ensure (100%), Iran can not enrich fuel to highly enriched levels (20%+), without IAEA inspectors knowing about it, immediately?

2. As for undeclared, secret, facilities, can IAEA inspectors likely detect them?

With their advanced sampling methods, and snap inspections, under the Additional Protocol, of undeclared facilities?

What is the likelihood Iran could enrich uranium to bomb grade (80-90%), in bomb quantities, at a secret facility, without IAEA inspectors finding out about it?

Hans Blix: — ?”

John Bolton (former interim U.S. U.N. Ambassador), interviewed by John Humphrys (BBC Radio 4, Today, London, Tuesday May 17 2007, 6-9am at 8:40 a.m. BST) {BBCcat 07sx0901}, audio {9:29}. “John Bolton, one of the more controversial figures of Bush's administration, talks to us about American foreign policy for the remainder of the Bush presidency and the Bush-Brown relationship.”

GOV/2007/22 (23 May 2007) {64kb.pdf, iaea, copy, isis}, Mohamed ElBaradei (director general, IAEA), report to the U.N. Security Council, Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and Relevant Provisions of Security Council Resolutions in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Mohamed ElBaradei (IAEA, director general), interviewed in Vienna by Rob Broomby, “Inside the IAEA” (BBC News, Radio 4, interviewed May 8 2007, posted Thursday May 31 2007) {BBCcat}, audio (bb) {35:24 8.28mb.rm, bb 16.50mb.rm, search, search, search, rss} {BBC player bb}, reported, Rob Broomby, “Nuclear watchdog's attack warning{pf} (BBC News, May 31 2007).

Mohamed ElBaradei (IAEA, director general), Olli Heinonen (IAEA deputy director general for safeguards), Greg Schulte (U.S. IAEA ambassador), Ali Asghar Soltanieh (Iran IAEA ambassador), interviewed in Vienna by Rob Broomby (reporter), Ian Muir-Cochrane (producer), “Inside the IAEA” (BBC News, Radio 4) {BBCcat}, audio: 1/2 {28:26, 11.39mb.mp3} (Thursday May 31 2007, 8:02-8:30 p.m.) {BBCcat 07vq3866}, 2/2 {28:12, 11.30mb.mp3} (Thursday June 7 2007, 8:02-8:30 p.m.) {BBCcat 07vq3867} {source, rss menu menu menu} (the BBC will likely delete these podcasts soon).

Hans Blix (Stockholm), interviewed by John Ydstie (NPR: National Public Radio, Weekend Edition Saturday, Washington D.C., June 9 2007, 8-10am, at 8:24-8:30 a.m. ET) (hour-1, segment-b, second item) {316kb.pdf}, “Blix: U.S. Should Practice What It Preaches on Nukes,” audio ditto ditto {6:18, 2.93mb.rm} (2-hour program audio segments).

Seymour Hersh, interviewed by Asra Nomani (Campus Progress, 2007 National Student Conference, Washington D.C., Tuesday June 26 2007, “Morning Foreign Policy Discussion,” 10:45-11:45am ET, venue: Hyatt Regency Washington on Capitol Hill, 400 New Jersey Avenue NW, Washington D.C.), agenda, video {1:00:55, 124.0mb.wmv, source}.

Hans Blix (Stockholm), interviewed by Leonard Lopate, “Hans Blix on Global Disarmament” (radio WNYC, The Leonard Lopate Show, New York City, Wednesday July 11 2007, noon-2pm ET FM, 3-5am AM) (“the most-listened to commercial or non-commercial radio station in Manhattan”), and by satellite radio (XMPR: XM Public Radio, XM channel 133, 3-5pm EDT), audio {38:49, 15.55mb.mp3, rss}.


2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008



I might resume this, and catch up. -CJHjr



By CJHjr: Formatting (xhtml/css), bold-face, links, highlighting, text {in braces}, text beside a green bar |, text in yellow boxes.

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Charles Judson Harwood Jr.

Posted Sept. 12 2006. Updated June 9 2009.


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