Aids to recall / recognition: identikit and identity parades






Recognising and identifying faces

Goldstein and Chance (1971)

Womenís faces snowflakes and ink blots.




Patterson and Baddeley (1977)

Change in appearance




Ainsworth (1995)

Good Samaritan picked




Shepherd, Davies and Ellis (1978)




Photospread identifications


Live perpetrator and static photo





Ecological validity of experiments





Perpetrator not present and witness feels under pressure to choose.



Line ups


Wellset al (1994)

Minimum number of foils




Brigham and Pfeiffer (1994)

Functional size





Foils different from suspect


Suspect should not stand out (Wells et al 1993)



Behaviour of suspect


Make them feel at ease (Wells et al 1999)


Cutler & Penrod (1988)

Sequential line up rather than whole array



Improving Identity parades




Dress all in similar clothes but not the clothes similar to those worn at scene of crime


Cutler & Penrod (1988)



Include voice, three-quarters profile and walk


Wells and Bradfield (1998)



Do not give feedback as confidence increases

Cross-race identification

Duncan (1976)

White or Black Assailant or Victim




Chance and Goldstein (1996)

Difficulty in identifying across race