Aids to recall / recognition: identikit and identity parades

Topic

Study

Details

Evaluation

Application

Recognising and identifying faces

Goldstein and Chance (1971)

Womenís faces snowflakes and ink blots.

 

 

 

Patterson and Baddeley (1977)

Change in appearance

 

 

 

Ainsworth (1995)

Good Samaritan picked

 

 

 

Shepherd, Davies and Ellis (1978)

Labelling

 

 

Photospread identifications

General

Live perpetrator and static photo

 

 

 

 

Ecological validity of experiments

 

 

 

 

Perpetrator not present and witness feels under pressure to choose.

 

 

Line ups

 

Wellset al (1994)

Minimum number of foils

 

 

 

Brigham and Pfeiffer (1994)

Functional size

 

 

 

General

Foils different from suspect

 

Suspect should not stand out (Wells et al 1993)

 

 

Behaviour of suspect

 

Make them feel at ease (Wells et al 1999)

 

Cutler & Penrod (1988)

Sequential line up rather than whole array

 

 

Improving Identity parades

 

 

 

Dress all in similar clothes but not the clothes similar to those worn at scene of crime

 

Cutler & Penrod (1988)

 

 

Include voice, three-quarters profile and walk

 

Wells and Bradfield (1998)

 

 

Do not give feedback as confidence increases

Cross-race identification

Duncan (1976)

White or Black Assailant or Victim

 

 

 

Chance and Goldstein (1996)

Difficulty in identifying across race