Rulers of the United Roman Empire

Emperors of the United Roman Empire

In 27 BC, Octavian declared himself Emperor and named himself "Augustus".

Dates

Emperor

Notes

27 BC-AD 14

Augustus

Born Gaius Octavius Thurinus (Octavian); official name Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus. Great grandfather of Caligula

AD 14-37

Tiberius

Born Tiberius Claudius Nero; official name Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus. Mentioned in Lk. 3:1

37-41

Caligula

Born Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus; official name Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. Great grandson of Augustus

41-54

Claudius I

Born Tiberius Claudius Drusus; official name Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. Grandson of Mark Antony. He invaded Britain in AD 43

54-68

Nero

Born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus; official name Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus (or Drusus) Germanicus

68-69

Galba

Born Servius Sulpicius Galba; official name Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus

Jan.-Apr. 69

Otho

Born Marcus Salvius Otho; official name Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus

Apr.-Jul. 69

Vitellius

Born Aulus Vitellius; official name Aulus Vitellius Germanicus

69-79

Vespasian

Born Titus Flavius Vespasianus; official name Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus. Father of Titus and Domitian

79-81

Titus

Born Titus Flavius Vespasianus; official name Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus. Eldest son of Vespasian

81-96

Domitian

Born Titus Flavius Domitianus; official name Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus. Youngest son of Vespasian

96-98

Nerva

Marcus Cocceius Nerva

98-117

Trajan

Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus; official name Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus

117-138

Hadrian

Born Publius Aelius Hadrianus; official name Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus. Built Hadrian's Wall between Roman Britain and Caledonia (Scotland) in AD 122. In AD 135, the province of Judea was renamed “Palestine” by him

138-161

Antoninus (Pius)

Born Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus; official name Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus. Built the Antonine Wall in AD 142, in an attempt to extend Roman territory and dominance

161-166

Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus

Lucius Verus was born Lucius Ceionius Commodus; official name Lucius Aurelius Verus

166-180

Marcus Aurelius

Born Marcus Annius Verus; official name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus. Adopted son of Antoninus Pius and father of Commodus

180-192

Commodus

Born Lucius Aurelius Commodus; official name Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, then Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus. Son of Marcus Aurelius

192-193

Pertinax

Publius Helvius Pertinax

193-193

Didius Julianus

Marcus Didius Severus Julianus

193-211

Septimius Severus (Severus I)

Born Lucius Septimius Severus; official name Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax. Father of Caracalla and Geta. In 196, Clodius Albinus (Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus), a Roman general in Britain, was proclaimed emperor by the legions in Britain but was killed by Severus's army at the Battle of Lugdunum (Lyon) in 197

211

Caracalla and Geta

Geta's full name was Publius Septimius Geta. He was the younger son of Septimius Severus. He was also a Governor of Britannia (208-211) and of Britannia Inferior (211). Geta fought with Caracalla and was killed by him

211-217

Caracalla

Born Lucius Septimius Bassianus Caracalla; official name Marcus Aurelius (Severus) Antoninus. Elder son of Severus I. He was also a Governor of Britannia (208-211) and of Britannia Superior (211-222)

217-218

Macrinus

Born Marcus Opellius Macrinus; official name Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus. Father of Diadumenianus

218-218

Macrinus and Diadumenian

Diadumenian was born Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus; official name Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus. Son of Macrinus

218-222

Elagabalus

Born Varius Avitus Bassianus; official name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Also known as Heliogabalus

222-235

Alexander Severus

Born Marcus Julius Gessius Bassianus Alexianus; official name Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander

235-238

Maximinus I (Thrax)

Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus

Mar.-Apr. 238

Gordian I and Gordian II

Gordian I was the father of Gordian II and the grandfather of Gordian III. Both Gordian I and Gordian II had the same full name: Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus

Apr.-Jul. 238

Pupienus and Balbinus

Pupienus's full name was Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus. Balbinus's full name was Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus Pius

238-244

Gordian III

Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius. Son of Antonia Gordiana, daughter of Gordian I

244-247

Philip the Arab

Marcus Julius Philippus. Father of Philip Iunior

247-249

Philip the Arab and Philip Iunior

Philip Iunior was the son of Philip the Arab

249-251

Decius

Born Gaius Messius Quintus Decius; official name Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius

251-251

Decius and Herennius Etruscus

Herennius Etruscus's full name was Quintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius. Elder son of Decius

251-251

Hostilian

Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus. Younger son of Decius

251-253

Trebonianus Gallus and Volusianus

Trebonianus Gallus's full name was Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus. Volusianus's full name was Gaius Vibius Volusianus. Volusianus was the son of Trebonianus Gallus

253-253

Aemilian

Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus

253-260

Valerian and Gallienus

Valerian's full name was Publius Licinius Valerianus. Father of Gallienus

260-268

Gallienus

Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus. Son of Valerian

268-270

Claudius II (Gothicus)

Marcus Aurelius Claudius

270-270

Quintillus

Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus. Brother of Claudius II

270-275

Aurelian

Lucius Domitius Aurelianus

275-276

Tacitus

Marcus Claudius Tacitus. Half-brother of Florian

276-276

Florian

Marcus Annius Florianus. Half-brother of Tacitus

276-282

Probus

Marcus Aurelius Probus

282-283

Carus

Marcus Aurelius Carus. Father of Carinus and Numerian

Augusti and Caesari of the United Roman Empire

In 283, due to the size of the Empire, it was decided to have a ruler (an “Augustus”) in each half of the Empire, rather than an Emperor of the whole Empire. At certain times, these Augusti had an assistant ruler (called a “Caesar”).

Emperor

Dates

Augustus in West

Caesar in West

Dates

Augustus in East

Caesar in East

Dates

Notes

 

 

 

 

 

Numerian

 

283-284

Marcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus. Younger son of Carus

 

 

Carinus

 

283-285

 

 

 

Marcus Aurelius Carinus. Elder son of Carus

 

 

 

 

 

Diocletian

 

284-293

Born Diocles; official name Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus. Began the persecution of Christians

 

 

Maximian

 

285-286

 

 

 

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius. Father of Maxentius

 

 

Maximian

Carausius (Britain and Gaul)

286-293

 

 

 

Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius. Proclaimed himself Emperor of Britain

 

 

Maximian

Allectus (Britain and Gaul) and Constantius I (Chlorus) (elsewhere)

293-296

 

 

 

In 293, the Tetrarchy (four emperors) was introduced. Allectus's full name was Caius Allectus. He killed Carausius and assumed command of Britain

 

 

 

 

 

Diocletian

Galerius

293-305

Galerius's full name was Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus. Uncle of Maximinus

 

 

Maximian

Constantius I (Chlorus)

296-305

 

 

 

Constantius I's full name was Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius Chlorus. Father of Constantine I and son-in-law of Coel Hen Godhebog (Coel II). Died at York

 

 

Constantius I (Chlorus)

Severus II

305-306

 

 

 

Severus II's full name was Flavius Valerius Severus

 

 

 

 

 

Galerius

Maximinus II (Daia)

305-311

Maximinus II was born Daia (or Daza); official name Caius (or Gaius) Valerius Galerius Maximinus. Nephew of Galerius

 

 

Severus II

Constantine I (the Great) vs. Maxentius

306-307

 

 

 

Constantine I's full name was Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus. Son of Constantius I and father of Constantine II, Constantius II, Constans I and Crispus

 

 

 

Constantine I (the Great) vs. Maxentius

 

307-308

 

 

Maxentius's full name was Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius. Son of Maximianus Herculius

 

 

Constantine I (the Great) vs. Maxentius vs. Domitius Alexander

 

308-311

 

 

 

Domitius Alexander's full name was Lucius Domitius Alexander

 

 

Constantine I (the Great) vs. Maxentius

 

311-312

Maximinus II (Daia)

 

311-313

 

 

 

Constantine I (the Great)

 

312-317

 

 

 

In 312, Constantine won a decisive victory over Maxentius in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, making him the sole ruler of the western half of the empire. He made Christianity the state religion

 

 

 

 

 

Licinius

 

313-316

Valerius Licinianus Licinius

 

 

 

 

 

Licinius and Valerius Valens

 

316-317

Valerius Valens's full name was Aurelius Valerius Valens

 

 

Constantine I (the Great)

Crispus

317-326

Licinius

 

317-324

Crispus's full name was Flavius (or Claudius or Valerius) Crispus. Son of Constantine I

 

 

 

 

 

Licinius and Martinian

 

324-324

Martinian's full name was Sextus Marcius Martinianus

 

 

Constantine I (the Great)

 

326-337

Constantius II

 

324-350

Constantius II's full name was Flavius Julius Constantius. Middle son of Constantine I

 

 

Constans I (Italy and Greece) and Constantine II (Britain, France and Spain)

 

337-340

 

 

 

Constantine II's full name was Flavius Claudius Constantinus. Eldest son of Constantine I

 

 

Constans I

 

340-350

 

 

 

Flavius Julius Constans. Youngest son of Constantine I

Constantius II

350-361

 

 

 

 

 

 

From 350 to 364, the Empire was once again ruled by a single Emperor

Julian (the Apostate)

361-363

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flavius Claudius Julianus. Son of Julius Constantius, half-brother of Constantine I

Jovian

363-364

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flavius Jovianus

Valentinian I

364

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flavius Valentinianus. Brother of Valens and father of Gratian and Valentinian II

 

 

Valentinian I

 

364-367

Valens

 

364-378

Valens's full name was Flavius Julius Valens. Brother of Valentian I

 

 

Valentinian I (Italy and Greece) and Gratian (Britain, France and Spain)

 

367-375

 

 

 

Gratian's full name was Flavius Gratianus. Elder son of Valentinian I, who proclaimed him co-Augustus. In 369, the Roman general Flavius Theodosius (later to become the emperor Theodosius I) regained the area between Hadrian's Wall and the Antonine Wall, which became a separate province called Valentia (named after Valentinian I)

 

 

Valentinian II (Italy and Greece) and Gratian (Britain, France and Spain)

 

375-383

 

 

 

Valentinian II's full name was Flavius Valentinianus Junior. Younger son of Valentinian I

 

 

 

 

 

Theodosius I (the Great)

 

378-383

Theodosius’s full name was Flavius Theodosius

 

 

Valentinian II

 

383-392

Theodosius I (the Great) and Arcadius

 

383-392

Arcadius’s full name was Flavius Arcadius

Theodosius I (the Great)

392-393

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theodosius was the father of Arcadius and Honorius

Theodosius I (the Great)

393-395

Honorius

 

393-395

Arcadius

 

392-395

Honorius’s full name was Flavius Honorius

In 395, the Roman Empire was partitioned into Eastern and Western Empires.

Rulers

Gary's Home Page

Rulers
Contents Page

Gary's Home Page