During the first Reporting Period, there was a significant underspend against the proposed budget, which was in part due to the exchange rates for the Euro (where budget estimates were based upon over-optimistic rates of exchange) and because of problems recruiting staff during the first few months of the Project 9for some Partners). This led to the idea of a re-distribution of funds at the end of the second Reporting Period, which would enable an extension of 6-months (allowing completion of outstanding Milestones). While this appeared an easy process, and all Partners agreed and sent predicted budgets for the 6-month extension, which indicated the concept was feasible, it became apparent at the end of reporting Period 2 that the French Partner (ENS/CNRS) were spending more than their expected budget. This led to an enquiry from the Coordinator, to ENS/CNRS, as to why they had spent most of their remaining budget before the start of the agreed extension period. The reply was that their estimate for expenditure had NOT included salaried staff, which meant that they were likely to produce a significant overspend (this has turned out to be 125% over budget). In addition, EMPA informed the Coordinator of an overspend, against their predicted budget, at the end of Reporting Period 2 and it was agreed that they would significantly reduce costs for the extension period, which they have done; although, they have still slightly exceeded their budget. Finally, TUDelft have also exceeded their budget following the extension period; although, only by a small margin, which should have been covered by other Partnerís underspends, but for the overall deficit against the budget produced by the significant overspend of ENS/CNRS. However, despite a Ä2,000,000 budget the Project has exceeded this budget by only a few percent and has produced significant results with commercial potential. Therefore, in summary, the BioNano-Switch Project has been both a successful implementation of Synthetic Biology-based science to a complex biosensing concept and has run very close to the predicted budget despite a final Project length of 42 months.