12 pennies = 1 shilling.
20 shillings = 1 pound.
Criminal Law Amendment Act raised the age of legal sexual intercourse with girls from 12 to 16.
K Benz built first internal combustion engine car in Germany.
A further 2 acres were added to the New Skelton cemetery.
About 1500 people, mainly single men, emigrated to America from the Cleveland area around this time. The population had multiplied fivefold from 1871 to 1881 and yet the demand for ironstone had declined as the local ore competed with foreign imports with a richer iron content. The price per ton went down from 7 shillings and sixpence in 1873 to 3 shillings in 1879.
The mine owners had formed their own association and got the miners' wages linked to the price of pig iron on Teesside.
2nd January - THE WINTER'S TALE.
The defendants charged the police with assaulting them.
A disturbance took place near the Alms-houses, Guisborough amongst the Winter family. Some of them knocked at Bosomworth's door and said they wanted him to come out. Bosomworth, however, went out of the back door and brought back PC Dunville.
Joseph Winter, who was drunk, was then trying to get over the pallisading in front of Bosomworth's house. He had a stick, with which he was trying to smash the window, one pane of which had been broken.
PC Dunville pulled him back, whereupon Joseph Winter aimed a blow at the policeman, who closed with him and a struggle ensued during which old Winter fell with his head against the pallisading.
John Winter then attempted to rescue Joseph and PC Cook coming up a fight took place. PC Dunville drew his staff and struck 2 blows which knocked Joseph and John down.
Bosomworth said he was a game watcher to the trustees of Admiral Chaloner and lived in the school house close to the almshouses. He saw Bland strike PC Dunville, while all of the Winters assaulted him by striking and kicking.
PC Dunville said he was on the footpath near the Highland Laddie when Bosomworth came to seek him. He asked old Winter to desist from trying to break some more windows, but the old man aimed a blow at him with his stick.
He was just about to handcuff him when the other prisoners attacked. Bland hit him with an iron bar. John Winter hit his neck with his doubled fist and all the prisoners kicked him.
Joseph fell twice against the railings. He drew his staff and knocked Joseph and John down with it. After a severe struggle all the prisoners were taken into custody.
PC Cook said that when he got to the scene he found Joseph Winter mad drunk with a pair of handcuffs attached to his wrists and then he was attacked by the Winters. Joseph Winter tore his coat collar doing 7s 6d worth of damage.
William Scaife, a tailor, said he saw the officers trying to handcuff Joseph, but it was all they could do to get them on, as Mrs Winter
was trying to pull them off. The police asked him to assist. He took hold of Mrs Winter, who struck him in the face.
Dr H Messenger said he examined Joseph Winter at the Police Station. He was bleeding from the head and suffering from alcoholic mania.
He had 3 wounds on the back of the head, one of them being serious and 3 inches down to the bone. It was not likely to have been made with a staff. He thought the middle wound was made by a staff. Joseph was so violent he had to administer chloroform to stop the bleeding from his head.
Mr Skidmore for the defence said the police had assaulted the Winters. All the marks of violence were on the Winters. A most brutal assault had been committed on an old man and it was only natural that the sons should go to his assistance. He would prove that all the wounds on Joseph's head were caused by the officer's staff and further that some of his ribs were broken.
Another witness said he heard PC Dunville say to PC Cook to "stop Joseph Winter's wind."
For assaulting Bosomworth the younger Winters and Bland were fined one shilling and costs.
For assaulting PC Dunville they were fined 5s and costs.
Considering the ill usage old Joseph had received, he was let off with one shilling fine and costs and ordered to pay for the officer's damaged uniform. The counter charges against the police were dismissed.
3rd January. - WIFE ASSAULT.
After 17 years service in the Parish Police-Sergeant Robert Haw, was presented with a testimonial at a meeting in the Wharton Arms Hotel. As a token of the subscribers respect he was presented with a handsome timepiece supplied by Mr G King of Skelton and a purse of gold.
13th January - RENTS REDUCED BY HALF.
17th January. WIFE DESERTION.
21st January. - SCALDED TO DEATH.
27th January - DRUNK ROLLEY DRIVER.
2nd February - FREE TRAIN TRAVEL.
11th February - POACHED HARE AND 14 RABBITS.
24th February - EMBEZZLER.
25th February - DRUNK AND RIOTOUS.
2nd March - FOOTBALL.
3rd March - MURDEROUS WIFE ASSAULT.
William Carr, a tall powerful miner, was charged with assaulting his wife, Jane, at New Skelton with intent to commit grievous bodily harm on the 28th February.
Mrs Carr states that on Saturday her husband came home the worse for drink He refused to give her any wages and said he was going out on a spree.
As she and her children had had nothing to eat, she followed him and found 2 police trying to induce him to return home.
On seeing her, he said:- "I will not give you a ********* halfpenny, but I'll knock your ******* head off."
When he got home he accused her of having given him in charge of the police and following up his words he knocked her down and struck her on the head with a lading can.
He took her child out of her arms and went into the back street and began abusing the boy. She went to rescue it.
Afterwards she went into the front room of the house and her husband came in and pulled down the blinds.
He then struck and kicked her until she became insensible.
Sarah Watson, the wife of W Watson, shopkeeper, said the prisoner came in to pay an account. He said he was going to the Police Station as his wife was dead. He said she had tumbled.
She went into the house and found Mrs Carr lying on the floor unconscious, foaming at the mouth and she remained in this condition for an hour.
Dr Dunn said she was suffering from severe shock due to a kick in the abdomen.
The Bench considered the case in private. Squire Wharton said there was no evidence of any intent to commit grievous bodily harm but
the case was a bad one. Prisoner was committed to prison for 2 months with hard labour.
17th March - HALF WITTED RUM DRINKER.
18th March - ILLICIT BOOZE.
20th March - SKELTON GREEN SCHOOL PLANNED.
21st March - SWINDLER CHARGED.
27th March - CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY AT SKELTON.
31st March - MINERS' HOSPITAL.
14th April - SHUT THE PUBS.
18th April - QUOITS.
24th April - SUED FOR DEBT.
12th May - KNIFE ASSAULT ON PC.
16th May. - SKELTON GREEN SCHOOL.
A letter from Mr E B Hamilton was read offering a site upon which to build the new school at Skelton Green for the sum of £38 and the plans were passed.
The question of securing the services of a police constable to assist in getting the children to school came up and it was resolved to write to the Chief Constable.
The Board decided that Sergeant-Instructor Treen of the Volunteers should drill the boys for 4 months.
25th June - TORY BASHING.
15th July - ALLEGED CRUELTY TO A CHILD.
Yesterday afternoon before the Guisborough Bench, Mr A E Pease in the chair, Miss J Tallantyre, schoolmistress of one of the Stanghow Lane girls Schools, was charged by M A Newton with assaulting his child, Dorothy Ann on the 29th ult.
Mr Kindler of Stockton, solicitor for the Teacher's Association, defended.
Mrs Newton stated that on the day in question her child came from school between twelve and one o'clock. She ran across the yard crying, saying that Miss Tallantyre had thrashed her back.
She stripped the child and found her back covered with weals. She called her husband's attention to it and he took the child to Dr Dunn, who examined the child's back and found 19 marks on arms and back, in some of which the blood was drawn into the top skin.
A witness named Jos Freeman said he saw the child on the day in question. He did not think it was possible for a woman to inflict such punishment.
By Mr Kindler: The child's back was marked all over. He could not say there were 20 marks, but there might have been. The marks were black, blue and red, as if the blood was coming through.
Miss Tallantyre caned the child on the back but not severely. When calling the roll Dorothy refused to answer to her name and the mistress again punished her, but not severely.
Two other witnesses gave corroborative evidence. Dr Dunn, Skelton, said he examined the girl and found bruises on her arms and back as if she had been caned. The skin was bruised but not broken. The child was not disabled. The marks were black.
By the Bench: There were eighteen marks which represent nine or ten blows. The weals were black in each case. The weals were not raised when he saw them.
The Magistrates retired and on coming into Court the Chairman remarked that they had decided to dismiss the case.
It was a pity, he added, that the School Board could not invent some other kind of punishment that was not corporal.
15th July. - QUOITS CHALLENGE CUP.
7th August - GARDEN COMPETITION.
10th August - MINERS LAID OFF.
The South Skelton Mine, [Vaughan's Pit] was closed on Saturday last and whole of the employees, except caretakers, paid off. About 150 men and boys are now without employment. Several reasons are assigned for the closure, one being that the raw material can be purchases at Eston at a cheaper rate than that at which the Company can obtain it.
14th August - OVER BAWDY RIBALDRY.
15th August - MINE DISPUTE.
18th August - DRUNK VET.
William George Barker, veterinary surgeon, was charged with being drunk whilst in charge of a horse at Skelton on the 30th.
Major Rudd, Chairman of the Bench - "We have before us a list of 10 previous convictions against you. What have you to say to that ?"
Defendant, - "Too ridiculous, Sir." [Laughter].
Fined 21 shillings including costs.
20th August - SWINE FEVER.
22nd August - MINER SUED FOR DOCTOR'S SUBS.
24th August - BOOSBECK AND SKELTON SHOW.
and Athletic Society was held
at Boosbeck on Saturday, it being estimated that there were more than 5,000 people on the ground during the afternoon.
5th September - SKELTON AND BROTTON LOCAL BOARD.
8th September - DID NOT VOLUNTEER UNIFORM.
23 September - ILLEGAL BOOZING.
28th September - ELECTION.
28th Sep. - GROCER AND DRAPER BANKRUPT.
29th September - DRUNK.
2nd October. - WHO CAN VOTE ?
28 April 1838 to 7 December 1896.
Liberal MP for Cleveland 1885 to 1896.
Coal and ironstone mine owner. Director of the Tees Valley Railway. Twice Lord Mayor of Darlington.
About 40% of males and all females were still excluded.
The making of various qualification rules resulted in local revision meetings where the parties could object to certain people being on the electoral lists.
In the Cleveland Division the Liberals had 496 successful claims and the Conservatives 199.
The extension of the franchise made great changes to voting numbers in the Cleveland area. Prior to the Act only 267 males could vote in Skelton and this was now increased to 1,645.
Similarly, total voters in the Cleveland Division rose from 4,392 to 11,826.
With an election coming, local feeling was that "this augurs well for the triumphant return of the Liberal candidate, Mr H Fell Pease.
17th October - LAMB PRICE CHOP.
11th November - BURGLARY.
24th November - GENERAL ELECTION.
William Gladstone's Liberals won the most seats with 352, with Lord Salisbury's Conservatives holding 237. The Irish Nationalists held
the balance of power with 63.
The Irish question eventually led to a split in the Liberal Party and another Election in July 1986.
The Cleveland Division was won by the Liberal, Henry Fell Pease, who held the seat until his death on the 7th December 1896. Although he was a mine-owner, it was felt locally that the Liberals represented the interests of the miners more than the Conservative landed gentry. Mr H F Pease, Liberal, 6,948 - Hon Guy Dawnay, Conservative, 2,845.
People who believed that they qualified to vote at General and Board Elections had to fill in the following form.
25th November - FREE SECRET VOTE.
Mr J T Wharton of Skelton Castle sent a circular "to the tenants and workpeople on my Cleveland and Gilling estates."
"In a few days you will be called upon to exercise a privilege many of you have not hitherto enjoyed, in the election of a member of Parliament for your respective divisions of the North Riding.
It is my most particular wish that each of you will give your vote for the candidate whose political principles you individually prefer. Do not be too much led one way or the other because some neighbour or friend says you must vote for one or the other candidate.
Remember that the ballot is secret. Owing to my inability to hear what is said at public meetings and because I do not wish to take any part that might lead you to suppose I wished you to vote for a particular candidate, I have abstained from attending any meetings in the furtherance of the interest of either candidate."
[This was very considerate of him. He still clearly recognised the long-held power that the landed gentry still wielded over their tenants, but what a transformation from the previous Squire, who had spent the Wharton's fortune bribing the electorate in Beverley earlier in the century.]
22nd December - BAD ATTENDERS.
30th December - RAPE.