SKELTON - IN - CLEVELAND
IN HISTORY


1878.


Wharton Arms Hotel

Building of the Wharton Arms Hotel.

Opening of Priestcroft railway loop, which connected the line running from Guisborough-South Skelton-Boosbeck to the Saltburn-Brotton line and allowed trains of ironstone to reach works East of Middlesbrough without an awkward reversal in Middlesbrough. See map under year 1913.

21st February - LITERARY CONCERT.
A Concert took place in the New Public Hall at Skelton under the auspices of the Skelton Literary Club for the benefit of the Public Library and raised 9 19s 6d. Mr Robert Bell's string band rendered good service and the singing by local talent was excellent.

2nd March. - DRAINAGE GIFT.
Skelton Local Board of Health. A cheque was received from Mr Wharton of Skelton Castle for 25 as the final payment of the donation of 250 towards the drainage of Old Skelton.

BANKRUPTS.
12th March.
In tbe Matter of Proceedings for Liquidation by Arrangement or Composition with Creditors, instituted by Thomas Richardson, of Skelton, in the county of York, Butcher, and Arthur Osborn, of tbe same place, Butcher, trading as Copartners, under the style or firm of Richardson and Osborn, as Butchers and Dealers in Beer. Notice is hereby given,that a First General Meeting of tbe separate creditors of tbe above-named Arthur Osborn has been summoned to be held at the offices of Mr. J. H. Draper, in Finkle-street, Stockton-On-Tees on the 27th day of March, 1878, at half-past three o'clock in the afternoon precisely......
3rd April.
.......George Tiplady.of Skelton-in-Cleveland, in the North Riding of the county of York, Grocer.....

8th April.
...George Lawson, of Skelton-in-Cleveland in the county of York, Butcher.....

19th March - EXCITING VESTRY MEETING.
An exciting vestry meeting was held at Skelton the other evening for the purpose of electing an assistant overseer for the Parish.
Mr John Dixon presided and having intimated that their first business was to fix the salary of the officer, Mr Wood of Trout Hall Farm proposed that it be 15. Mr Thomas Petch of Skelton Barns Farm proposed that it be 23 and after some remarks agreed to make it 30.
Mr Levi Hodgson, the miners' representative, having pointed out that their Parish was a large and important one and that it was unreasonable to expect a man to perform the duties of a responsible office for a mere consideration, proposed that the salary be fixed at 60. Mr Rippon of Lingdale proposed that it be 45 and Mr Hodgson being induced to withdraw his proposition, Mr Rippon's motion was put to the meeting and unanimously carried. Of 9 candidates who were in the field for the appointment, Mr R P Petch proposed John Wray of Boosbeck. Mr James Elliott put forward B Kitson of Skelton and Mr Ellis, Edward Stubbs of Skelton.


It was unanimously agreed in consequence of the excitement in the meeting, that each ratepayer should pass through the vestry, giving his vote as he left to the candidate he wished to support. The 329 votes were divided Wray 149, Kitson 106 and Stubbs 72.

6th April - APPOINTMENT OF THE OVERSEERS FOR SKELTON. UPROARIOUS ELECTION.
Owing to a mistake in the form of voting having rendered the previous meeting of the ratepayers null and void another election was rendered necessary, which took place on Thursday evening in the Wesleyan Chapel.
From 600 to 700 persons were computed to be present.
Mr John Dixon was in the chair and after explaining the reason of their second meeting to appoint an assistant-overseer, he said it became their duty to select one of the two candidates who were in the field for office viz - Mr Richard Kidson, Skelton and Mr J J Wray, Boosbeck.
Mr Wharton, Mr R P Petch, Mr Thos Petch, Mr R Rippon, Mr Levi Hodgson and other gentlemen then addressed the meeting, which for fully four hours was of the most uproarious description.
A Vote was taken and the record announced as follows -
Kidson 329. Wray 224. Mr Kidson was then declared elected at a salary of 45 per annum. A poll was demanded on behalf of Mr Wray.

13th April. Stephen Emmerson, farmer of Hollybush, Skelton and Edward Bell Hamilton, land agent of Rigwood, Skelton were elected to Skelton Board of Health.

13th April - COUNTY COURT AT GUISBOROUGH STARTED.
With the view of meeting the convenience of those having County Court business in the eastern portion of Cleveland a Court was yesterday opened before Judge E R Turner at Guisborough. Hitherto people from the populous villages of Skelton, Saltburn, Marske, Brotton and Skinningrove had to travel to Stokesley. The Court will now be held alternately with that place.

18th April - MINE DEATH.
A middle aged man named William Edmonds, aged 50, met with his death on Wednesday morning whilst at work in the mines of Mr Thomas Vaughan, South Skelton. He was bringing away a quantity of stone with a charge of blasting powder, when he was struck on the head by a piece of flying metal, which rebounded from the opposite side wall.

30 April - ILLEGAL DOGS.
About 30 persons living at Guisborough, Skelton and Lingdale were summoned for keeping dogs without licenses. Some said "it belonged to the lodger", some produced old licenses and some the Bench were reluctant to convict, but in every case a fine of 25 shillings was imposed.

13th May - EMIGRATE TO NEW ZEALAND.
3 very large meetings were held on Saturday last at New Marske, Brotton and Old Skelton by Mr C Holloway, the special emigration agent for the New Zealand Government.
He was assisted by Joseph Toyn, the Cleveland Miners Agent with a view of sending a large number of men to the fine Colony.
All able-bodied men who are wishful to go must procure a testimonial from the last farmer that employed them, proving that they have been bona-fide agricultural labourers. Also they must be not more than 45 years of age or have more than 3 children under the age of 12.


Under these conditions a free passage is granted. It is expected that with the iron trade being so bad and wages so low a very large number will avail themselves of this opportunity to better their condition.

29th May - SKELTON PARK AND LONGACRES PITS.
Some facts about the pit working were reported in the local press when a party of dignitaries visited.
The Engine room has two 32 inch cylinders and the mine is 360 feet deep.
The owners Messrs Bell Bros have purchase the patent to Mr Walker's rotary drill which will perform in 3 minutes work which would occupy a skilled miner an hour. It drills a round hole and cleans it out obviating the need for washing. It gets 60 tons of stone per day and the total output for the mine is 1,200 tons.
200 miners are employed. There are 1000 acres and the seam which is homogeneous is 9 feet thick giving a 31 per cent iron content.
Mr Walker's detaching hook was inspected. This device prevents a cage from being overwound and holds it in any part of the shaft should the rope break. It is now used throughout Cleveland.
The party went on to Longacres where the seam is 8 feet thick and somewhat soft in texture. There they saw the Burleigh drill which works with compressed air and makes a hole for the blasting powder with a percussive motion of 400 blows per minute. Water is used to flush out the hole thus made. 60 to 70 tons per day is won by this drill.

1st June - WIFE THREAT.
Thomas Taylor, a miner of Skelton, was bound over to keep the peace for six months after threatening his wife on 18th May.

11th June - PARK PIT EXPLOSION.
On Monday morning an explosion of gas occurred in the Park Pit ironstone mine near Skelton, worked by Messrs Bell Bros and Co.
At an early hour a man named Matthew Wray, a deputy overman and 4 others, John Stillman, Adam Hanam, Moses Raynor and John Vaughan, proceeded to a place where they intended to work. Wray, it appears carried a Davy safety lamp and went in advance of the others.
3 of the other 4 men had ordinary lamps and the fourth carried what is known as a "midgy", namely a naked candle.
They had gone a considerable distance up an incline, when they were met by a rush of gas which coming in contact with the light exploded.
All the 5 poor fellows were at once set on fire and most severely injured. They were at first stunned, but afterwards crept out on their hands and knees for some distance, when they were helped out on waggons, conveyed up the shaft and taken to Guisborough Miners Hospital.
They were carefully tended by Mrs Stone, the matron, and Dr Merryweather.
They are all married men with large families. It is said that when the men arrived at the pit bottom the glass showed the ventilation was not very good and not having safety lamps they should not have followed the chargeman.


Henry Bolckow.

NEW STEEL PROCESS.
The iron ore produced by the Cleveland mines and in most of Europe contained phosphorous and produced inferior steel in the Bessemer process compared to ore without this impurity.
In this year Gilchrist and Thomas invented a process which burnt off unwanted elements by blowing oxygen through the molten ore and thereby revolutionised steel production throughout Europe.

18th June - DEATH OF HENRY BOLCKOW.
He died, aged 72, at Ramsgate where he had been taken to convalesce after suffering kidney problems. He was buried in St Cuthbert's Churchyard, Marton close to his friend and business partner John Vaughan.
He was born a German, but came to England through business in the corn trade and became a naturalised British subject in 1841.
He was drawn into the growing iron and steel business by Vaughan and was the financial brains in the partnership.
The success of their first iron foundry in Middlesbrough led to a business empire of vertical integration, the ownership of coal mines, limestone quarries, brickworks, gasworks and ironstone mines, including North Skelton and Longacres.
They were hard nosed businessmen when it came to dealing with their employees, but donated many public works, including Albert Park in Middlesbrough.
Henry Bolckow's residence was Marton Hall, Middlesbrough.


Marton Hall and grounds,
Built for Ironmaster, Henry Bolckow.
Now Stewarts Park and home of the Captain Cook Museum.

He was a local Justice of the Peace and in November 1855 became the town's first Mayor. In 1869 he was also its first MP, standing for the Liberal Party.

29th June - FATAL ACCIDENT, NORTH SKELTON MINE.
An inquest was held on Thursday at the Miners Hospital at Brotton by Mr William Robinson, Coroner on the body of a miner named John Cottle, aged 38 who met with an accident to his leg on Tuesday, 25th, morning by a quantity of stone falling on it.
James Somerwill, a miner, said that he and the deceased commenced at six in the morning and had fired 4 shots up to the time of the accident. They examined the top after they fired each shot
After they fired the third shot they found a piece that was rather "dummy" and tried to get it down with the drill but it was too "fast".
Deceased was making a fifth hole, when the piece of stone weighing between 7 and 8 hundredweight fell on his left leg almost severing it below the knee. Witness had him removed to Hospital. Dr Johnston said he was called to see the deceased and found his leg only hanging by a piece of skin, which he separated.
Witness then sent for Dr Merryweather of Guisborough and on his arrival it was deemed


necessary to amputate the shattered limb at once.
Deceased lingered until Wednesday morning, when he died. The Jury returned a verdict of accidental death and added that by the mode of conveyance to hospital a great quantity of blood was lost, thereby accelerating death.
The hospital was over a mile away and up a steep hill.
Something better than a "common springless cart" should be used.
John Cottle was a steady, industrious man and well respected. He leaves a wife and two orphan children whom he had been keeping for some time.

Dear Sir,
Will you allow me a little space in the Northern Echo to make a few remarks in reference to John Cottle, who met his death through a fall of dogger from the top of North Skelton Mine on the June 25th.
A variety of rumours are afloat and a good deal of speculative opinion as to what caused his death.
The jury expressed themselves in very strong language. They believed that the falling of a piece of dogger on the deceased was the primary cause of his death, but that death was accelerated by the loss of blood.
The evidence given showed that the poor fellow was conveyed to the Hospital in a heavy coal cart, which had to be stopped seven times to allow him to get his breath; and further that the doctor met the cart near the pit, but on examining the leg found a boot lace and a miners belt tied round it to prevent bleeding.
He considered it better to do nothing further to the man until he was taken to Hospital. The consequence was that when about half way from North Skelton to Brotton the wound began to bleed profusely and continued to do so the remainder of the way to the Hospital. The leg was then amputated.
The poor fellow gradually sank and died next morning.
The jury thought that in future stretchers should be provided at every mine in Cleveland, in order to convey persons who may happen an accident in as easy manner as possible.
The Manager of North Skelton Mine promised that this should be done at the mines that he is responsible for.
The jury further recommended that a surgical instrumnet should be provided and kept at every mine, so that in cases such as the one just named it could be applied at once and so prevent a man bleeding to death or to any damaging extent.
Trusting that the hints thrown out will be attended to so that in future every care and precaution will be taken to alleviate the sufferings of those who are so unfortunate
as to meet with an accident among the class to which I have the honour to belong, viz, the Cleveland miners,

I am yours faithfully,
Joseph Toyne, June 29, 1878.


29th June - SAVAGE WIFE ASSAULT,
At the Guisborough Police Court before Admiral Chaloner and Dr Merryweather, Thomas Newcombe Hall of Skelton, watchmaker, was charged with unlawfully assaulting his wife, Lucy Hall, at Skelton on the 25th inst.
Prisoner was apprehended with a warrant obtained by his wife for breaking her arm and blacking her eyes.
He was committed to Northallerton gaol for 3 calendar months' hard labour without option of a fine and at the end of that term to find sureties to keep the peace for six monts, himself in 25 and two sureties in 15 each.

8th July - BURIAL OF STILL BORN.
At the monthly meeting of the Board attention was drawn to the burial of still born children in Skelton Cemetery. The Superintendent of Police had complained of the burial of such children without a medical certificate and as one or two suspicious cases had occurred an alteration in the bye-law was desirable.
The Board thought it would be arbitrary to refuse burial as many poor people, especially at present, were unable to afford a medical certificate. It was resolved to provide the Police with every information once a fortnight of all cases.

8th July - OVERSEER AND RATE COLLECTOR.
The local board appointed Mr Richard Hudson as assistant overseer at a salary of 45 per annum and rate collector to the Board at 15 per annum.


7th August - BANKRUPT FLITS.
On Thursday last Samuel Bower, a grocer of Skelton decamped from his place of business for Australia leaving his estate insolvent. A telegram despatched to Plymouth caused his detention there and a warrant being obtained he was brought back to York and lodged in the Castle.

9th August - WATER SUPPLY.
20th half yearly meeting of the Cleveland Water Company, Mr J T Wharton presiding. The report noted that the Lockwood Beck storage reservoir and the filter beds connected therewith were completed a few days ago having occupied nearly 5 years in construction. Using impure water had been one of the major causes of infection in the past.

16th August. - GROCER BANKRUPT.
In the Matter of a Bankruptcy Petition against Samuel Bowers, of Skelton-in-Cleveland, in the county of York, Grocer and General Dealer. Upon the hearing of this Petition this day, and upon proof satisfactory to the Court of the debt of the Petitioner, and of the trading, and of the act or acts of the


bankruptcy alleged to have been committed by the said Samuel Bowers having been given, it is ordered that the said Samuel Bowers be, and he is hereby, adjudged bankrupt.

- SKELTON PARK PIT, SUBSIDENCE.
The Whitby Gazette reported that shallow workings in the mine collapsed and left a length of the railway line in Boosbeck suspended in mid air.

Drilling machines were introduced into the ironstone mines to reduce manual labour costs. A hole between 3 and 5 feet long, to take an explosive charge, had until this time been made by a miner with a metal bar. This hour long process could be done by machine in a tenth of the time and, it was remarked, would displace "a very troublesome staff of men".

2nd October - SKELTON BY GASLIGHT.
"On Monday night the streets were lighted for the first time with gas. The gas is from the mains of the Cleveland Gas Company, whose works are situated at Skinniugrove."

11th October. -Stephen Emmerson, farmer of Skelton, stood for election to Skelton Board of Health.

12th Oct. - PINCHING SPUDS.
Margaret Close charged with stealing 9 pennyworth of potatoes from the garden of James Todd at Skelton at half past six in the morning. Pleaded guilty and case remanded for 6 months.

26th Oct. Henry Delicate was charged with assault at Skelton in that he struck one W Granger in the eye at midnight. Fined 5 and costs.

26th Oct. - SPLIT EYE ASSAULT.
John Wiltshire was fined 50s with costs or six months hard labour for assaulting John Rowland at Skelton. Said he had trained a man who won a handicap in Mr Stephen Emmerson's field at Skelton, but the defendant had disqualified him and he had lost his money. Defendant split Wiltshire's eye with a fighting ring.

31st October - ENLARGEMENT OF LOCAL BOARD AREA, STANGHOW AND MOORSHOLM.
A Local Board of Enquiry was held at Skelton by Major Hector Tulloch, one of the Inspectors of the Local Government Board.
The area of the Skelton Board of Health district embraces 4.263 acres, but with the inclusion of the townships of Stanghow and Moorsholm, which is proposed 7,472 acres will be added and a considerable addition of rateable value will be made.
Within the enlarged district are the important mining villages of Skelton, New Skelton, North Skelton, Lingdale, Boosbeck, Skelton Green, Magra Park and Moorsholm, at most of which places important drainage works are necessary and the division of the proposed district into Wards in order to secure a fair representation to every part was one of the principal features of Tuesday's Enquiry.
The principal petitioners were Mr J T Wharton, lord of the manor of Skelton and Stanghow; Captain Linksill, lord of the manor of Moorsholm; Messrs J W Pease and Co, large ironmasters and coal owners; Messrs Bell Brothers, also large ironmasters and coal owners; Mr Joseph Dodds MP for Stockton, and various members of the influential family of Petch in the neighbourhood......
The same persons who were the largest owners of land in Skelton were also large owners of land in Stanghow and Moorsholm; and the lessees of ironstone in the latter townships being lessees of ironstone in Skelton, it was submitted that such owners and lessees were consequently equally interested in the commercial development and in the good government of both townships.
The gentlemen in fact who had petitioned in favour of the extended district were owners of four fiths of the area of Stanghow, nine tenths of the area of Moorsholm and three fourths of the area of Skelton.

>
2nd November - OPENING OF THE CLEVELAND EXTENSION RAILWAY.
The new line from Guisborough to the Saltburn and Loftus Branch of the North Eastern Railway was opened yesterday morning for passenger traffic.
The new line is a continuation of the Middlesbrough and Guisbrough Railway and proceeds after leaving Guisbrough in a North Easterly direction to North Skelton where it joins the Saltburn to Loftus Branch.
It traverses the heart of the Cleveland ironstone field. Only one station has been built at Boosbeck, a trim and compact building with 2 platforms and goods station.

Nov 9th - SNOW. Guisborough ' Fair was postponed because of a snowstorm.
Winter of 1878 - 79 was one of the coldest recorded and in some places in the north there were 3 months' snow cover.

19th November. - DISTRESS CALL.
Letter to Gazette. Would you kindly allow me to make an appeal on behalf of some of the miners of Cleveland and their families. There are hundreds of families who are struggling for an existence at the present rate of wages. What will be the consequences if a further reduction is enforced I cannot tell.
On Thursday last I visited several of the miners' homes at North Skelton. I found in some instances that the income is about 7s 3d per head per week for a miner and his wife and family.
Out of that pittance they have to provide food and clothing. Those families that I visited were sitting down to bread and water, bread and tea and at one home they had red herring and bread.
Some of the poor mothers complained that they were badly off for clothing. Their children could not get out of the house because thay had no clothing to keep them warm and to cover their nakedness.
Therefore I would be very thankful to any lady or gentleman who is benevolently disposed for a parcel of men's women's or children's new or cast off wearing apparel, boots and shoes etc. which I would then distribute amongst the most needful.
Trusting that this may meet the eye and heart of some good Samaritan,
I am yours faithfully. Joseph Toyne, Agent Cleveland Miners Association.

20th November - TOOK TEA AND BROOCH.
Mary Dinah Trigg was charged by Mary Downey with stealing a silver brooch at North Skelton when the prisoner had tea with her.
PC Calver said when he apprehending the prisoner she was wearing it fastened to her shawl, but said she never saw it there until she got back to Skelton.
In surety of 10 she was sentenced to take trial at Northallerton Sessions, where on the 2nd January 1879 she was imprisoned for 1 month.

28th November - "NO WAR IN AFGHANISTAN - DISRAELI RESIGN !"
At a well attended meeting on Wednesday night held at the Bull's Head Inn, North Skelton, the following resolution was moved by Mr Joseph Toyn of the Cleveland Miners' Association:-
"That this meeting protests against England entering into a cruel and unjust war with "Affghanistan", believing the difference between the 2 countries may be settled by peaceful measures and further believing that the wild and warlike policy of the Prime Minister and his Cabinet have largely contributed to the appalling distress in the country. We call on Lord Beaconsfield and his colleagues to resign at once."
And at an enthusiastic meeting at Skelton Green the following resolution proposed by Mr T Dunn and seconded by Mr T Wilkinson was unanimously carried:-
That we, the miners of Skelton and Skelton Green, hereby protest against the foreign policy of our Government as unconstitutional and detrimental to the best interests of this country; and , believing that their policy is the main obstacle in the way of a revival of trade, we call on them to resign office at once and appeal to the constituencies to know whether they must continue to starve the working men of this country any longer or not"
[People had been appalled by news of Turkish atrocities in Bulgaria, but the Conservative Government of Disraeli was more concerned with protecting British interests than moral rights and wrongs and had asked Parliament to approve a substantial sum for waging a possible War to prevent Russian expansion in the Eastern Mediterranean.]


The Mill at Old Saltburn and wooden bridge in background.
The Mill was demolished in 1905.

9th December - BRIDGE AT SALTBURN MILL.
At the monthly meeting of the Skelton Board of Health it was agreed to purchase a new snow plough for the district at a cost not exceeding 3.
It was reported that the old wooden bridge which spans the boundary streams below the old mill at Saltburn was dangerous for foot passengers owing to its decayed and broken down condition and it was repaired at the joint expense of the Skelton and Brotton Boards.

14th December - DISTRESS.
The appeal of Mr Joseph Toyn, agent to the Cleveland Miners, on behalf of the many starving families in the Skelton district has met with a liberal response from the charitable, but much is still required before all the necessitous cases can be dealt with.
The latest gifts, he desires us to acknowledge are 2 parcels of clothing from Mr Holderness, Saltburn and 50 pounds of tea from Mr Ellis of Skelton.

14th December - POACHERS.
Daniel Collingwood, miner of Skelton, alias Cockney, was charged at Guisborough Petty Sessions along with Daniel Alfred Willows of Skelton, with

trespassing in pursuit of game on land at Upleatham belonging to the Earl of Zetland. They were fined 5 shillings and costs.

19th December - DISTRESS, OLD CLOTHES WANTED.
To the Editor of the Northern Echo.
Sir, - For the sum of twopence per head per week Mr Wharton of Skelton Castle has undertaken to give a pint of soup and the fourth part of a threepenny loaf to each child attending all the schools in Skelton parish during this winter. It will involve an expenditure of about 500 before the winter is over. We hear that some of the mineowners are going to do likewise. There is great lack of clothing. There are many, very many, cast off clothes among the middle and upper classes which we could make good use of. Never mine about them being dirty, torn or holed. We have willing hearts and ready hands amongst u s who will soon clean them and shut out the daylight too. Any favours sent to the office of the Cleveland Miners' Association will be dealt out with an impartial hand, irrespective of union prejudices.
Thomas Dunn, Gen Secretary, 29 Ruby St, Saltburn.

20th December - OLD SKELTON SOUP KITCHEN.
It is pleasant to find that at Skelton, where there is perhaps a greater amount of distress than at any other place in Cleveland, the most praisworthy efforts are being made for the relief of the unemployed poor.
Parcels of clothing are being distributed by the Cleveland Miners' Association and between 700 and 800 children were , through the liberality of Mr J T Wharton and his agent Mr E B Hamilton, being supplied daily with a nourishing meal of soup and bread at a cost of 2d per week.
It is proposed to continue the distribution for about 3 months and it is believed the proportion of the cost to these gentlemen will not be less than 50. A cottage in the centre of the village of Old Skelton, the property of Mr Wharton, has been converted into a temporary soup kitchen and three 75 gallon coppers are nightly kept going in producing the 800 pints of soup required each day.
The soup is conveyed by rolleys to the 5 stations for distribution, viz Stanghow Lane Schools, Lingdale, Boosbeck, Magra and Skelton Infants and is served out to the children at midday. A number of adults have also been supplied.

26th December. - NEED FOR AN AMBULANCE.
Letter to local newspaper. I regret to have to ask you for a little space in your valuable paper to call the attention of the owners and managers of the Cleveland Mines to the great necessity of providing stretchers or ambulances of some kind different to a coal cart in order to convey the poor unfortunate workmen who may happen an accident in or about the mines to their homes or to the Hospital.
Many thanks to the owners and managers who have provided stretchers as an easy mode of transit, brandy to revive and a surgical instrument to prevent bleeding.


On Thursday last, a poor man, named George Thompson, a miner working at South Skelton, owned by the Yorkshire Banking Company, met with a serious accident - viz cut about the head, injured back and broken thigh. This happened about 9.30 a.m.
After being conveyed to the pit bottom on a door and sent up the pit, the poor fellow was placed in a heavy coal cart.
When about half the journey to Guisborough had been accomplished, he asked the men to take him out, as he could not go any further in that rough manner.
He was then taken out of the cart, placed upon the door, and carried to the Guisborough Hospital, where he arrived about one o'clock.
What with the shock, the cold weather and the jostling in the cart, the poor fellow was quite exhausted.
Hot water had to be freely applied to him in order to get warmth into his benumbed body etc.
Surely the miner who daily risks his life is worth better treatment than this.
This is not the first time, but I hope it will be the last, that I shall have to beg in the name of all that is human, for an ambulance to be kept in readiness in every mine & c
Yours faithfully, Joseph Toyn, Agent for the Cleveland Miners Association.

Next Page - 1879.
Previous Page - 1877.
Contents Page