October 31st, 1945
PALESTINE: Jewish terrorists set off a wave of bombs on police vehicles, railways and the Haifa oil refinery. One policeman, one British soldier and two railway workers are killed. (From the UK newspaper the Daily Mail)
The Irgun and the Stern gang would be defined as terrorist organizations, although perhaps not as extreme as many today. They engaged in assassinations and were responsible for the massacre of civilians in the Palestinian village of Dar Yasin. Although when attacking targets were civilians would be present they typically gave a warning, such as with the Irgun's bombing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem which served as the HQ of the British military in Palestine, but had many civilians present. The Stern Gang assassinated Count Bernadotte the UN mediator. The Yishuv (the Jewish pseudo-government in pre-Israel Palestine) were vehemently opposed to Irgun and Stern Gang and their underground forces, the Haganah (which inluding a small full time "striking arm" known as the Palmach) was not a terrorist organization. There were occasions were the Haganah and Yishuv assisted the British in rounding up members of the Stern Gang and Irgun. They even came to an armed clash with the Irgun during the summer of 1948 (The Altalena affair). The Haganah exercised self restraint and rarely attacked British military targets, usually in support of Aliyah Bet (illegal immigration) operations. With regard to Arabs: up until November 1947 (when the Arabs in Palestine revolted against the UN decision to partition Palestine) the Haganah only fought with the Arabs in self-defence of settlements. Of course during this time frame the UK press would have described a Haganah action as a "terrorist" attack.
As they say one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter. The leader of the Irgun was Manachem Begin. The Leader of the Stern Gang was Yitzhak Shamir. Begin was the Israeli Prime Minister who made peace with Egypt. Shamir was the Prime Minister who initiated peace talks with the Arabs in Madrid after the 1991 Gulf War. (Stuay)
CANADA: Destroyer HMCS Ottawa paid off. (Dave Shirlaw)
U.S.A.: Major-General Claire Chennault, USAAF, retires from his position at the Headquarters Army Air Force. (Jack McKillop)
Coast Guard-manned Army vessel FS-274 was commissioned at New York and LT R. S. Crampton, USCGR, became her first commanding officer on 24 November 1944. He was succeeded on 4 October 1945 by LTJG G. B. Dowley, USCGR. She was assigned to and operated in the Pacific during the war.
Minesweeper USS Harrier commissioned.
Destroyer USS Stickel commissioned. (Dave Shirlaw)
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